brainroads-toward-tomorrows mental patterns


pyramid to dna

Remember to use your browser’s back button
when following links within this page ↓
connect, only connect

This page is an
entry point & introduction to ↓


NAVIGATING a changing world
a world relentlessly moving toward
unimagined futures ↓ …

History of the World in Two Hours ::: What happened to America before Columbus?
SEE / NOTE the patterns of change?


To aid in this relentless navigating,
this page provides a
jumble of ↓

CONCEPTs (about concepts),
thought fragmentS, thought clusterS,
brain-addresseS & clueS
that can be used as

… to SEE (attention-scape)


… and CONSIDER (what does a thought area ↓ ↑ mean 4 you?)

— much more like a “future” museum or menu
than an article. ↓


There are things to avoid and
things (horizons and building blocks)
to seek out
and make operational


Navigating involves “moving on” ↓


Without “moving on”
a person remains a prisoner of the past —
their pastS and other people's pastS.

These pastS are complex constellationS and universeS
of ageS and pointS in time —
age 21 in 1950 vs. age 21 in 1970.


“Your thinking, choices, decisions are determined by
what you’ve SEEN


“Decision making ↑ is a time machine here

that synchronizes into a single time — the present
a great number of divergent time spans.”


We can make decisions only in the present,
and yet we cannot make decisions
for the present alone
the most expedient, most opportunistic decision—let alone
the decision not to decide at all—
may commit us for a long time,
if not permanently and irrevocably.” — Chapter 11, MRE by Druckerism


This page provides a tool for

necessary mental exploring (awareness) —

before it’s too late (avoiding stagnation)


Who was Peter Drucker? ::: #impact ↑ ↓


Drucker: a political or social ecologist ↑ ↓


Books by Peter Drucker




It is very difficult to effectively grasp the implicationS of
what goes on behind closed doorS (#wgobcd)



The Management Revolution ↑ ::: Post-capitalist executive

Global Peter Drucker Forum ::: Charles Handy → Starting small fires

Hofburg ↑ ↓


larger view one ::: two ::: three


Drucker: The Man Who Invented the Corporate Society


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two


“For almost nothing in our educational systems prepares people
for the reality in which they will live, work, and
become effective” — Druckerism and intellectual capitalist


“The traditional notion in education
that information is sufficient
is old-fashioned and dangerous.”
Edward de BonoIntelligence ::: Information ::: Thinking


Try searching this page for each of these words: education, reality, effective, work, and live


¶ ¶ ¶


Reality deals us “cards” from
an ever changing “deck” —
only in fairy tales do we get to live happily ever-after ↓


Annotated pyramid to DNA ::: Larger view


Most successful executive … ::: … organized by information




Road ahead timeline ↑ ::: Knowledge and technology ↑ (#impact)

Imagining navigation course changes

What might be the global content of each radar at each point in time?


This exploration work ↑ ↓ involves “TIME TRAVEL
that goes way beyond jobs and careers …

(decision making is a time machine)


Your today
is just one “scene” in one chapter
in an evolving story

… where trees don’t grow to the sky (2, 3, 4)



Saigon, 1965 Malcolm Gladwell’s Revisionist History

The black cylinder experiment

You don’t know what you’re going to be doing next


↑ So, there is life to navigate and
there are evolving time spans to navigate.

Conflating and inter-twining the two
becomes “time-life navigation©.”

the future of any nation

TLN overview ↓ ::: brainroad example and links ::: article titles


You can’t get there directly from here

Supplemental awareness PDFs

Notes from Peter Drucker’s work on
developmental directions — a PDF


Drucker: a political or social ecologist


Imagining navigation course changes


The need for roots ::: From command to responsibility-based organization
::: Post-capitalized society has to be decentralized


“… being right is the feeling of being right. This is what
guides your actions …” Practical Thinking

Why is thinking important? continue

¶ ¶ ¶

“ ‘Everyone is always right — no one is ever right.’

What it means is that at any moment
everyone is acting logically within
his or her ‘bubble’ of values and perceptions.

So at that moment in time that person is ‘right’.

In the broader, overall and objective sense
no one is ever right because
we do not have a full understanding of the world
or the detailed consequences of our action far into the future.”
Logic bubbles

What Everybody Knows Is Frequently Wrong continue



Seeing and exploring connections → Remember to
use your browser’s back button
when following links within this page ↑ ↓

There are quite a few duplicate links
on this page. They exist to help see possible connections



How is it POSSIBLE to work toward unexpected horizons
that aren’t on your mental radar?

These ↑ horizons are your means
for making your futureS — requires different time usage including
some different “ecological awareness” here


“Your thinking, choices, decisions are determined by
what you’ve SEEN (and here) that challenges your assumptions

Your horizons are determined by what you’ve SEEN ↑ ↓


“We cannot see things unless
we are prepared to see them” more & true system

Nobody is going to do this ↑ for you — quite the opposite


“Decision making is a time machine here

that synchronizes into a single time — the present
a great number of divergent time spans.”


We can make decisions only in the present,
and yet we cannot make decisions for the present alone;
the most expedient, most opportunistic decision—let alone
the decision not to decide at all—
may commit us for a long time,
if not permanently and irrevocably.” — Chapter 11, MRE by Druckerism


“The future requires decisions-now. It imposes risk-now.
It requires action-now.” Druckerism

decision-making is a time machine — explored


*this page is a work in progress*

Warning: this site is not for you if you are anchored to the idea that tomorrowS
are an extrapolation of yesterdayS — a belief that sabotages your family tree


Navigating unimagined


If you run your imagination over the last hundred years,
how many sequences of unimagined futures do you see?

What reasons would make you think this pattern ↑ is going to stop?

What do you think is going to happen to the time spans
between yesterdays and tomorrows?
Will the time spans get shorter, longer, stay about the same?
Or maybe it is totally random

At what point in your life
did someone with a broad, top of the food chain worldview
provide you a breadcrumb trail for navigating a changing world —
a world continuing to move toward unimagined futureS. How many
major global institutions look to this person for guidance on
making THEIR futureS?

Google → “How Baby Boomers Broke America” continue

Thoughts to add to your evidence wall (see image below ↓)

Google → “A Princeton sociologist spent 8 years asking rural Americans
why they're so pissed off” continue

Google → “The 9.9 Percent Is the New American Aristocracy” continue


Evidence Wall


Navigating requires
parallel pre-thought work approaches action system

Try searching this page for
the words “parallel” and “organized”


… that identifies relevantblind-spots”,
acknowledges the NEED for new understanding,
and passes the test of time (the shift to a knowledge society)


Revisionist History: Saigon, 1965 ::: The Prime Minister and the Prof


When the crisis happens
there will be little or no time
to think and prepare an action plan


A work approach that will help you get through a world
that is unfamiliar to you and everybody else

A work approach that is
adequate to the challenges ahead …

A life and action management system
Who knows anything specific about the world ten years from now?
And you can’t get there directly from here …

To be able to navigate you have be prepared to
abandon everything — before one really wants to,
let alone before one has to …

The Society of Organizations and
the accompanying destabilization
society of organizations brainroad

(↑ the only way to be prepared ↓)


Our vocabulary is of necessity based on multiple layers of primitive history …
History of the World in Two Hours

We are always completely hostage to
the limited words of language. We have to use available words.
Language is an encyclopedia of ignorance, which
forces us to perceive and communicate in a limited way.


↑ requires unilateral, effective action in multiple nowS
(everything visible and “SEEABLE” on this page)

… you may believe that feelings and values are
the most important things in life. You are right.
That is why thinking is so very important. ↓

TO-LO-PO-SO-GO ↓ — a thinking landscape ↓

But first, something has to get on your mental radar (this page)
then what does that radar blip mean for you? ← who is you? →
then something like TO-LO-PO-SO-GO+


Feedback analysis applies to all important action


Getting to tomorrowS isn’t easy,

but being left behind

and becoming a prisoner of the past (pre-knowledge dynamics)

is very easy …

Try a page search for “belief” here




For each thought fragment, concept, illustration, link, or text block
you encounter ↑ ↓ ask yourself what does this mean for me? (illustration)
along with doing a PMI, dense reading and dense listening,
thinking broad and thinking detailed plus visualizing
the operacy involved.




The future of any nation is the
sum of individual behaviors.

It is an insane delusion to believe
that a country can improve
while individuals
keep repeating the past
the competitive knowledge economy


“The knowledge society, by definition, is a competitive society; with knowledge accessible to everyone, everyone is expected to place himself or herself, to improve himself or herself, and to have aspirations.

It is a society in which many more people than ever before can be successful.

But it is therefore, by definition, also a society in which many more people than ever before can fail, or at least can come in second.

And if only because the application of knowledge to work has made developed societies so much richer than any earlier society could even dream of becoming, the failures, whether poverty or alcoholism, battered women or juvenile delinquents, are seen as failures of society.

In traditional society they were taken for granted.

In the knowledge society they are an affront, not just to the sense of justice, but equally to the competence of society and its self-respect.” continue


“More than anything else, the individual
has to take more responsibility for himself or herself,
rather than depend on the company.” continue


Given the competitive struggle, a growing number of highly successful knowledge workers of both sexes—business managers, university teachers, museum directors, doctors—plateau in their forties. They know they have achieved all they will achieve. If their work is all they have, they are in trouble. Knowledge workers therefore need to develop, preferably while they are still quite young, a noncompetitive life and community of their own, and some serious outside interest. continue


Self-development of the executive toward effectiveness is the only available answer to satisfy both the objective needs of society for performance by the organization, and the needs of the person for achievement and fulfillment. It is the only way in which organization goals and individual needs can come together.” Druckerism


Furthermore, in the knowledge-based organization all members have to be able to control their own work by feedback from their results to their objectives. All members must ask themselves: “What is the one major contribution to this organization and its mission which I can make at this particular time?” continue


... replace the quest for success with the quest for contribution. The critical question is not, “How can I achieve?” but “What can I contribute?”


Skills (and skill sets) vs. knowledgeS

Try a page search for “skill” on A Century of Social Transformation




Managing Oneself (overview PDF)
— a revolution in human affairs — is the
action foundation and eventual beginning point for everything, but
ecological awareness is also needed


More and more people in the workforce — and most knowledge workers — will have to MANAGE THEMSELVES.

They will have to place themselves where they can make the greatest contribution; they will have to learn to develop themselves.

They will have to learn to stay young and mentally alive during a fifty-year working life.

They will have to learn how and when to change what they do, how they do it and when they do it.


Knowledge workers are likely to outlive their employing organization.

Even if knowledge workers postpone entry into the labor force as long as possible — if, for instance, they stay in school till their late twenties to get a doctorate — they are likely, with present life expectancies in the developed countries, to live into their eighties.

And they are likely to have to keep working, if only part-time, until they are around seventy-five or older.

The average working life, in other words, is likely to be fifty years, especially for knowledge workers.

But the average life expectancy of a successful business is only thirty years — and in a period of great turbulence such as the one we are living in, it is unlikely to be even that long.

Even organizations that normally are long-lived if not expected to live forever — schools and universities, hospitals, government agencies — will see rapid changes in the period of turbulence we have already entered.

Even if they survive — and a great many surely will not, at least not in their present form — they will change their structure, the work they are doing, the knowledges they require and the kind of people they employ.



Post-capitalist executive


Increasingly, therefore, workers, and especially knowledge workers, will outlive any one employer, and will have to be prepared for more than one job, more than one assignment, more than one career.


So far, this book has dealt with changes in the environment: in society, economy, politics, technology.

This concluding chapter deals with the new demands on the individual.

The very great achievers, a Napoleon, a Leonardo da Vinci, a Mozart, have always managed themselves.

This in large measure made them great achievers.

But they were the rarest of exceptions.

And they were so unusual, both in their talents and in their achievements, as to be considered outside the boundaries of normal human existence.

Now even people of modest endowments, that is, average mediocrities, will have to learn to manage themselves.


Knowledge workers, therefore, face drastically new demands:

They have to ask:

Who Am I?

What Are My Strengths?

HOW Do I Work?

They have to ask: Where Do I Belong?

They have to ask: What is My Contribution?

They have to take Relationship Responsibility.

They have to plan for the Second Half of Their Lives.


... snip, snip ...


The Second Half of Your Life

As said before: For the first time in human history, individuals can expect to outlive organizations.

This creates a totally new challenge: What to do with the second half of one’s life?

One can no longer expect that the organization for which one works at age thirty will still be around when one reaches age sixty.

But also, forty or fifty years in the same kind of work is much too long for most people.

They deteriorate, get bored, lose all joy in their work, “retire on the job” and become a burden to themselves and to everyone around them.

This is not necessarily true of the very top achievers such as very great artists.

Claude Monet (1840-1926), the greatest Impressionist painter, was still painting masterpieces in his eighties, and working twelve hours a day, even though he had lost almost all his eyesight.

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), perhaps the greatest Post-Impressionist painter, similarly painted till he died in his nineties and in his seventies invented a new style.

The greatest musical instrumentalist of this century, the Spanish cellist Pablo Casals (1876-1973), planned to perform a new piece of music and practiced it on the very day on which he died at age ninety-seven.

But these are the rarest of exceptions even among very great achievers.

Neither Max Planck (1858-1947) nor Albert Einstein (1879-1955), the two giants of modern physics, did important scientific work after their forties.

Planck had two more careers.

After 1918— aged sixty — he reorganized German science.

After being forced into retirement by the Nazis in 1933, he, in 1945, almost ninety, started once more to rebuild German science after Hitler’s fall.

But Einstein retired in his forties to become a “famous man.”

There is a great deal of talk today about the “mid-life crisis” of the executive.

It is mostly boredom.

At age forty-five most executives have reached the peak of their business career and know it.

After twenty years of doing very much the same kind of work, they are good at their jobs.

But few are learning anything anymore, few are contributing anything anymore and few expect the job again to become a challenge and a satisfaction.

Manual workers who have been working for forty years — in the steel mill for instance, or in the cab of a locomotive — are physically and mentally tired long before they reach the end of their normal life expectancy, that is, well before they reach even traditional retirement age.

They are “finished.”

If they survive — and their life expectancy too has gone up to an average of seventy-five years or so — they are quite happy spending ten or fifteen years doing nothing, playing golf, going fishing, engaging in some minor hobby and so on.

But knowledge workers are not “finished.”

They are perfectly capable of functioning despite all kinds of minor complaints.

And yet the original work that was so challenging when the knowledge worker was thirty has become a deadly bore when the knowledge worker is fifty and still he or she is likely to face another fifteen if not another twenty years of work.

To manage oneself, therefore, will increasingly require preparing oneself for the second half of one’s life.

(The best books on this subject are by Bob Buford — a very successful businessman who himself has created his own second half of life.

They are Half Time [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994] and Game Plan [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997].)

... snip, snip ...

People who manage the “second half” may always be a minority only.

The majority may keep doing what they are doing now, that is, to retire on the job, being bored, keeping on with their routine and counting the years until retirement.

But it will be this minority, the people who see the long working-life expectancy as an opportunity both for themselves and for society, who may increasingly become the leaders and the models.

They, increasingly, will be the “success stories.” continue

Finding Your Role




The Society of Organizations society of organizations brainroad ::: The need for a theory of organizations ::: Toward a theory of organizations ::: Society of organizations PDF

These text blocks ↓ — made up of book heading titles — are meant to facilitate finding topics spread among various conceptual resources and creating conceptual landscape awareness.

An organization is a special-purpose institution ::: A human group composed of specialists — not labors — working together on a common task ::: The function of organizations to make knowledge productive ::: The more specialized knowledges are, the more effective they will be ::: Have to be put together with the work of other specialist to become results — outside the organization ::: Knowledges by themselves are sterile ::: Specialist are effective only as specialists — and knowledge workers have to be effective ::: The most highly effective knowledge workers do not want to be anything but narrow specialists ::: Specialist need exposure to the universe of knowledge, but they need to work as specialists and to concentrate on being specialist ::: And for this to produce results, an organization is needed ::: Organization as a distinct species ::: All one species … Armies, Churches, Universities, Hospitals, Businesses, Labor unions ::: They are the man-made environment, the “social ecology” of post-capitalist society ::: Management is a generic function pertaining to all organizations

The characteristics of organizations ::: Organizations are special-purpose institutions ::: They are effective because they concentrate on one task ::: In an organization, diversification means splintering ::: It destroys performance capacity ::: Organization is a tool ::: The more specialized its given task, the greater its performance capacity ::: Its mission must be crystal clear ::: Because the organization is composed of specialists ::: Each with his or her own narrow knowledge ::: Otherwise its members become confused ::: They will follow their specialty ::: Rather than applying it to the common task ::: They will each define “results” in terms of that specialty — imposing their own values on the organization ::: Only a clear, focused, and common mission can hold the organization together and enable it to produce results ::: The prototype of the modern organization is the symphony orchestra ::: Many high-grade specialists ::: By themselves they don’t make music. Only the orchestra can do that ::: Perform because they have the same score ::: Results exist only on the outside ::: Organizations exist to produce results on the outside ::: Results in an organization are always pretty far away from what each member contributes ::: Results need to be defined clearly and unambiguously and, if at all possible, measurably ::: Organizations need to appraise and judge itself and its performance against clear, known, impersonal objectives and goals ::: “Voluntary” membership and the ability to leave an organizations ::: Organizations are always in competition for its essential resource qualified, knowledgeable, dedicated people ::: Need to market membership (what do the jobs really have to be to attract the needed people) ::: Have to attract people ::: Have to hold people ::: Have to recognize and reward people ::: Have to motivate people ::: Have to serve and satisfy people ::: Has to be an organization of equals, of “colleagues,” of “associates” ::: The position of each is determined by its contribution to the common task rather than by any inherent superiority or inferiority ::: Must be organized as a team of “associates” ::: They are always managed ::: Have “leaders” ::: May be perfunctory and intermittent ::: Or may be a full-time and demanding job for a fairly large group of people ::: Have to be people who make decisions ::: or nothing will get done ::: Have to be people who are accountable for the organization’s mission, spirit, performance, results ::: Must be a “conductor” who controls the “score” ::: There have to be people who: focus the organization on its mission; set the strategy to carry it out; define what the results are ::: This management has to have considerable authority ::: Yet its job in the knowledge organization is not to command; it is to direct (and inspire) ::: To be able to perform, an organization must be autonomous ::: Cannot be used to carry out “government policy”

Organization as a destabilizer ::: The organization of the post-capitalist society of organizations is a destabilizer ::: Its function is to put knowledge to work on tools, processes, and products + on knowledge itself ::: It must be organized for constant change ::: It must be organized for innovation ::: It must be organized for systematic abandonment of … the established, the customary, the familiar, the comfortable, products, services, and processes, human and social relationships, skills, organizations themselves ::: Knowledge changes fast ::: Today’s certainties will be tomorrow’s absurdities ::: Skills change slowly and infrequently ::: Changes that most profoundly affect a knowledge do not, as a rule, come out of its own area ::: Social innovation is as important as new science or new technology in creating new knowledges and in making old ones obsolete ::: Purposeful innovation has itself become an organized discipline ::: Which is both teachable and learnable ::: Every organization has to build into its very structure the management of change ::: Organized abandonment ::: Increasingly, organizations will have to plan abandonment rather than try to prolong the life of a successful policy: practice, or product—something which so far only a few large Japanese companies have faced up to ::: The ability to create the new (three systematic practices) ::: Continuing improvement of everything it does (Kaizen) ::: What every artist does ::: Aim is to improve each product or service so that it becomes a truly different product or service in two or three year’s time ::: Learn to exploit ::: Develop new applications from its own successes ::: Learn how to innovate ::: Every organization will have to learn how to innovate and to learn that innovation can and should be organized as a systematic process ::: Then we come back to abandonment and we start all over again

Post-capitalist society has to be decentralized ::: Its organizations must be able to make fast decisions based on closeness to performance, to the market, to technology, to the changes in society, environment, and demographics, all of which must be seen and utilized as opportunities for innovation ::: Organizations in the post-capitalist society thus constantly upset, disorganize, and destabilize the community ::: The “culture” of the organization must transcend community ::: It is the nature of the task that determines the culture of an organization, rather than the community in which that task is being performed ::: If the organization’s culture clashes with the values of the community the organization’s culture will prevail or else the organization will not make its social contribution ::: “Knowledge knows no boundaries” ::: Of necessity every knowledge organization is of necessity non-national, non-community ::: Even if totally embedded in the local community

The employee society ::: Another way to describe the phenomenon of the society of organizations ::: Employees who work in subordinate and menial occupations ::: Service workers ::: The wage earner, the “worker” of yesterday ::: Knowledge workers ::: 1/3 of the work force ::: They own the “means of production” ::: Cannot, in effect, be supervised ::: Cannot be told what to do, how to do it, how fast to do it and so on ::: Unless they know more than anybody else in the organization they are to all intents and purposes useless ::: They hold a crucial card in their mobility ::: Organizations and knowledge workers are interdependent ::: “Loyalty” will have to be earned by proving to knowledge employees that the organization which presently employs them can offer them exceptional opportunities to be effective ::: Capital now serves the employee ::: From command and control to information-based to responsibility-based organizations ::: The Society of Organizations text society of organizations brainroad




Realities and concepts are the essence of this page

They ↑ are vision elements in a life design & management system

This page and its connected pages can be used as starting points
to create your own pre-thought work approach
A work approach that is adequate
to the challenges ahead ↓


RealitiesBusiness realities, Market realities, and Knowledge realities

“… being right is the feeling of being right. This is what
guides your actions …” Practical Thinking and logic bubbles




The Black Cylinder Experiment

First museum exhibit → Imagine the time span between the emergence of the railroad
— making the industrial revolution accomplished fact — and 2050 …

how many alternative realities and unimagined futures do you see?

From various points around the world, how many? ↓
(Long Shadow may be available on Netflix streaming)


Adventures of a Bystander → toward organic design !!!

The management of change → abandon the old
and create the new ← a community destabilizer explore !!!


Exhibit 2 ↓

“We know only two things about the future ↑.
It cannot be known.
It will be different from what exists now and
from what we now expect

This ↑ means the future isn’t going to be like today
which was created yesterday …
and yesterday
was the product of the day before yesterday ↓

We are nowhere near the end of the turbulences,
the transformations, the sudden upsets continue :::
Long years of profound change

And “The actual results of (current) action are not predictable ↓ ” continue

Reality assumptions ::: The Black Cylinder Experiment !!!


Exhibit 3 ↓
These unimagined alternative realitieS ↑ imply the need to
circumvent the organization and political power structureS that
act on the assumption (here) that tomorrow
is going to be an extrapolation of yesterday.

This backward focus ↑ sabotages the futureS and
leaves its victimS as prisonerS of the past …

“Looking out the window” ↓ is a useful alternative


Exhibit 4 ↓
↑ A work approach that searches for
“INFORMED” future horizons to work toward
is needed ↓ REPEATEDLY

A work approach that is adequate to the challenges ahead

There are major horizons (here) and supporting horizons (here) at different points in time

And what is the global social value of those horizons and how operationally specific are they?


Exhibit 5 ↓
One example of unimagined futureS ↑ → KNOWLEDGE is the only
meaningful resource “TODAY” — dynamicS ↓ & implicationS ↓

A change in how the world functions


Exhibit 6 ↓
It is impossible to work on “things/opportunities” that
aren’t on one’s mental radar ↓ ↓ at the “right & necessary” pointS in time ↑ ↓


The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons !!!

The case against corporate short termism

It is also impossible to work toward horizons that
aren’t on one’s mental radar ↑ ↑ at the “right & necessary” pointS in time ↑ ↓

The things on your current mental radar are most likely
wrong, out-of-date, or mis-informed important

The sequence of “things” ↑ and “horizons” ↑ needs to be operationally reversed


Awareness ↑ ↓




about Questions

A question thoughtscape ↓ ::: Larger view


Creating a constellation from question alternativess ↓ ::: Larger view





We cannot see things unless we are prepared to see them.

That is why science advances by fits and starts as paradigms change and we are allowed to see things differently.

That is why the analysis of data can never produce all the ideas present in that data.

Think “big data” vs. information challenges.

The inherent weaknesses in all possible information systems

That is why analysis is a limited tool, not the complete one we have always believed it to be. continue


“Your thinking, choices, decisions are determined by
what you have SEEN edb


Why Peter Drucker Distrusted Facts

Try searching this page for the word “information”
and then visualize the connections between what you have SEEN



The CEO in the New Millennium #mbr


The CEO in the new millennium has six specific tasks. 

They are

  1. To define the meaningful outside of the organization
  2. To think through what information regarding the outside is meaningful and needed for the organization, and then to work on getting it into usable form
  3. To decide what results are meaningful for the institution
  4. To set priorities for the organization
  5. To place people into key positions
  6. To organize top management

The concept of the CEO is an American invention and export.



tblue A PDF

tblue Not even educated in management

tblue Management revolution → making knowledge productive

tblue A radical change in structure for the organizations of tomorrow

tblue The prototype of the modern organization

tblue From command to information-based to responsibility based organization

“Information is data endowed with relevance and purpose.” — Druckerism

tblue The Society of Organizations and the accompanying destabilization society of organizations brainroad




Meta-System by Edward de Bono continue


Meta-System definition

A meta-system provides a reason for doing something which does not lie within the immediate situation itself.

The Happiness Purpose

What do you want to be remembered for?
Try searching this page for: “remembered for”

A meta-system is a higher system outside the immediate system in which one happens to be operating. 


Perhaps the most striking example of the operation of a powerful meta-system is the way Christian martyrs went singing to their deaths in the Colosseum of Rome and elsewhere throughout the ages.

Their meta-system of belief was so powerful that they were willing to give up life itself:

the meta-system required that the operating system close down.

A meta-system can make no higher demand.


Not very different was the fervour with which the Janissaries and other soldiers of Islam hurled themselves into battle with a disregard for their personal safety.

They knew that once a jehad or holy war had been declared, death in battle meant instant access to heaven.

Suicides (lack of a meta-system)

In contrast to the Christian martyrs and the Islamic soldiers there is the opposite example of suicides or people who end their lives not through the operation of a meta-system but through the lack of one. 

From this must be exempted ritual suicide such as the Japanese hara-kiri which is another example of the operation of a powerful meta-system (though this time a social one and with no reward of heaven). 

I have known many people who have attempted suicide and several who have succeeded.

Anthony Bourdain: Wikipedia ::: CNN ::: images

If we leave aside the gesture type of suicide attempt there seem to be two mechanisms. 

One is a sort of temporary madness or rage and fury at life itself and especially at oneself. 

Though the end-point is different the process is probably not any different from any burst of destructive rage.


The other mechanism is a sort of blankness or emptiness of the will to live. 

There seems to be nothing to look forward to and no point in life.

The spirit appears to have died and so the body might as well follow it.

It is sadly characteristic of depression that at the depth of depression it does not seem possible that anything can ever change or get better.

It does not seem possible that there should ever be any enjoyment again in anything.

No matter how many up and down swings a depressive may experience, in each down-swing he cannot believe that it will pass.

The depressive exists from moment to moment.

There is no meta-system of belief which allows him to get outside of himself and outside of the moment.

Figure 2 shows how in the moments of depression a meta-system can provide the needed continuity and hope.

A device for reacting

A meta-system is a device for reacting to something other than what is immediately under one’s nose. 

Left to himself a child would eat poison berries (or medicines) because they were red and pretty.

Human children would have difficulty in surviving if there were not the meta-system of parents who provide instruction that goes beyond the gratification of the moment.

Because of his freedom of action a human child needs such an outside meta-system.


A bird, however, avoids the poison berries because instinct has programmed him against them.


Instinct provides an inbuilt meta-system—except that the bird probably does not feel attracted to the berries in the first place since he is not free to be attracted unless his instinct programme includes such attraction. continue




A road ahead ↑ and horizon ↓
Striving toward an idea outside of yourself


A horizonKnowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity !!!
And with knowledge becoming the key resource,
there is only a world economy ↑ ↓



“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
The need for roots
Druckerism (calendarize this?)



Self-development — a horizon ↑ — seems to me
to mean both
acquiring more capacity and also
more weight as a person altogether.

By focusing on accountability,
people take a bigger view of themselves.

That’s not vanity, not pride,
but it is self-respect and self-confidence.

Its something that, once gained,
can’t be taken away from a person

It’s outside of me but also inside of me.” continue


“The … I wouldn’t say happy people, but satisfied, contented people I knew were all people who lived in more than one world.

Those single-minded people — you meet them most in politics — in the end they are very unhappy people.

There isn’t that much room at the top — there is very little room at the top.” Then what? and YouTube

How much labor?


Where right becomes wrong




Intelligence ::: Information ::: Thinking
by Edward de Bono

The PMI and mental scanning

B.C. Forbes → Foundations and opportunities

Knowing what to do


How could you convert these concepts ↑
into evolving operational steps ↓? calendarize this?


“Why is ‘thinking’ important? awareness

Because without thinking we can only act in the following ways:

1. Act purely on instinct like insects.

2. Repeat the usual routines.

3. Do what someone else decides and orders.

4. Follow the emotion of the moment.” — Edward de Bono


Highly intelligent people do not necessarily make good thinkers. the intelligence trap below


Knowledge, technology, computers, managers, economic impact … the future continue


Thinking is a skill,
intelligence in action.



Wisdom is largely about 'broadening' perception

Most of the mistakes in thinking are mistakes in perception.

Seeing only part of the situation — insufficient information

Jumping to conclusions

Misinterpretation caused by feelings continue



Information vs. Thinking


We need as much information as we can get.

But we also need thinking.

We need thinking to decide what information we should seek and where to look for it.

We need thinking to make the best use of the information we have.

We need thinking to set up possible ways of putting the information together.

The traditional notion in education that information is sufficient is old-fashioned and dangerous.

It is only our lack of complete information that makes it necessary for us to think

Thinking is no substitute for information.

Check the timetable, do not just try to think when there might be a flight to Geneva.

The more information we have the better will our thinking be and the more appropriate our actions.

Since every little bit of information helps, every bit of time must be taken up with providing more information.

So there is no time to look directly at thinking as a skill.

The dilemma is obvious.

If we could have complete information in an area then thinking would be unnecessary.

But if we cannot have complete information then it is better to have somewhat less information and higher skill in thinking.


There may be certain areas where it is possible to have complete information but more often we have to supplement the information with thinking.

Suppose the timetable does show that there is a flight from London to Geneva at 9.45 A.M. designated as SR 815.

Now that we know, do we need thinking?

Indeed, we do.

How are we going to get to the airport?

How long should we allow to get there?

Is it rush hour?

Are there any strikes on at the moment?

Is there likely to be bad weather and what would be the best way of checking this?

Does it matter if the flight is late?

If the plans are disrupted how do I let the person at the other end know of this?

These are all considerations that require thinking.

Information and ideas

In our management thinking we tend, quite rightly, to rely heavily on information.

A good financial reporting system leads to profits.

A speedy sales reporting system results in effective marketing.

Detailed market analysis information brings about the correct product choice.

An examination of trends and forecasts provides the information required for planning.

It could be said that the size of any decision is proportional to the inadequacy of the reason for making it

If our information was complete then the information would make its own decisions.

If a shipowner for instance had complete information about oil transport requirements, future cost of finance, the firm plans of his competitors, knowledge of political and labour stability, information about government subsidies and regulations and so on, he could feed all this into a computer and the decision would be produced for him.

It is only when our information is inadequate that we have to make a human decision.

And the greater the inadequacy of information the bigger the decision will seem

Our hunger for information should not, however, blind us to the fact that information alone is insufficient

In addition to information we need ideas.

Ideas are the spectacles through which we look at information.


I once gave the following problem to a group of chief executives:

'A man buys a dog as a watch-dog.

He then finds that the dog does not bark.

What should he do?' continue


Intelligence and thinking


Far too many people regard thinking as a matter of inborn intelligence—which it is not.

In my researches and experiments I have again and again come across very intelligent people who turned out to be very poor thinkers.

Nor have I found that thinking skill has much to do with education, for some of the best educated people (Ph.D.s, university lecturers and professors, senior business executives, etc.) have also been poor thinkers.

To regard thinking as a skill rather than as a gift is the first step towards doing something to improve that skill.


Highly intelligent people do like to be right.

This may mean that they spend their time attacking and criticizing others since it is so easy to prove the others wrong.

It also may mean that highly intelligent people are unwilling to take speculative risks because they cannot then be sure they are right.

There is, of course, nothing to prevent highly intelligent people also being excellent thinkers.

But this does not follow automatically.

There is need to develop the skill of thinking.


Intelligence ::: Information ::: Thinking


Intelligence is like the horsepower of a car.

Thinking is like the skill with which the car is driven.

Information (including ecological awareness) is like the road map available to the driver.

By themselves, each of these three components — intelligence, information, thinking — is not enough, but together they can be used to great effect in the world around us.


Operacy → the thinking that goes into doing


… “It is perfectly true that the characteristics of effectiveness are more important in doing than intellectual niceties.

But the characteristics of effectiveness include a great deal of thinking: especially of the goal-setting variety.

The action-directed thinker is perhaps more concerned with the positive aspects of the possible than with doubts and fears, but that is thinking none the less.

That a doer should stand up and proclaim his pride in not thinking reflects either upon his luck or the poor image that thinking possesses.”


Creativity and brainstorming

Opportunities ::: Serious creativity

Six Thinking Hats


Management and the World's Work #mbr


3 kinds of intelligence and 9 action behaviors ↑ ↓ ← Niccolò Machiavelli ↑ ↓

The motivation to seek opportunities ::: Executive styles

Finding Your Role


Society of Organizations


Executive realities
unless executives work at becoming effective,
the realities of their situation
will push them into futility



The Intelligence Trap continue


“Twenty-five years of experience in the field have convinced me that many people who consider themselves to be highly intelligent are not necessarily good thinkers.

They get caught in the intelligence trap.

There are many aspects of this trap but I shall mention just two. ¶¶¶

A highly intelligent person can take a view on a subject and then use his or her intelligence to defend that view.

The more intelligent the person the better the defense of the view.

The better the defense of the view the less that person sees any need to seek out alternatives or to listen to anyone else.

If you know "that you are right" why should you do either of those things?

As a result, many highly intelligent minds are trapped in poor ideas because they can defend them so well. ¶¶¶

A second aspect of the intelligence trap is that a person who has grown up with the notion that he or she is more intelligent than those around (possibly a correct view) wants to get the most satisfaction from that intelligence.

The quickest and most reliable way to be rewarded for intelligence is to "prove someone else wrong."

Such a strategy gives you an immediate result and also establishes your superiority.

Being constructive is much less rewarding.

It may take years to show that a new idea works.

Furthermore, you have to depend on the listener liking your idea.

So it is obvious that being critical and destructive is a much more appealing use of intelligence.

This is made even worse by the absurd Western notion that "critical thinking" is enough.”

¶ ¶ ¶

“There is, of course, a place for academic intellectualizing and passive scholarship (which consists of repeating what others have repeated about still yet others) but that is only a small part of thinking—but valuable nevertheless.” EDB



Practical Thinking


“You can probably remember things you were taught at school:

about geography (valleys, river deltas, rice-growing countries, etc.) and

about history (dates of battles, names of kings, etc.).

But can you remember what you were taught about thinking?”

… “Far too many people regard thinking as a matter of inborn intelligence — which it is not.” continue




Outside highly technical matter, perception is by far the most important part of thinking.

Perception is how we look at the world, what things we take into account, how we structure the world. ¶¶¶

Professor David Perkins at Harvard has shown that almost all the errors of thinking are errors of perception.

In real life, logical errors are quite rare.

Yet we persist in believing that thinking is all a matter of avoiding logical errors. ¶¶¶

… snip, snip …

Exactly the same thing applies to logic.

If your perception is limited then flawless logic will give you an incorrect answer. ¶¶¶

Bad logic makes for bad thinking.

Everyone would agree with that.

But the opposite is not true at all.

Good logic does not make for good thinking.

If the perception is poor then good logic will give you a faulty answer.

There is even the added danger that good logic will give a false arrogance with which to hold the false answer. ¶¶¶

Unlike most books on thinking this book is not about logic but about perception. ¶¶¶

It now seems very likely that perception works as a “self-organizing information system” (see The Mechanism of Mind, Penguin, 1976, I Am Right You Are Wrong , Penguin, 1992).

Such systems allow the sequence in which information arrives to set up patterns.

Our thinking then remains trapped within these patterns.

So we need some ways of broadening perception and of changing perception (creativity).

These are the sort of matters that are covered in this book.

More on perception.



The Tool Method

Carpenters have tools and learn how to use them.

The hammer, the saw, the plane and the drill all have their purposes.

Each tool carries out a defined function.

The skilled carpenter knows which tools to use at any point in order to get the desired effect. ¶¶¶

In an exactly similar way, some very fundamental thinking tools are put forward in this book.

They are extremely simple but very powerful to use. ¶¶¶

You can learn and practice the tools.

When you have built up some skill in using the tools they can be taken and applied to any situation whatever. ¶¶¶

The tools are really “attention-directing tools.”

We can now direct attention at will.

Without attention-directing tools attention follows the patterns laid down by experience and we remain trapped. ¶¶¶

This tool method has now been in use for twenty years and it works very well.

It is easy to learn, easy to practice and easy to apply. ¶¶¶

The tool method is much easier and more effective than other methods of teaching thinking. ¶¶¶

Teaching people to avoid mistakes is very limited.

You could avoid all mistakes in driving by leaving the car in the garage. ¶¶¶

Debate and discussion around a subject may practice thinking but do not leave any transferable skills. ¶¶¶

Following the thinking of an outstanding teacher could work but would depend on a long period of contact and the general availability of outstanding teachers. ¶¶¶

Each tool is very simple to learn.

Once learned it can be applied explicitly. ¶¶¶

Our minds are full of “descriptive” concepts such as table, shop, book, education etc.

What the thinking tools do is to furnish the mind with some “executive” concepts so that at different points in our thinking we can instruct our own minds to work as we wish. ¶¶¶

Thinking is a skill that can be improved—if we want to improve that skill. ¶¶¶

The tool method is a powerful and effective way of improving that skill.

Some of the most basic tools are laid out in this book.

These tools are derived from the basic CoRT Thinking Lessons program, which is available for use in schools across a wide range of ages and abilities.



Emotions and Values

Far too many people believe that thinking is unimportant because, in the end, emotions determine our choices and actions and that thinking makes little difference.

This is partly true.

In the end all thinking is emotional, and so it should be.

The purpose of thinking is to so arrange the world so that the application of our emotions and values will give an effective and acceptable outcome.

It is true that logical argument is very unlikely to change emotions.

But changes in perception can change emotions.

If you look at something in a different way then your feelings will also be different. ¶¶¶

There is, however, an important point.

Do we use emotions first and allow these to determine our perception and our thinking?

Or do we use our perception first and allow emotions to determine our final decision?

Gut Feeling and Thinking

There is among some people a belief that thinking is a waste of time and that gut feeling is all that matters.

There is disillusionment with thinking.

Thinking seems to be a matter of solving puzzles or playing intellectual word games which are of great interest to philosophers and more or less useless to the real world.

Time and again thinking has been seen to rationalize and justify courses of action that have, in hindsight, been inhumane or disastrous.

Thinking, like mathematics, is seen as a tool that serves big business and the military as much as it serves anyone else.

The thinking of politicians is seen as justifying their continuation in power rather than the improvement of society.

Gut feelings and human values are seen to be more reliable. ¶¶¶

Much of this disillusionment is directed at the “intellectualizing” type of thinking that seems to exist for its own sake.

This is the type of thinking that I described in the “intelligence trap,” where thought is used to justify any position.

This is the type of thinking that is used in endless debate and argument and point scoring.

This is the type of thinking that is used in philosophical word games.

Like everyone else I, also, am disillusioned with that type of thinking.

It has its value but as a small part of thinking.

Most of thinking needs to be of the

common-sense, robust, everyday type of thinking on one level

and objective thinking directed towards effectiveness on another. ¶¶¶

There is nothing wrong with gut feelings and emotions as the final judges of options.

The danger arises if we place them first and use them as a substitute for thinking.

To the person holding them at the moment gut feelings always seem true and honest and, by definition, good for society.

We must not forget, however, that some of the most ridiculous and inhuman behavior in the history of man has also been fueled by gut feelings.

Persecutions and wars and lynchings and South Sea bubbles are all a result of gut feeling.

No doubt our gut feelings have improved along with the rest of our civilization, but to entrust them with the task of doing our thinking for us seems, to me, to be too dangerous and too unreliable.

For one thing gut feeling seems to favor violence in clash and revolution.

Maybe that part of our brain still adheres to the simple methodology of animals. ¶¶¶

So I am all in favor of using gut feeling at the end of our thinking but not as a substitute for it.

I would also like to insert a “sense of humor” as one of our gut feelings which otherwise are always so solemn. ¶¶¶

There is, of course, another reason for our flight from thinking to gut feeling, the stars, and other determinants of action.

It is that the world is getting so complicated that it seems impossible to think about anyway.

If all the learned economists argue about inflation to the point that the onlooker can only assume they know very little about it, then how is the voter, himself, going to figure out the economic basis for his vote?

This is a more serious problem than the first one and seems to demand a much greater attention to the teaching of thinking as a skill in education and elsewhere (even to economists).

Emotions at Three Points

The figure below shows three possible ways in which emotion can interact with perception.


I will use the word “perception” rather than thinking for throughout this book I have tried to emphasize that for most practical matters perception is thinking. ¶¶¶

In the first situation the emotion is present from the beginning even before the particular situation is encountered.

This is equivalent to blind rage or panic.

It may also occur in a particular context even before the details of the situation have been seen.

This may happen with aggression, jealousy or hatred.

We can call this “blind emotion.” ¶¶¶

The second situation is by far the most usual one.

With our perception we examine the situation briefly.

We recognize some pattern.

That switches on our emotion.

From then on our further perception is narrowed and channeled by that emotion.

If you offer a foul-looking liquid to people to drink, most of them will wrinkle their noses and decline the offer.

A blindfolded person will taste the drink and declare it to be orange juice—which is what it has been all along.

The initial perception has triggered our feelings, which then determine our actions. ¶¶¶

In the third situation we have the ideal.

There is a broad and calm exploration of the situation and in the end emotions come in to make the final decision and choose the course of action.

This is the model I have been advocating in this book.

Explore first with such tools as PMI, CAF, APC, EBS, ADI, OPV.

Then make a choice or decision.

This choice may be based on survival, ego-needs, achievement, or self-interest of any sort.

These are all emotionally based. ¶¶¶

Some years ago a friend of mine stopped to help a lady who had been hit by a motorist and left bleeding at the side of the road.

As he was bending over the lady another motorist pulled up and slugged my friend, knocking him unconscious.

What had happened was that the motorist’s initial perception had interpreted that my friend had knocked the lady down.

This triggered his emotions and he reacted accordingly. ¶¶¶

The point is a very important one indeed.

In general when we think we are acting from gut feeling we nevertheless have a short perception phase during which we interpret the situation.

We need to extend that phase and to do far more thinking in it. ¶¶¶

There is much less we can do about the “blind emotion” situation.

Jealousy is a most curious emotion since it seems (unlike the other emotions) to have no intrinsic survival value unless on a sexual basis.

A person who is jealous of another person will interpret any action whatsoever in a negative manner.

As an emotion jealousy is more interesting than most and could benefit from some scrutiny.

Changing Feelings

But can perceptions change feelings?

Many believe that perception or thinking cannot really change feeling.

The orange juice experiment is a suggestion that such change is impossible.

Consider a man who is having an argument with a woman who is in tears.

The man feels that he is a bully and is about to concede some points—then a friend whispers to him that he is being emotionally blackmailed.

At once his attitude changes.

This suggestion has changed his perception or way of looking at things—and with this his feelings.

A woman feels that she has to look after her aging parents and cannot therefore get married.

A friend tells her that she is making herself a “victim” and at once her attitude and feelings change. ¶¶¶

David Lane used the CoRT thinking lessons at the Hungerford Guidance Center and told me the effect they had on the violent youngsters.

Before the lessons the youngsters had been inclined to react with a violent cliché when asked to think about society or their place in it.

The question triggered their emotions and the reaction followed.

After the thinking lessons they had developed some pride in themselves as “thinkers.”

There was now a thinking pause instead of a rush to reaction.

There was more consideration and more objectivity to the thinking.

Edna and Bill Copley reported a similar trend when using the CoRT lessons in a reformatory. ¶¶¶

It is possible for thinking to alter feelings—especially the perceptual type of thinking which allows us to see things in a different way.

The PMI demonstration I mentioned earlier in the book showed how some simple thinking changed the feelings of children who had at first welcomed the idea of being paid to go to school. ¶¶¶

We shall see later in this section how certain “value-laden” words can alter perceptions and feelings.

Some new proposal is put to a work force to settle an industrial dispute.

At first they are inclined to accept it—then it becomes labeled as a bribe or a trick and feelings begin to change.


Humor, hindsight and insight, creativity and lateral thinking, lateral thinking as process, judgment and provocation, the word "Po", the stepping stone method, the escape method, the random stimulation method, general use of lateral thinking, the logic of lateral thinking continue



“Age can provide richer experience, but not necessarily so.

Professor John Edwards is fond of saying that a teacher with twenty years’ experience may indeed have twenty years’ experience or may have twenty times a one-year experience.

If you always look at things in the same way then more experience only provides more books on the same shelf.

Age permits you to have more experience but only if you permit yourself to be open to new experiences.

If you never change your mind, why have one?

Have a sign on your desk which says: ‘Same thinking as yesterday, last year or ten years ago.’” — Edward de Bono


Wise about Wisdom: # 170 Awareness ::: # 171 Perception ::: #172 Broad ::: # 173 Logic Bubble ::: # 174 Possibly ::: # 175 Alternatives ::: # 176 Plurality ::: # 177 Parallel Thinking ::: # 178 Choice ::: # 179 Values ::: # 180 Emotions and Feelings ::: #181 Judgement ::: # 182 Design ::: # 183 A new super-pattern: What would Merlin do here?



“Information is what holds an organization together and information is what makes individual knowledge workers effective.” — Druckerism




More exhibits to examine and explore

pics ::: discontinuity ::: decisions exist only in the present


“We know only two things about the future.
It cannot be known.
It will be different from what exists now and
from what we now expect


see Chapter 10 ::: The future … already happened ::: Making the future ::: Research management
… the importance of accessing, interpreting, connecting, and translating knowledge
Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity


SEEThe Wisdom of Peter Drucker ::: Life 2.0 ::: Finishing Well ::: A change in the human condition


“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
The need for roots
Druckerism (calendarize this?)

See successful careers ↑ are not planned ↓ opportunities


the Return on Luck … ↓

needs to be a part of a Managing Oneself structure
(strengths? → values? or striving toward an idea outside of yourself
where you belong? Danger of too much planning ::: more on managing oneself further down the page ::: all of this sequences needs to be made operational if it is to be of any valuecalendarize this?)

calendarize this ↑ ? → begin with an end in mind



Second, Peter changed not just the minds of his students but their lives and, through them, the lives of other people.

Think of a student like a vector heading out into time and space; if you can change the trajectory of that vector even a little bit, those small changes will turn into a large sweeping arc years down the road.

¶ ¶ ¶

And then if that vector in turn changes the trajectory of tens or hundreds or thousands of other vectors, then a teacher can have a multiplicative impact on the world.

This is exactly what Drucker-as-teacher did. the return on luck

by Jim Collins
author of Built to Last, Good to Great, How the Mighty Fall and Good to Great and the Social Sectors



“The … I wouldn’t say happy people, but satisfied, contented people I knew were all people who lived in more than one world.

Those single-minded people — you meet them most in politics — in the end they are very unhappy people.

There isn’t that much room at the top — there is very little room at the top.” And it doesn’t last that long.Then what? and YouTube

How much labor?




The danger of too much planning


Peter maintained that planning doesn’t work.


What is the purpose of various career fields or areas of work?

The return on luck ::: Water logic

You can prepare yourself, learn what you ought to know, and expand your experience and professionalism, but ultimately, he said, “opportunity comes in over the transom,” and that means you have to be flexible, ready to seize the right opportunities when they come.

“Too much planning,” he said, “can make you deaf to opportunity.”

Knowing what youwant to do, and being prepared and equipped to do it, is more important than the specific “how.”


Peter said, “Opportunity knocks, but it only knocks once.

You have to be ready for the accident.”


“Most of us, if we live long enough, must change careers.

If career planning means not being open to opportunity, it doesn’t work.

Planning should tell you only which opportunities are the right ones for you
and which are the wrong ones
continue, but
some ecological awareness (for example) is also useful


The individual in entrepreneurial society

“The most effective road to self-renewal is to
look for the unexpected success and run with it.” continue

Opportunities — the book


The concepts in this collection of thought-fragments
are part of a life-management system

thinking broad and thinking detailed ↑ ↓

Successful careerS are not planned here

Foundations and opportunities


A Year with Peter Drucker:
52 Weeks of Coaching for Leadership Effectiveness

Every dreamer ↓





This page purposefully lacks a contents list — that
would be too orderly. Reality
doesn’t unfold in an convenient manner …




The future of the planet depends on our ability to
navigate unimagined futureS.

And that depends on
what’s between our earS ↓ … ↑ here

“Our thinking, choices, decisions are determined by
what we have seen edb


The Black Cylinder Experiment

Competing mental patterns are one of those “thingS” ↑ ↓


The fallacy of empowerment


“Background awareness plus a broad and deep worldview needs to be part of those “thingS” ↑ ↓

Awareness and worldview are part of a foundation for future directed decisions ↑ ↓

This page provides an exploration path for building that foundation ↑ ↓


… Another implication is that the performance of an individual, an organization, an industry, a country, in acquiring and applying knowledge will increasingly become the key competitive factor — for career and earnings opportunities of the individuals; for the performance, perhaps even the survival, of the individual organization; for an industry; and for a country.

The knowledge society will inevitably become far more competitive than any society we have yet known — for the simple reason that with knowledge being universally accessible, there are no excuses for nonperformance.

There will be no “poor” countries.

There will only be ignorant countries.

And the same will be true for individual companies, individual industries, and individual organizations of any kind. continue



Drucker: The Man Who Invented the Corporate Society

Wisdom is about awareness

Celebrating the Life of Peter Drucker

A tribute to Peter Drucker by Pastor Dr. Rick Warren —
Author of the all-time best selling book (printed in English)
The Purpose Driven Life and
Founder of Saddleback Church continue

PD → “Integrity ::: humility ::: generosity” RW’s ↑ perception

Druckerisms are brain-addresses

Notes from audio: On behalf of the Drucker School, Drucker Institute, Drucker Society thank you. Thank you for coming to honor this man ... Two or three hundred Drucker proverbs, Druckerisms … Had a way of saying things so succinctly ... Well Peter said ::: Principles that changed RW's life

Peter was far more that the founder of modern management and a brilliant man one of the greatest minds of the 20th century … He was a great soul ::: Any body who knew him found their lives enriched by this man ::: Uniquely great man

Met Peter when Warren was 29 years old ... Peter became not just a teacher, a mentor, a friend ... Over the years Saddleback grew to 100,000 names, 120 acre campus, network of over 400,000 churches in 160+ countries

This man changed my life ::: I don't just admire Peter, I love him for what he did in my life

First question → how often do you have to change the structure in a rapidly growing organization? First decade Saddleback growing 42% … Drucker 45% … Drucker just made up the number (a stupid question) Had to be on a consistent basis. The shoe could never tells the foot how big it gets … Organization structure had to adapt and change … had to be fast and fluid flexible if you’re going to grow and develop and meet the needs

The Purpose Driven Life (best selling book in English in history?) ::: Drucker was a purpose drive man ::: What is our business? Who is our customer? What do they value? What is our mission? And he always said it is the mission that matters. I never saw a more purpose driven person in my life

Talk about the man (Drucker) ... If I summed up Peters life in three words it would be these ... Integrity, humility, generosity ::: Three words are the antidotes to three traps of leadership

Integrity ... compartmentalize our lives … exact opposite of integrity ::: Far more than honesty … means wholeness

Authentic ::: Life was integrated ::: The only renaissance man … knew a lot about everything and integrated it all ::: It all matters

Management not just a science, art, liberal art, social construct, spiritual discipline … all of these things

Asking questions forces the other person to do their own thinking and accept the answer

Exchanging questions ::: Examples from Japanese art etc. … made it all fit ::: A way of looking at the world from a system's view … it all matters ::: Can't be just economic, spiritual, phycological … there's a relationship between it all … and it all matters

He was a man of integrity ::: Titanic myth ::: If you are weak in one area … that's where the chain breaks … it all matters ::: Peter not just taught it … he lived it … it all matters … every area of life.

Humility ::: Misunderstood term ::: Being honest about your weaknesses ::: Not cover them up … personally or institutionally ::: That needs to be changed ::: Needs to be worked on ::: Being teachable ::: All learners are leaders ::: When you stop learning you stop leading ::: Corporations require growing leaders ::: Effective Executive ::: building on strengths so weaknesses become irrelevant ::: Humility is the willingness to learn ::: The number one characteristic of humility is the ability to ask questions ::: You can learn from anybody ::: Everybody ignorant on different subjects ::: Drucker asking questions to both acquire information and make the other person think for themselves ::: Peter's greatness ::: Tears

Most of us would rather pretend that we know it all than know it all ::: Don't want to admit it when we don't know something … so we pretend … live in ignorance ::: Trained over 400,000 leaders in 162 countries over the last 30 years … the things he learned from Peter Drucker

Generosity ::: Time, affirmation ::: Miser makes us miserable ::: The more you give away the more you get

Learn from the person of Drucker … commitment to integrity, humility, generosity


“If you want to diagram my work, in the center is writing,
then comes consulting, then comes teaching.
I’ve never been primarily an academic. I like to teach
because that’s the way I learn.” Peter Drucker


Peter Drucker → he liberated me


Management and the World’s Work #impact and #mbr

↑ In less than 150 years,
management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries.

It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries
that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓


The Management Revolution

↑ Making knowledge productive




Political ecologists (Drucker ↑) believe that the traditional disciplines define
fairly narrow and limited tools rather than meaningful
and self-contained areas of knowledge, action, and events

↑ It would be difficult to say, I submit, which of chapters in this volume
are “management,” which “government” or “political theory,”
which “history” or “economics.” continue


“To know something,
to really understand something important,
one must look at it from sixteen different angles.

People are perceptually slow,
and there is no shortcut to understanding;
it takes a great deal of time.” read more


What Everybody Knows Is Frequently Wrong ::: If You Keep Doing What Worked in the Past You’re Going to Fail ::: Approach Problems with Your Ignorance—Not Your Experience ::: Develop Expertise Outside Your Field to Be an Effective Manager ::: Outstanding Performance Is Inconsistent with Fear of Failure ::: You Must Know Your People to Lead Them ::: People Have No Limits, Even After Failure ::: Base Your Strategy on the Situation, Not on a Formula — A Class With Drucker: The Lost Lessons of the World's Greatest Management Teacher


From The End of Economic Man: The Origins of Totalitarianism

The End of Economic Man was my first book, and at the time of its publication I was still an unknown young man.

Yet the book received tremendous attention when it came out in the spring of 1939, and was an instant success.

It was even more successful in Britain than in the United States.

Winston Churchill, then still out of office, wrote the first review, and a glowing one.

When, a year later, after Dunkirk and the fall of France, he became prime minister he gave the order to include The End of Economic Man in the book kit issued to every graduate of a British Officers’ Candidate School.

(It was, appropriately enough, packaged together with Lewis Catroll’s Alice in Wonderland by somebody in the War Department with a sense of humor.) ¶¶¶

Although this book was published more than fifty years ago, it was actually written even earlier.

It was begun in 1933, a few weeks after Hitler had come to power.

An early excerpt — the discussion of the role of anti-Semitism in the Nazi demonology and the reasons for its appeal — was published as a pamphlet by an Austrian Catholic and anti-Nazi publisher in 1935 or 1936.

And it was finished between April 1937, when I first arrived in the United States from England, and the end of that year.

It was the first book to try to explain the origins of totalitarianism — its subtitle.

It has kept on selling.

Indeed it has been reissued several times before this republication as a Transaction book, the last time in 1969 (the preface to that reissue is included in this volume).

And lately the book has again gotten a fair amount of scholarly attention. ¶¶¶

But for a long time during the nineteen-sixties — and indeed, well into the nineteen-seventies — the book was pointedly ignored by the scholarly community.

One reason: it was not “politically correct” to use current jargon.

It fitted neither of the two politically acceptable theses of the postwar period: the thesis that Nazism was a “German” phenomena to be explained by German history, German character, German specifics of one kind or another or the Marxist thesis of Nazism as the “last gasp of dying capitalism.”

This book, instead, treated Nazism — and totalitarianism altogether — as a European disease, with Nazi Germany the most extreme, most pathological manifestation and with Stalinism being neither much different nor much better.

Anti-Semitism, for instance, appeared first as persecution and popular demagoguery in France, rather than in Germany, in the Dreyfus Affair of the eighteen-nineties.

And it was the failure of Marxism — rather than that of capitalism — as a creed and as a savior, The End of Economic Man asserted, that led to the “despair of the masses” and made them easy prey to totalitarian demagoguery and demonology. ¶¶¶



But there was a second reason why the book did not fit into the scholarly climate of the postwar period.

It is the more important one, simply because the climate still persists.

This book treats a major social phenomenon as a social phenomenon.

This is still largely considered heresy (except by such fellow-heretics as the publishers of Transaction books and Society magazine).

Major social phenomena are treated either as political and economic history, that is, in terms of battles, armies, treaties, politicians, elections, national-income statistics, and so on.

(A good example for Germany and Nazism are the excellent books of the Stanford historian Gordon Craig, for example, his 1978 book Germany: 1866-1945.)

Such developments are also explained in terms of “isms.” that is, in terms of all-embracing philosophies.

The prototype and exemplar of this approach for our theme is the 1951 book by Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism which blames Hitler and Nazism on the systematic German philosophers of the early nineteenth century: Fichte, Schelling, or Hegel. ¶¶¶

No matter how valid either approach, they are not adequate by themselves.

The stool needs a third leg.

Social phenomena need social analysis, an analysis of the strains, stresses, trends, shifts, and upheavals in society.

This, I would maintain, is what sociology was meant to do, was indeed invented for in the early years of the last century.

It is what the great men of sociology, a Max Weber (1864-1920) or a Vilfredo Pareto (1864-1923), did.

It is what Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) did when he identified the “innovator” as the social force that turns economies upside down; the innovator does not behave economically, does not try to optimize, is not motivated by economic rationale — he is a social phenomenon.

It is what this book tries to do. ¶¶¶

Society” is vague and impossible to define, argue my historian friends, my economist friends, my philosopher friends.

They are absolutely right.

But equally resistant to definition are history, economics, philosophy, nation, science, and poetry — indeed everything worthwhile thinking, talking, and writing about. ¶¶¶

Yet all of us know what to do with these terms — “plus or minus 80%” as the statisticians would say — that is, adequate for operational purposes (despite everything the linguistic logicians say to the contrary).

The End of Economic Man treats society as the environment of that very peculiar critter, the human being.

History treats what happens on the surface, so to speak.

“Isms” — that is philosophical systems — may be called the atmosphere.

But society is the “ecology.” ¶¶¶

This book does not attempt to define “society.”

It tries to understand it.

Whether it succeeds in this attempt readers must decide for themselves.

But this book was the first attempt to understand the major social phenomenon of the first half of this century, that is, the rise of totalitarianism as a social event.

It is still, half a century later, the only such attempt.

This alone, I hope, makes it worthwhile reading.

Peter F. Drucker




… “It is this belief in diversity and pluralism and in the uniqueness of each person that underlies all my writings, beginning with my first book (The End of Economic Man) more than fifty years ago.

During most of these fifty years centralization, uniformity, and conformity were dominant.

The totalitarian regimes (The End of Economic Man) in which everybody was to conform, to think the same, to write and paint the same, to be centrally controlled—the Nazis called it “switched onto the same track” (gleichgeschaltet)—were but the head of a universal current.

It swept over the democracies as well.

But every one of my books and essays, whether dealing with politics, philosophy, or history; with social order and social institutions; with management, technology, or economics, has stressed pluralism and diversity.

Where the prevailing doctrines preached control by big government or big business, I stressed decentralization, experimentation, and the need to create community.

And where the prevailing approaches saw government and big business as the only institutions and as the “countervailing powers” of a modern society, I stressed the importance and central role of the non-profit, public-service institutions, the “third sector”—as the nurseries of independence and diversity; as guardians of values; as providers of community leadership and citizenship. more from Adventures of a Bystander

but there’s no virtue in being a non-profit

Every social problem is an opportunity


A Functioning Society ::: The (human) Ecological Vision ::: The End of Economic Man

ONCE upon a time a young man set out to write
the definitive book on China. continue

The Effective Executive ::: Managing Oneself

about Questions

Creating Tomorrow’s Society of Citizens


Drucker and Me by Bob Buford

What Bob Buford is remembered for


Peter once told me ↑, “The fruit of your work grows on other people’s trees.”


T. George Harris


YouTube: Thoughts on prayer

Interview with T. George Harris ↑ → Deming, Juran, Drucker


↑ A deeper sense of purpose: T. George Harris was born a Baptist on a small and rocky Kentucky tobacco farm in 1924, a time when most Americans believed the earth was 7,000 years old and heaven was a place you could point to—straight up. …

Harris wrote and edited about many subjects, including civil rights, politics, business, psychology, careers, self-development, health and spirituality.

Served in World War II and graduated from Yale.

He became a journalist, as a reporter and later bureau chief and editor for Time and Look magazines.

Harris was a media pioneer when it came to mind-body health, for instance as founding editor of American Health magazine, and particularly about how health intersected with spirituality.

He was a founder of Spirituality & Health magazine, and was an early columnist for

Besides their friendship, Harris and Drucker were associated in a variety of ways. Post Capitalist Executive

Harris was editor-in-chief of Psychology Today and later executive editor of the Harvard Business Review.




Charles Handy a concept maker

Amazon → The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society


The many lives of Charles Handy → YouTube link

Give it a name

Humans First — Technology Second

Self renewal ::: Reinvent yourself

“Five hundred years ago an unknown friar in an unknown German town laid a complaint against his employer. The friar was Martin Luther, the town Wittenberg. His employer was the Catholic Church, and the burden of his complaints — 95 of them — was twofold. First, to be permitted to buy your way to heaven — as the church offered through the sale of indulgences — was wrong: a scam on the poor to make the rich richer, which sounds familiar today.

… So where do we find another leader? One who will lead our reformation? Well, let me follow another Martin Luther and have a dream. Couldn’t the modern Wittenberg be the Drucker Forum? And the Luther of our time be Peter Drucker? #mbr With his words from the grave magnified … by all of us. And exemplified by putting our words into practice. If people criticize, we have to be bold, like Luther, and say: here I stand, I can do no other, because this is the right way to behave. So don’t ask for leaders. It’s up to us to start small fires in the darkness, until they spread and the whole world is alight with a better vision of what we could do with our businesses. If not us, then who? if not now, then when?” continue


Post-capitalist executive



… “Given a choice, the average manager would like to have at his side, not so much a computer as a super-management expert; someone like Peter Drucker, or at least like the image of Drucker as super-consultant that exists in many executive minds.

The manager could handle most chores on his own; but, when difficulties arose, he could turn to his mentor and obtain expert guidance.

Of course Peter Drucker does not do this.

Even if you could afford to buy his time, you could not so involve him in the day-to-day tasks of management.

For one thing he would not leave his study at Claremont to undertake the job.

For another thing, it would bore him to distraction.

So the manager who wants answers from Drucker reads Drucker’s books and articles and listens to his lectures when he can.

This can be extremely frustrating.

Most executives are looking for specific answers to the nitty-gritty problems that come up, day after day.

They know they should be thinking big thoughts and taking the broad view, but nagging details keep interfering.

So they want help in handling the recurring, mundane matters that make up their working lives.

It is hard to find this in Drucker.

His books do not resemble the typical books produced for managers in great profusion.

Within a Drucker book — even those that focus most specifically on the tasks of management — you do not find the kinds of chapter headings you find in a typical “how-to-run-a-business” book; headings like “Six Ways to Make Things Happen,” “How to Change Bad Habits to Good Ones,” “Ten Steps to Solving Problems,” “A Sure-Fire Way to Organize Your Time,” and so forth.

Drucker does not make it seem that simple.

It is not that he is vague; he is quite specific.

But he does not distill his message into convenient and catchy little nuggets that can be ingested with no effort at all.

Drucker is a stimulator.

He tries to make people think, not give them substitutes for thinking.

The return on luck

The manager and the moron

Moreover, he approaches management from a philosophical point of view.

He places small, discrete activities in a larger framework.

So you can’t consult the index of a Drucker book and thumb the pages to a brief, specific “answer” for your current problem.

He doesn’t make it look that easy because he doesn’t think it is that easy.” Drucker: The Man Who Invented the Corporate Society


The Practice of Management ::: Where do I begin to read Drucker?




The world is rapidly becoming a knowledge society, a society
of organizations
, and a network society.

At the same time,
if you look at the life story of any prominent organization
you will see multiple non-linear chapters
in their story. The iPhone is not an outgrowth
of anything Apple™ had done previously.

Without an effective mission there will be no results

This ↑ is a dynamic system of evolving, non-static, and impermanent parts.


Management and the World’s Work (here) — 1850 … ↑ ↓
In less than 150 years, management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries. #mbr

It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓

↑ is connected to → time span, unimagined futures, impossible, mental patterns, awareness, and worldview ↑ ↓

Concepts and applications → Management: Tasks, Resp., PracticesManagement, Revised Edition and Cases

What executives should remember

Executive realities ::: What makes an executive effective?

Post-Capitalist executive interview — A MAJOR work-life brainroad
… accept that it’s your own responsibility
to work on your development and not depend
on any one company

The need for roots ::: From command to responsibility-based organization
::: Post-capitalized society has to be decentralized

Knowledge specialty → Knowledge in application is specialized.
It is always specific, and therefore, not applicable to anything else.

How To Guarantee Non-Performance

The theory of the business et. al.

The University Art Museum: Defining Purpose and Mission

Find First Things First on this page


Management as a liberal art #mbr ::: #wgobcd


2017 Wharton text + podcast ‘The End of Loyalty’: Shock and Awe for Many American Workers (#wgobcd)
“The previous generation of American workers had a different relationship with their employers
than the workers today. Many skilled-labor employees stayed with one company for the long haul,
earning solid wages, good benefits and a pension in exchange for loyalty and hard work.

But those days are long gone, notes Rick Wartzman. The reduction in salaries, retirement, health care
and other perks has prompted a breakdown in the relationship between employee and employer,
a problem that Wartzman focuses on in his book, The End of Loyalty:
The Rise and Fall of Good Jobs in America
. Wartzman, a Pultizer Prize-winning former journalist
who is a senior adviser at the Drucker Institute, joined Knowledge@Wharton
to talk about the new state of the American worker … ” podcast access ::: NPR

How did the employers “manage” to create this situation? ↑


Middle-class blues (#wgobcd)



Investigation shows IBM flouted US laws against
age discrimination and estimates the company
eliminated about 20K+ US employees
over 40 in the past five years

by Peter Gosselin · March 22, 2018

“For nearly a half century, IBM came as close as any company to bearing the torch for the American Dream.

As the world’s dominant technology firm, payrolls at International Business Machines Corp. swelled to nearly a quarter-million U.S. white-collar workers in the 1980s.

Its profits helped underwrite a broad agenda of racial equality, equal pay for women and an unbeatable offer of great wages and something close to lifetime employment, all in return for unswerving loyalty. …snip, snip …

sidebar ↓

Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance?:
Leading a Great Enterprise through Dramatic Change

When Louis Gerstner joined IBM in 1993
he noted that IBM employed more Nobel Laureates
than most countries possess. And yet,
IBM was just a few months from being forced to
declare bankruptcy. In addition to the Nobel Laureates,
IBM also employed many people possessing
“education credentials” — PhDs, masters, and college graduates.
And yet, not one of the nearly 400,000 employees was thought
capable of leading IBM more . Mike Kami connection

main brainroad continues ↓

But when high tech suddenly started shifting and companies went global, IBM faced the changing landscape with a distinction most of its fiercest competitors didn’t have: a large number of experienced and aging U.S. employees.

The company reacted with a strategy that, in the words of one confidential planning document, would “correct seniority mix.” (#wgobcd)

It slashed IBM’s U.S. workforce by as much as three-quarters from its 1980s peak, replacing a substantial share with younger, less-experienced and lower-paid workers and sending many positions overseas.

ProPublica estimates that in the past five years alone, IBM has eliminated more than 20,000 American employees ages 40 and over, about 60 percent of its estimated total U.S. job cuts during those years.

In making these cuts, IBM has flouted or outflanked U.S. laws and regulations intended to protect later-career workers from age discrimination, according to a ProPublica review of internal company documents, legal filings and public records, as well as information provided via interviews and questionnaires filled out by more than 1,000 former IBM employees.

Among ProPublica’s findings, IBM:

Denied older workers information the law says they need in order to decide whether they’ve been victims of age bias, and required them to sign away the right to go to court or join with others to seek redress.

Targeted people for layoffs and firings with techniques that tilted against older workers, even when the company rated them high performers.

In some instances, the money saved from the departures went toward hiring young replacements.

Converted job cuts into retirements and took steps to boost resignations and firings.

The moves reduced the number of employees counted as layoffs, where high numbers can trigger public disclosure requirements.

Encouraged employees targeted for layoff to apply for other IBM positions, while quietly advising managers not to hire them and requiring many of the workers to train their replacements.

Told some older employees being laid off that their skills were out of date, but then brought them back as contract workers, often for the same work at lower pay and fewer benefits.

IBM declined requests for the numbers or age breakdown of its job cuts.

ProPublica provided the company with a 10-page summary of its findings and the evidence on which they were based.

IBM spokesman Edward Barbini said that to respond the company needed to see copies of all documents cited in the story, a request ProPublica could not fulfill without breaking faith with its sources.” continue



… accept that it’s your own responsibility
to work on your development and not depend
on any one company … ↓

Managing Oneself overview

Moving toward organic design

Post-Capitalist Society PCS

Management Challenges for the 21st Century ::: Managing in the Next Society

The Management Revolution




Time-life navigation insights

Foundations and opportunities


Foundations: Wisdom, The Daily Drucker, Practical Thinking, Deliberate Thinking


Great minds talk about ideas ↑ ↓, average minds talk about events,
and small minds talk about people.”
Eleanor Roosevelt

What ↑ ideas, events, and people? A mind map?

Experts speak!

“If you never change your mind, why have one?”
Edward de Bono

The very rich no longer matter — economically continue

“If it works, it’s obsolete.”
Marshall McLuhan

“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world;
the unreasonable man persists in trying to adapt the world to himself.
Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable man.”
George Shaw

“Without deviation from the norm, progress is not possible.”
Frank Zappa

“Nobody can go back and start a new beginning,
but anyone can start today and make a new ending.”
Maria Robinson

Self-development becomes self-renewal when you walk a different path,
become aware of a different horizon,
move toward a different destination.”

“If you want to diagram my work, in the center is writing,
then comes consulting, then comes teaching.
I’ve never been primarily an academic. I like to teach
because that’s the way I learn.”
Peter Drucker


“Today is always the result of actions
and decisions taken yesterday.”

“Tomorrow is being made today,
irrevocably in most cases.”


“Decision making is a time machine

that synchronizes into a single time — the present
a great number of divergent time spans.

We are learning this only now.

Our approach still tends toward making plans for something
we will decide to do in the future,
which may be entertaining but is futile.

We can make decisions only in the present,
and yet we cannot make decisions for the present alone;
the most expedient, most opportunistic decision—let alone
the decision not to decide at all—
may commit us for a long time,
if not permanently and irrevocably.” — Chapter 11, MRE by PFD


The unique event that changes the universe is an event “at the margin.”

By the time it becomes statistically significant, it is no longer “future”;
it is, indeed, no longer even “present.”

It is already “past.”


“The future requires decisions-now. It imposes risk-now.
It requires action-now.”

“The purpose of the work on making the future
is not to decide what should be done tomorrow,
but what should be done today to have a tomorrow.”

“What do we have to do now to obtain our objectives tomorrow?”

“The constant temptation of every organization is safe mediocrity.”

“It takes years to build a management team;
but it can be destroyed in a short period of misrule.”

“Every company that has put its trust in financial manipulation
as a substitute for purposeful management has eventually come to grief.”

“The first policy — and the foundation for all the others — is to abandon yesterday.”

“Performance of management, therefore, means in large measure
doing a good job in preparing today’s business for the future.”

“The most effective way to manage change successfully
is to create it.”

“To know what a business is
we have to start with its purpose.”

“The first lesson business executives can learn
from successful nonprofits is to begin with mission.”

“We are at the beginning — perhaps one-third
of the way through — a transition
from a Western-dominated international economy
to a world economy that is multi centered.”

“Tomorrow’s school — whether kindergarten, university or continuing education —
has to be integrated into the community
and to be an integrator of the community.”

“Knowledge may be neutral,
but what we do with it is by no means neutral.”


You can’t get there from here —
you can’t get to tomorrowS from yesterdayS
Bob Embry


“Success breeds complacency.
Complacency breeds failure.
Only the paranoid survive.”
Andy Grove

“Failure should always be considered a symptom of an innovative opportunity.”

“Market domination produces tremendous
internal resistance against any innovation.”

“The first task of a leader
is to be the trumpet
that sounds the clear sound.”

“In cost control, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

“It is perhaps the biggest job of the modern corporation —
to find a synthesis between justice and dignity,
between equality of opportunities and
social status and function.”

“Just as modern money penetrated the whole world
within less than a century and
totally changed people’s lives and aspirations,
we can safely assume that information now penetrates everywhere.”

“That one can truly manage other people
is by no means adequately proven.
But one can always manage oneself.
Indeed, executives who do not manage themselves for effectiveness
cannot possibly expect to manage their associates and subordinates.”

“The better a person is,
the more mistakes they will make—
for the more new things they will try.”

“Information is what holds an organization together
and information is what
makes individual knowledge workers effective.”

“Every decision is risky:
it is a commitment of present resources
to an uncertain and unknown future.”

“The customer is the foundation of a business
and keeps it in existence.”

“Management has no choice but to anticipate the future,
to attempt to mold it,
and to balance short-range and long-range goals.”

“Corporations once built to last like pyramids
are now more like tents.
Tomorrow they’re gone or in turmoil.”
Druckerism → Long years of profound change

“A successful person is one who can lay a firm foundation
with the bricks that others throw at him or her.”
David Brinkley

“We’ve also moved from a society in which capital was its scarce resource
into one in which knowledge is the scarce resource.
If you have the knowledge, you can get the money.”

“Knowledge differs from all other means of production in that it
cannot be inherited or bequeathed. It has to be acquired
anew by every individual, and everyone
starts out with the same total ignorance.”

“Management will have to learn to run, a the same time,
an existing managerial organization and a new innovative one”

“How much business can we expect in this new company
if we are successful?
And how much front-end investment
is then justified?”

“You have to produce results in the short term.
But you also have to produce results in the long term.
And the long term is not simply the adding up of short terms.”

“The critical feature of a knowledge workforce is
that its workers are not labor, they are capital.”

“There is a great deal said and written these days about
the technological impacts of information. But perhaps
its social impacts are greater still, and more important.”

“We live in an age of unprecedented opportunity: If you’ve
got ambition and smarts, you can rise to the top of your chosen profession,
regardless of where you started out.”

“I’ve learned from experience
that the greater part of our happiness or misery
depends on our dispositions and not on our circumstances.”
Martha Washington

“Effective executives concentrate on what is important.
They are not overly impressed by speed in decision making.”

“The difficulty lies not so much in developing new ideas
as in escaping from old ones.”
John Maynard Keynes

“I’ve learned to run with success and not worry too much about non-success.
You know there’s an old saying ‘At first if you don’t succeed, try, try, try again.’
It’s wrong.
If at first you don’t succeed, try once more,
and then try something else.” Druckerism

“It is futile to try to guess what products and processes the future will want.
But it is possible to make up one’s mind what idea one wants to make a reality in the future,
and to build a different business on such an idea.” Druckerism

“Keep on going and the chances are you will stumble on something,
perhaps when you are least expecting it. I have never heard of
anyone stumbling on something sitting down.”
Charles F. Kettering

“All growth depends upon activity.
There is no development physically or intellectually without effort,
and effort means work.”
Calvin Coolidge

“Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.”
Winston Churchill

“Practically no product or service any longer
has either a single specific end-use or application, or its own market.”

The beacons of productivity and innovation must be our guideposts

“Am I not destroying my enemies when I make friends of them?”
Abraham Lincoln

“Tell me and I’ll forget; show me and I may remember;
involve me and I’ll understand.”
Chinese Proverb

“Great minds have purposes, others have wishes.”
Washington Irving

“People who are crazy enough to think they can change the world,
are the ones who do.”

“Strength does not come from physical capacity.
It comes from an indomitable will.”
Mohandas Gandhi

“I have noticed even people who claim everything is predestined,
and that we can do nothing to change it, look before they cross the road.”
Stephen Hawking

“What we see depends mainly on what we look for.”
Sir John Lubbock

“Nothing so conclusively proves a man’s ability to lead others
as what he does from day to day to lead himself.”
Thomas J. Watson Sr.

“Remember there’s no such thing as a small act of kindness.
Every act creates a ripple with no logical end.”
Scott Adams

“Management is about human beings.
Its task is to make people capable of joint performance,
to make their strengths effective and their weaknesses irrelevant.”

“All management books, including those I have written,
focus on managing other people.
But you cannot manage other people unless you manage yourself first.”

“We perceive, as a rule, what we expect to perceive.
We see largely what we expect to see, and we hear largely
what we expect to hear.”

“The people who keep themselves alive and growing
also build a review of their performance into their work.”

“The most effective road to self-renewal is to
look for the unexpected success
and run with it.”

“Above all, effective executives treat change as an opportunity
rather than a threat.”

“It is the very nature of knowledge that it changes fast
and that today’s certainties will be tomorrow’s absurdities.”

“Risk failure. Risk ridicule. Risk shame. Risk criticism.
Risk snorts of derision. Risk embarrassment, mockery, and rejection.
But do not, do not, do not risk losing who you are.
Be your own embarrassment.
Don’t be someone else’s false ideal.”

“You can tell whether a man is clever by his answers.
You can tell whether a man is wise by his questions.”
Naguib Mahfouz

“Prosperity and growth come only to the business
that systematically finds and exploits its potential.”

“Innovative companies know that returns on innovation
behave radically differently from returns in the ongoing business.”

“Information has to be organized to challenge a company’s strategy.”

“Innovation is thus not only opportunity.
It is not only risk. It is first and foremost responsibility.”

“To be effective, an innovation has to be simple, and
it has to be focused.”

“Forget past mistakes. Forget failures.
Forget everything except what you’re going to do now
and do it.”
Will Durant

“Learning and teaching are going to be more deeply affected
by the new availability of information
than any other area of human life.”

“If you don’t encounter setbacks in your career,
if you don’t have doubts and disappointments,
let me tell you, you’re not dreaming big enough.”
Michael Bloomberg

“Just because people are doing extraordinary things
doesn’t mean they’re not ordinary people.”
Laird Hamilton

“I haven’t failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”
Thomas Edison

“I am always doing that which I cannot do,
in order that I may learn how to do it.”
Pablo Picasso

“You can’t build a reputation on what you are going to do.”
Henry Ford

“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said,
people will forget what you did,
but people will never forget how you made them feel.”
Maya Angelou

“Never let your memories be greater than your dreams.”
Doug Ivester

“We either make ourselves miserable
or we make ourselves strong. The amount of work is the same.”
Carlos Castaneda

Innovation → “The characteristic of the innovator
is the ability to envisage as a system
what to others are unrelated, separate elements.”

“Most innovations in public-service institutions
are imposed on them either by outsiders or by catastrophe.”

“Knowledge workers cannot be satisfied with
work that is only a livelihood.”

“Organizations are wise to be strategic
and proactive in presenting themselves to the public.
If they do not, the public will define their brand for them.”
Mary Gendron

“It is management’s job
to get the right regulation enacted.”

“Whether competing for business, attention, or contributions,
the experience needs to excite the customer
enough to last beyond that moment of engagement
in a vivid way that can be shared enthusiastically.”
Kevin Daum

“The purpose of an organization is to enable
common men to do uncommon things.”

“The test of an innovation is whether it creates value.”

“Innovation, almost by definition, has to be decentralized, ad hoc, autonomous.”

“Identify a clear WHY or purpose statement about why change, adaptiveness, and
innovation are important to the organization to ignite people’s intrinsic motivation.”
Janet Sernack

“Just as no one learns as much about a subject as the person
who is forced to teach it, no one develops as much
as the person who is trying to help others to develop themselves.”

“The man who fails to perform must be relocated or let go.
“Management owes this … to the man himself.”

“Predicting the future can only get you into trouble.
The task is to manage what is there and to work to create what could and should be.”

“What we call the Information Revolution is actually a Knowledge Revolution.”

“It is better to be prepared for an opportunity and not have one,
than to have an opportunity and not be prepared.”
Whitney Young

“Knowledge is nonhierarchical.
Either it is relevant in a given situation, or it is not.”

“I have always been attracted to the unexpected success;
in my experience, it holds the key to understanding.”

“Successful careers develop when people are
prepared for opportunities
because they know their strengths,
their method of work, and
their values.
Knowing where you belong
can transform you into an outstanding performer.”

“Would the roof cave in if we stopped doing this work altogether?”

“Key activities are not to be found in books.
They emerge from analysis of the specific enterprise.”

Destiny is a name often given in retrospect
to choices that had dramatic consequences. — J.K. Rowling

“Plans are worthless; but planning is invaluable.”

“In appraising themselves,
people tend to be either too critical or not critical enough.”

“One survives problems by
making them irrelevant because of success.”

“Economic expansion and increase are not aims in themselves.
They make sense only as means to a social end.”

“Learn to manage your time.
The secret is not to do the five million things
that do not need to be done and will never be missed.”
Druckerism — Try searching this page for the word “need”

“Individuals who can navigate this landscape, who can shift fluidly
from one source of information to another,
who can pull ideas from multiple areas,
synthesizing them into groundbreaking innovations and discoveries,
are better suited for the times we live in.”
Dale Griffiths Stamos

“Even if you’re on the right track,
you’ll get run over if you just sit there.”
Will Rogers

“Don’t just be yourself. Be all of yourself.
Don’t just live. Be that other thing connected to death.
Be life.”
Joss Whedon

“Always remember, your focus determines your reality.”
George Lucas

“It is paradoxical but profoundly true and important principle of life
that the most likely way to reach a goal is to be aiming
not at that goal itself but at some more ambitious goal beyond it.”
Arnold Toynbee

“Not only can you not plan the impact you’re going to have,
you often won’t recognize it when you’re having it.”
Dick Costolo

“Either you run the day, or the day runs you.”
Jim Rohn

“The effective people I know simply discipline themselves
to have enough time for thinking.”

Freakonomics — The hidden side of everything is largely BS

“What do you want to be remembered for?”

Peter Drucker — my life as a knowledge worker

thinking broad and thinking detailed


Could we be embedded within ↑ ↓ just ONE dynamic system moving in time?




Imagining navigation course changes


Imagine it’s 1910 and you’re 21 years old.

Your parents fit in one of the following resource groups:

dirt poor, barely struggling to survive;

are employed by a major institution; or

are wealthy enough to be truly independent.

You are living in one of the following cities: New York City, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow, a city in South Vietnam, a city in North Vietnam, Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, or a random, isolated small town.

World's busiest cities on Netflix — BBC → GOOGLE: world map with population ::: world map with population density ::: world map points of interest

Under each of the location and possible resource situations above, what “time investments” would you enter in your calendar for the upcoming yearS?

Try adding different skin colors, ethnicities or tribal identities to the thinking exercise above

How would these calendar entries alter your situation as time and reality unfold?


Try searching this page for the word “aim

If you changed the starting point for this mental exercise to 1940, 1960, 1980, 2000, today or 2030, what would you change?

How would some ecological awareness be helpful?

How could you alter your calendar procedure to minimize the repeated rescheduling of important actions?

Taking the 77 Important Truths I've Learned About Life into account, how would they change what you put in your calendar? How can a person learn to see the difference between bull-shit artists and genuinely informed people?

See BrainroadS and image at the top of this page

Revisionist History: Saigon, 1965 ::: The Prime Minister and the Prof

Up to Poverty ::: The Vanishing East

Hong Kong & photography: 1910 vs. more recent ↓


Economic content & structure connected to “life in time” ↑ ↓ (larger ↓)

The Poverty of Economic Theory


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two


The Management Revolution ↑ ::: Developing countries


The Individual in Entrepreneurial Society

The End of Loyalty and IBM’s seniority mix fix

Managing Oneself overview — a revolution in human affairs

Now, most of us, even those of us with modest endowments, will have to learn to manage ourselves.

We will have to learn to develop ourselves.

Will have to place ourselves where we can make the greatest contribution.

And we will have to stay mentally alert and engaged during a 50-year working life, which means knowing how and when to change the work we do.

Managing Oneself is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.

It requires new and unprecedented things from the individual, and especially from the knowledge worker.

For in effect it demands that each knowledge worker think and behave as a Chief Executive Officer.

Further, the shift from manual workers who do as they are told — either by the task or the boss — to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves profoundly challenges social structure.

It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers' thoughts and actions from what most of us — even of the younger generation — still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.

Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations, and the knowledge worker has mobility.


What’s the focus of your diary? — Water logic?


“For almost nothing in our educational systems prepares people
for the reality in which they will live, work, and
become effective” — Druckerism and intellectual capitalist




Every social problem is an opportunity


Good intentions aren’t enough; define the results you want.


The number of non-profits and charitable organizations in this country has exploded in the past several years, but many of them get poor results, Drucker said, because “they don’t ask about results, and they don’t know what results they want in the first place.

They mean well and they have the best of intentions, but the only thing good intentions are for (as the maxim says) is to pave the road to hell.”

To achieve the best results, Drucker said people must ask the right questions and then partner with others who have the expertise, knowledge, and discipline to get the right results.


The Management Revolution ↑ ::: Post-capitalist executive


What need’s doing? ::: Aim high (#impact) ::: How to guarantee non-performance (#impact) ::: The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ever Ask About Your Nonprofit Organization ::: What Results Should You Expect? — A Users’ Guide to MBO ::: Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations ::: Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution ::: The Wisdom of Peter Drucker ::: Life 2.0 ::: Finishing Well ::: Allocating your life ::: Without an effective mission there will be no results ::: Managing Oneself ← a revolution in human affairs ::: Creating Tomorrow’s Society Of Citizens ::: Purposeful Innovation (try a page search for “purpose” in Innovation and Entrepreneurship)


The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades. (#impact)

The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened, the social transformations of the twentieth century.

Yet we will not even have a chance to resolve these new and looming problems of tomorrow unless we first address the challenges posed by the developments that are already accomplished facts, the developments reported in the earlier sections of this essay. ↓

Introduction to a A Century of Social Transformation ::: The Social Structure and Its Transformations ::: The Rise and Fall of the Blue-Collar Worker ::: The Rise of the Knowledge Worker ::: The Emerging Knowledge Society ::: How Knowledges Work ::: The Employee Society ::: What Is an Employee? ::: The Social Sector ::: Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity ::: School and Education as Society's Center (not the present system) ::: The Competitive Knowledge Economy ::: How Can Government Function? ::: Conclusion: The Priority Tasks — The Need for Social and Political Innovations


The Individual in Entrepreneurial Society


Citizenship through the social sector and subsequent topics …




Thoughts on knowledge productivity


“The knowledge we now consider knowledge proves itself in action.

What we mean by knowledge is information in action, information focused on results. …

These results are seen outside the person—in society and economy, or in the advancement of knowledge itself.” — Druckerism (#impact) #mbr




The productivity of knowledge requires
increasing the yield
from what is known

whether by the individual or by the group.


There is an old American story of the farmer
who turns down a proposal
for a more productive farming method
by saying, “I already know how to farm
twice as well as I do.”


Most of us (perhaps all of us)
know many times more than we put to use.


The main reason is that we
do not mobilize
the multiple knowledges
we possess

We do not use knowledges
as part of one toolbox.


Instead of asking:
What do I know,
what have I learned,
that might apply to this task?

we tend to classify tasks
in terms of specialized knowledge areas.


What needs doing? Here and here


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two


Again and again in working with executives
I find that a given challenge
in organizational structure, for instance, or in technology
yields to knowledge the executives already possess:

They may have acquired it, for instance, in an economics course at the university.”

Of course, I know that,” is the standard response,
“but it’s economics, not management.”


… This is a purely arbitrary distinction —
necessary perhaps
to learn and to teach
a “subject,”

but irrelevant as a definition

of what knowledge is

and what it can do


What’s your meta-system?

From knowledge to knowledges

Knowledge exists only in application

Knowledge and technology


The way we traditionally arrange our

businesses, government agencies, and universities

further encourages the tendency to believe that

the purpose of the tools is to adorn the toolbox

rather than to do work.


Peter Drucker: Social Ecologist


In learning and teaching, we do have to focus on the tool.


In usage, we have to focus on the end result, on the task, on the work.


“For almost nothing
in our educational systems
prepares people
for the reality
in which they will
live, work, and
become effective” —

Druckerism and intellectual capitalist


“The traditional notion in education
that information is sufficient
is old-fashioned and dangerous.”
Edward de BonoIntelligence ::: Information ::: Thinking

The Management Revolution ↑ ::: Post-capitalist executive

Global Peter Drucker Forum ::: Charles Handy → Starting small fires

Hofburg ↑ ↓


larger view one ::: two ::: three


Only connect was the constant admonition of a great English novelist, E.M. Forster.

Young people not knowing how to connect

It has always been the hallmark of the artist, but equally of the great scientist — of a Darwin, a Bohr, an Einstein.

At their level, the capacity to connect may be inborn and part of that mystery we call “genius.”

But to a large extent, the ability to connect and thus to raise the yield of existing knowledge (whether for an individual, for a team, or for the entire organization) is learnable.

Eventually, it should become teachable. continue


Knowledge and Research management

Knowledge economy and knowledge polity



“To make knowledge productive, we will have to learn to see both the forest and the tree. We will have to learn to connect.” — Druckerism

¶ ¶ ¶

“There is, of course, a place for academic intellectualizing and passive scholarship (which consists of repeating what others have repeated about still yet others) but that is only a small part of thinking—but valuable nevertheless.” EDB

¶ ¶ ¶

“There are risk and cost to a program of action, but they are far less than the long-range risk and cost of comfortable inaction.” — John F. Kennedy




Knowledge is always specialized.

The oboist in the London Philharmonic Orchestra has no ambition to become first violinist.

In the last 100 years only one instrumentalist, Toscanini, has become a conductor of the first rank.

Specialists remain specialists, becoming ever more skillful at interpreting the score.

Yet specialism carries dangers, too.

Truly knowledgeable people tend by themselves to overspecialize, because there is always so much more to know.

As part of the orchestra, that oboist alone does not make music.

He or she makes noise.

Only the orchestra playing a joint score makes music.

For both soloist and conductor, getting music from an orchestra means not only knowing the score, but learning how to manage knowledge.

And knowledge carries with it powerful responsibility, too.

In the past, the holders of knowledge have often used (abused) it to curb thinking and dissent, and to inculcate blind obedience to authority.

Knowledge and knowledge people have to assume their responsibilities.

So Organizations Must Do it Themselves

But there is another consideration.

For the first time in human history it really matters whether or not people learn.

When the Prince Regent asked Marshal Blücher if he found it a great disadvantage not to be able to read and write, the man who won the battle of Waterloo for Wellington replied: "Your Royal Highness, that is what I have a chaplain for."

Until 1914 most people could do perfectly well without such accomplishments.

Now, however, learning matters — and not just for school.

The knowledge society requires that all its members be literate, not just in reading, writing, and arithmetic, but also in (for example) basic computer skills and political, social, and historical systems.

And because of the vastly expanding corpus of knowledge, it also requires that its members learn how to learn. (performance learning)

There will—and should—be serious discussion of the social purpose of school education in the context of the knowledge society.

That will certainly help to change the schools.

In the meantime, however, the most urgent learning and training must reach out to the adults.

Thus, the focus of learning will shift from schools to employers.

Every employing institution will have to become a teacher.

Large numbers of American and Japanese employers and some Europeans already recognize this.

But what kind of learning?

In the orchestra the score tells the employees what to do; all orchestra playing is team playing.

In the information-based business, what is the equivalent of this reciprocal learning and teaching process?

One way of educating people to a view of the whole, of course, is through work in cross-functional task forces.

But to what extent do we rotate specialists out of their specialties and into new ones?

And who will the managers, particularly top managers, of the information-based organization be?

Brilliant oboists, or people who have been in enough positions to be able to understand the team, or even young conductors from smaller orchestras?

We do not yet know.

Above all, how do we make this terribly expensive knowledge, this new capital, productive?

The world's largest bank reports that it has invested $1.5 billion in information and communications systems.

Banks are now more capital intensive than the biggest manufacturing company.

So are hospitals.

Only 50 years ago a hospital consisted of a bed and a sister.

Today a fair-sized U.S. hospital of 400 beds has several hundred attending physicians and a staff of up to 1,500 paramedics divided among some 60 specialities, with specialized equipment and labs to match.

None, or very few, of these specialisms even existed 50 years ago.

But we do not yet know how to get productivity out of them; we do not yet know in this context what productivity means.

In knowledge-intensive areas we are pretty much where we were in manufacturing in the early nineteenth century.

When Robert Owen built his cotton mills in Scotland in the 1820s, he tried to measure their productivity.

He never managed it.

It took 50 more years until productivity as we understand it could be satisfactorily defined.

We are currently at about the Robert Owen stage in relation to the new organizations.

We are beginning to ask about productivity, output, and performance in relation to knowledge.

We cannot measure it.

We cannot yet even judge it, although we do have an idea of some of the things that are needed.

How, for instance, do famous conductors build a first-rate orchestra?

They tell me that the first job is to get the clarinetist to keep on improving as a clarinetist.

She or he must have pride in the instrument.

The players must be craftsmen first.

The second task is to create in the individuals a pride in their common enterprise, the orchestra: "I play for Cleveland, or Chicago, or the London Philharmonic, and that is one of the best orchestras in the world."

Third, and this is what distinguishes a competent conductor from a great one, is to get the orchestra to hear and play that Haydn symphony in exactly the way the conductor hears it.

In other words, there must be a clear vision at the top.

This orchestra focus is the model for the leader of any knowledge-based organization.

"For the first time in human history, individuals can expect to outlive organizations.

This creates a totally new challenge: What to do with the second half of one's life?"

— Peter Drucker




There is a site breadcrumb trail ↓ near the bottom of this page




Each “thought-fragment” ↓ on a board ↓ could be a brain-address
along one of many brainroadS. A brain-address-book is needed
for conducting appropriate reviews …

Trying to SEE





Economic content and structure snapshot
Thoughtscape ::: Larger image view

Destabilization is in full swing



In a growing economy ↑, things should get easier — right?



“The stepladder is gone, and
there’s not even the implied structure
of an industry’s rope ladder.

It’s more like vines …


and you bring your own machete.

You don’t know
what you’ll be doing next


He’s ↑ trying to see & figure out ↓ what needs doing next

sit-combo-pict-340w = real life adventures + exploration ↑ ↓

Your thinking, choices, decisions are determined by what you have seen ↑ ↓

“Seeing” ↑ ↓ precedes Doing

“Looking” comes before “Seeing”

The people who will largely shape an individual’s future
are aware — if only subconsciously — of that individual’s
worldview breadth and realism


Beware of the David Allen’s GTD model (getting things done)
The things that 99.7% of people get done
don’t adequately deal with the challenges of
navigating a world continuing to move toward unimagined futureS.
What needs doing? continue


Arrogance, apathy, complacency


Peter Drucker → The Über Mentor → Top of the food chain ↓

A political/social ecologist
A uniquely constructive and dominant worldview.
Different from disciplines and education system “courses.”
Beware of working with invalid assumptions (here).

Business Week: Drucker — the man who invented management

drucker business week

The Dangers of American Complacency

Arrogance, apathy, complacency


… but the only thing that is “new” about political ecology is the name.

As a subject matter and human concern, it can boast ancient lineage, going back all the way to Herodotus and Thucydides.

It counts among its practitioners such eminent names as de Tocqueville and Walter Bagehot.

Its charter is Aristotle’s famous definition of man as “zoon politikon,” that is, social and political animal.

As Aristotle knew (though many who quote him do not), this implies that society, polity, and economy though man’s creations, are nature to man, who cannot be understood apart from and out of them.

It also implies that society, polity and economy are a genuine environment, a genuine whole, a true “system,” to use the fashionable term, in which everything relates to everything else and in which men, ideas, institutions, and actions must always be seen together in order to be seen at all, let alone to be understood. continue




Managing Oneself — a revolution in human affairs —
an “earlier” site beginning point.


Now, most of us, even those of us with modest endowments, will have to learn to manage ourselves.

We will have to learn to develop ourselves here .


Will have to place ourselves where we can make the greatest contribution.


And we will have to stay mentally alert and engaged during a 50-year working life, which means knowing how and when to change the work we do continue or overview PDF .




Why America’s Richest Cities Are Pulling Away From All the Others
(What are the implications for them and the rest?)



The road ahead … ↑ going where no one has gone before ↑ ↓

We are all born into changing worldS
at different points in time
and different situationSsituation examples.

These situations frequently become life-long mental prisons
without awareness

Very, very, very frequently this ↑ is not seen before
an unpredictable, life-altering major change
or discontinuity takes place.


This complex reality ↑ is reflected in
the non-linear jumble of topics here ↑ ↓


To have a chance to deal with these realities
a pre-thought work approach is needed: the calendarization
of informed horizons to work toward ↓

This work approach has to extend beyond a current job or employer


The calendarization includes
concept   seeing & noting,

harvesting and action thinking — explored further down the page.


Seeing the non-linearity of time, the systems or
ecologies within which we are embedded and
the way-points you need to navigate during your
evolving horizons is very challenging … Attention


The Black Cylinder Experiment

Part of this challenge can be visualized by conducting a page search for
never, nothing, perception, role, impact, knowledge, information, innovation, leader,
marketing, management or #mbr (management brainroad), city, cities …


One way to digest the thought fragments on this page
is to visualize them along a timeline ↓

Life lines ↓

life lines

Just go out and make YOURSELF usefulDruckerism

career time view ↓

career time view

The concepts on the career time view illustration ↑ can be found by a page search




This site is not for you if you think tomorrow
is going to be an extrapolation of yesterday and
that some organization or politician is going to take care of you — despite
all the evidence to the contrary.

If you’re convinced that your daily work routines or
some organization change program is a safety net,
then this site is not for you.

If you naïvely believe that the
conversation and thinking that takes place behind closed doors (#wgobcd)
revolve around making your fantasies or passions come true,
then this site is not for you.

These ↑ notions essentially sabotage
the future of society and future generations.

If you accept that it’s your own responsibility
to work on your development and not depend
on any one company, maybe this site ( can help you
see your basic options or horizons continue


You can’t design your life around a temporary organization



How could you calendarize the concepts ↑ ↓ on this page?

The secret office


larger version ↑ ::: Realities ::: The outer limit of your concern? ↑

We have no idea what’s coming next — other than it will be dramatically different — and

there is no way to know. There is no way to know what goes on behind closed doorS (#wgobcd) or

predict “Titanic type events” that sink rich and poor alike …


There are no permanent answers here or anywhere else ↓


The future is unpredictable and that implies it ain’t gonna be like today … And
with age and time we may become different people
in different situations


… And yet we can only work on, with and toward the ideaS ↓ on our mental radarS

at a point in time ↑ (see the images on this page)connection

The lack of competing patterns ↓ — the perennial danger

He’s ↓ trying to decide on the next effective action


Each clue ↑ ↓ could be called a “brain-address” and thought fragment

@Pew Research Center ::: @Project Syndicate ::: @TheEconomist ::: @FT ::: The Long Shadow of WW I

The blue hat+ is needed ↑

The return on luck ↑ ↓ requires action (calendarize this?)

Successful careers ↑ are not planned ↓




2 additional concepts that express the same ideas as the page title

or mental tools for working & living through time ↑ It ain’t always convenient …

@Pew Research Center ::: @Project Syndicate ::: @TheEconomist ::: @FT ::: The Long Shadow of WW I

or Navigating unimagined horizonS ↓ and their opportunitieS




“The world ain’t what it seems … The moment
you think you’ve got it figured out you’re wrong.”



“To know something,
to really understand something important,
one must look at it from sixteen different angles.

People are perceptually slow,
and there is no shortcut to understanding;
it takes a great deal of time.” read more


“Perception is how we look at the world, what things we take into account, how we structure the world.” continue

”It now seems very likely that perception works as a “self-organizing information system” (see The Mechanism of Mind, Penguin, 1976, I Am Right You Are Wrong, Penguin, 1992).

Such systems allow the sequence in which information arrives to set up patterns.

Our thinking then remains trapped within these patterns.

So we need some ways of broadening perception and of changing perception (creativity).” continue




The navigation challenge ↑: to grow,
to change, and to age
becoming a prisoner of the past


Circa 1960 … “Indeed anyone over forty lives in a different world
from that in which he came to manhood,
lives as if he had emigrated, fully grown,
to a new and strange country.” continue


The closed doors (#wgobcd) ↑ may not even be obvious — China’s One Belt, One Road: Will it
reshape global trade? continue


Successful careerS ↓ are not planned continue


Unimagined futureSfor many people


Many of these organizations ↑ were not initially resource strapped — at one time they may have had plenty of financial resources and they didn’t lack people with substantial reputations, high educational credentials (Nobel laureates, Ph.Ds, MBAs), high IQs, high performance ratings or long experience, facilities or the popular activities (“marketing”, “innovation efforts”, “strategic planning”, “quality” efforts, employee and management “development”) Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance?

What changed their fortunes? What were their reactions? How mentally prepared were they?


Picture technology: larger view

There can’t be reached from heretomorrowS can’t be reached from yesterdayS
— at least not directly …

The concepts and patterns implied in the illustration above ↑ can be used
for testing the snake oil that floods through the Internet.

Of the 500 companies that started the Standard & Poor’s index,
85% failed to survive forty years –
less than the working life of the people in them –
and these figures pre-date the 2007/8 crisis.
Only one of the original 500 remains.
In Europe, the average life expectancy of a company
is currently around 12.5 years. continue

So when you lose your current source of income ↑
how many top of the food chain organizations (here and here)
will be clamoring to get you?
Why would they be interested in you?
What do you have that they want?

All one can do is strive to have a prepared mind ↓ that doesn’t extrapolate the past …

… and nobody is going to do it for you — quite the opposite!



This page is a top-of-the-food-chain exploration path
for collecting navigation building blocks below

These building blocks are essentially thought fragments and “brain-addresses”

horizons to work toward and those to steer away from

It is your job to connect these fragments in ways
that are genuinely useful to you over the long-term …

Look ↓ → north, south, east, west and note what you see ↓ continue

(calendarize this ↑?)



Political ecologists
believe that the traditional disciplines define fairly narrow
and limited tools rather than meaningful and self-contained
areas of knowledge, action, and events

Peter Drucker ::: The Über Mentor



A quick page scroll provides a preview of this page’s breadth



Navigating can only be undertaken
with what’s on each individual’s mental radar (explore ↓)
at a point ↓ in time
↓ → about time


Danger: yesterday’s mental patterns

“No two persons ever read the same book.” — Edmund Wilson

“Truth ↑ is a particular constellation of circumstances ↑ with a particular outcome ↑” continue

“The actual results of action are not predictable ↓ ” continue

Areas of change ↑ = opportunity continue


Knowledge → ← research management and technologies outside one’s field of vision at a point in time are two examples of point-in-time dependance

Organization as a community destabilizer at a point-in-time is another example

Windows of opportunity

Connect, only connect

These examples of ↑ areas of change are dynamic rather than static. They produce continuing sets of new realities and new options ↓ …

Four forces are upending everything you thought you knew | McKinsey Global Institute

New Maps, New Media and a New Human Condition — Knowledge@Wharton

Summer’s Unhappy Returns by Project Syndicate — Project Syndicate

Why China’s Cities Will Drive Global Growth by Chang Ka Mun and Jaana Remes — Project Syndicate

The Economic Trend Is Our Friend — Project Syndicate

Experimental Capitalism by Haydn Shaughnessy (fortune favors the bold)

Google: disruptive

“Shipping: The struggle to stay afloat

Last month (August 2016) Hanjin Shipping, one of the world’s largest shipping-container firms, filed for bankruptcy protection.

Around the world, 66 of its ships, loaded with $14.5 billion of goods, were left stranded at sea.

Ports refused to let the vessels dock because the line had no money to pay unloading fees.

Companies that move their goods around by sea are worried that other container lines will soon follow, writes our online business editor” continue



What’s needed to make that navigation effective?

First of all, taking more responsibility for oneself and not depending on any one company continue

This implies that you can’t depend on any of society’s organizations, but all of them aren’t going to simultaneously vaporize — some will crystalize and die a slow death, some will transmute themselves, some will die a sudden death and there will be new ones that survive the startup process … continue


“Making a living is no longer enough,” wrote management guru Peter Drucker. “Work also has to make a life.” (calendarize this?)

If you want to keep good people, their work needs to provide them with meaning — a sense they are doing something important, that they are fulfilling their destiny.

At the end of the day, these psychological needs are likely to be as important, and perhaps more important, than the salary you pay. source

Effective navigation requires choosing one’s horizons very wiselyexperts speak :(


“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
Druckerism (calendarize this?)



“History’s great achievers — a Napoleon, a da Vinci, a Mozart have always managed themselves.

That, in large measure, is what makes them great achievers.

But they are rare exceptions, so unusual both in their talents and their accomplishments as to be considered outside the boundaries of ordinary human existence.

Now, most of us, even those of us with modest endowments, will have to learn to manage ourselves.


We will have to learn to develop ourselves.


Will have to place ourselves where we can make the greatest contribution. see about “time”


And we will have to stay mentally alert and engaged during a 50-year working life, which means knowing how and when to change the work we do.” more on managing oneself


Power is a reality ::: How can the individual survive?



Caution: the knowledge areas (fiefdoms) contained within the education system do not control reality continue



Fortune favors the prepared mind ↓


@Pew Research Center ::: @Project Syndicate ::: @TheEconomist ::: @FT ::: The Long Shadow of WW I

Peter Drucker (a social ecologist) → he liberated me

Drucker: The Man Who Invented the Corporate Society


“I (Drucker) am not a ‘theoretician’; through my consulting practice I am in daily touch with the concrete opportunities and problems of a fairly large number of institutions, foremost among them businesses but also hospitals, government agencies and public-service institutions such as museums and universities.

And I am working with such institutions on several continents: North America, including Canada and Mexico; Latin America; Europe; Japan and South East Asia.” — PFD




The 500+ pages on are attention directing tools for navigating a world moving toward unimagined futureS.

It’s up to the reader — the explorer — to figure out what to harvest and calendarize

Calendarization means working something out in time (1915, 1940, 1970 … 2040 … the outer limit of a person’s concern) — nobody is going to do it for them.

A foundation + you can’t build a life around a temporary organization

It may be a step forward to actively reject something (rather than just passively ignoring) and then figure out a coping plan for what has been rejected.

The reader’s future is between their ears and our future is between our collective ears — it can’t be otherwise.




The apparently unperceived constant reality


We are surrounded by previously unimagined futureS ↑ ↓

We may also be embedded in previously unimagined futures

Nobody and I mean nobody, foresaw today’s world just
a few years ago and nobody
knows what tomorrowS will bring …

… except it won’t be like today

You can easily test this assertion ↑ by looking back in time …

Examples ↑ can be seen in the daily news …
Twitter: @TheEconomist @FT @ProSyn @mckinsey
@whartonknows @pewresearch @GallupNews

So don’t get surprised by the next sudden discontinuity
in your strategic situationS
. examples


Try to maintain an informed ↑ proactive work approach
It ain’t easy …
in fact, it is very, very difficult


The alternative ↑ to a proactive approach
is waiting to fail before
exploring new and different horizons


And how and where will younger generations
gain exposure to a comparable thoughtscape ↓ ↑ —
the education system? NOT, at work? NOT, or from a narrow focus consultant? NOT

Will they be left behind in the shift to knowledge work? PCS

Will they inherit a world in stagnation and not see ↓ what to do? PCS


“Vienna in 1909 was widely recognized as the intellectual hub of Europe, if not the world.

And Peter’s parents, Caroline and Adolph, a top trade official for the Austro-Hungarian Empire, traveled easily among the elites of the day.

Indeed, their home on Kaasgrabengasse, a quiet avenue in the Viennese neighborhood of Döbling, embodied the tradition of the European salon society.

Two or three times a week his parents hosted gatherings of state officials, doctors, scientists, musicians, and writers to discuss a remarkably wide range of topics.

Peter, who would become a true polymath, soaked in all of it.

¶ ¶ ¶

Among his parents contemporaries was Sigmund Freud, who became known as the “father of psychoanalysis.”

Peter was eight years old when he first met Freud and recalled what his father told him later that afternoon: “Remember, today you have just met the most important man in Austria and perhaps in Europe.”

Ironically, Peter would go on to be celebrated as the “father of modem management,” a title that held little interest or fondness for him.” continue



Navigating requires finding “horizons” or “destinations”
and “way-points” to work toward ↓
… but how can this be done in a world moving toward
repeated unimagined futureS? more examples


It is impossible to work on “things” ↑
that aren’t on your mental radar ↓

↑ is an over-simplification — it should mention START ↓ to work

Those “things” ↑ don’t fit into one familiar, remotely-neat, integrated tool kit ↓
… but everything here ↑ ↓ is intertwined …

Reading is only the first step in navigating
calendarizationworking something out in timeis essential

Your mental radar needs to contain top-of-the-food-chain ideas
that don’t make you a prisoner of the past

Druckerisms are brain-addresses

currently ↓ individually ↓ and collectively ↓ → Awareness


Site scope
This site contains over 500 web pages ↑ and thousands of topics

Fortune favors the prepared mind” continue

Once you see something you can’t unsee it




Just reading is not enough …

Concepts have to be converted into daily action

book harvesting


Harvesting and action thinking are needed

Managing oneself should be the action foundation

You can select and note areas of interest. You can employ what does this mean for me? (illustration) with the PMI, dense reading and dense listening plus thinking broad and thinking detailed with operacy to see where that takes you. The potential effectiveness of our thinking depends on our existing mental landscape → see experts speak. What’s the next effective action?


Concept acquisition → action conversion → click image ↓


harvest and implement

When we are involved in doing something, it is very difficult
to look outside that involvement — even when our future depends on it.
Additionally, everything eventually outlives its usefulness continue


And now for the rest of the story


Being prepared for what comes next

The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures

Coach ::: Pre-thought Playbook ::: Pre-thought Playsheet





This page and its links contain thought fragments that can be added to your life evidence wall ↓, thoughtscape and timescape ↓


↑ Translated into an action system for building YOUR life


A quick page scroll provides a preview of the breadth involved …

As you are looking at the thought fragments on this page and site, don't memorize → instead calendarize. Use these though fragments as a tool to redirect your attention from your current routines to possible horizons and action constellations to work toward. Liberate yourself → Don’t be a prisoner of the past …

You can only work on, with, and toward ↑ the things on your mental radar at a point in time ↓. This means you need an individual work approach and approach to work. Briefly this entails: mental exploration ↑ ↓; selection and noting; time scheduling; reviewing; doing; expectation recording; feedback; and monitoring change … The ideas and realities of on, with, and toward ↑ need to be fully perceived — time and place dependence — for any of this to be individually useful …


Just reading ↑ ↓ is not enough,
harvesting and action thinking are needed


Tom Peters ↑


YouTube: Francis Coppola's Notebook on 'The Godfather'
::: Book content (1) (2) to Scrivener… to MarginNote ::: LiquidText



Aim high (#impact) ↑ ↓ Parallel thinking

The Wisdom of Peter Drucker

Life 2.0

Finishing Well


Horizon evolution work ↓


If every stage ↑ results in organization resource increases
then the next stage can move more quickly, but
innovation in the existing organization requires special effort


↓ collected, effective thought fragments provide building blocks ↑ ↓ ::: project plan ↓

The Wisdom of Peter Drucker

Life 2.0

Finishing Well

“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
Druckerism (calendarize this?)

Action system


Larger view

Time spans


back to top

Successful careerS are not planned continue


“Decision making is a time machine

that synchronizes into a single time — the present
a great number of divergent time spans.

We are learning this only now.

Our approach still tends toward making plans for something
we will decide to do in the future,
which may be entertaining but is futile.

We can make decisions only in the present,
and yet we cannot make decisions for the present alone;
the most expedient, most opportunistic decision—let alone
the decision not to decide at all—
may commit us for a long time,
if not permanently and irrevocably.” — Chapter 11, MRE by PFD

Search this page for the word “decision”




Kitchen utensils metaphor: Our kitchens typically contain utensils and devices that make possible or assist us in what we are attempting. Once a person SEES the device or utensil’s function, they can use it when it’s appropriate — at the right time and in the right sequence. The same applies to thought fragments ↑ ↓. What happens when you add recipe books, websites, or tv shows to the cook’s arsenal?

Chess metaphor: Situation review → Consider alternative available moves → Make your move(s) → Evaluate new situation → Others respond → Repeat loop

Imagine this ↑ taking place in multiple parallel conceptual spaces

How can you connect the intersections between a concept or thought fragment and a point in time (needs doing)?




The “memo” ↓
THEY don’t want you to see

THEY ↑ are the simpleton ideologues plus the political
and organization power structures …
THEY act as if tomorrowS are going to be like yesterdayS — they
direct efforts toward problems not opportunities.

THEY don’t want you to be able to circumvent them.

THEY want you depending on them — it makes them feel “important.”

THEY “want” you to be a prisoner of yesterday — just like they are …

THEIR approach effectively sabotages themselves (if they get caught),
THEIR communities, THEIR colleagues and the future of society

Don’t be their victim …





“People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete—the things that should have worked but did not, the things that once were productive and no longer are.” ― more on abandonment

Organization efforts ::: Opportunities




WIP: This “subject” is a complex and evolving timescape → As you are exploring this page and its linked pages try to develop a mental model — a work approach and approach to work — that is adequate to your realistic needs — which includes how you touch others and how will you remember and revisit what you’ve seen before the next crisis?




TomorrowS … you can’t get there directly from here ↓
… so you can’t get there by piling up more todayS — even
by making some adjustments.
The challenge is to “go where no one has gone before”  


Time usage is the central navigation challengeabout time

Clue ↑: if you keep doing what worked in the past you’e going to fail — think about it …

Allocating your life is a related dimension …

Everything here concerns time investing and time investments …


Freedom is the heaviest burden
laid on man … about freedom


Information is not enough … thinking is needed




“If you know the road, life is easier. If you can see the road, life is easier. If you can discover new roads, life is richer. If you know you have a choice of roadS, life is richer.” … more wisdom

To know and not do is to not yet know

Having alternative mental landscapes is a very good !!! thing … essential competing patterns

Edward de Bono’s thoughtscape

Larger view of thinking principles ↓ Text version ↓ :::
Always be constructiveWhat additional thinking is needed?


“One can … never be sure
what the knowledge worker thinks—and yet
THINKING !!! is her/his specific work;
it is his/her “doing.””

When does a person possess a broad enough mental landscape
to effectively work on the challenges confronting them? ↓ ↓ ↓


Dealing with risk and uncertainty ↑ ↓


Reality check

People at each of these organizations ↑ ↓ think they are doing fine. They
act — mis-act — on this assumption …


Picture technology: larger view

“Corporations once built to last like pyramids
are now more like tents.

Tomorrow they’re gone or in turmoil.”

HP 10+ years later

Only The Paranoid Survive

Sur/petition: Going beyond competition —
Creating Value Monopolies
When Everyone Else is Merely Competing

The Theory of the Business

There ↓ can’t be reached from heretomorrowS can’t be reached from yesterdayS
— at least not directly …

Evolution of sound players ↓



From Inside-Out to Outside-In worldview#mbr


“The failure to understand
the nature, function, and purpose
of business enterprise”
Chapter 9, Management Revised Edition


“The customer never buys ↑ what you think you sell.
And you don’t know it.

That’s why it’s so difficult to differentiate yourself.” Druckerism


“People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete
the things that should have worked but did not,
the things that once were productive and no longer are.” Druckerism


Conditions for survival


Going outside


Making the future — a chance for survival

Successful careerS are not planned ↑ continue

The life span ↑ of successful companies has been shrinking steadily … victims of success

How to guarantee non-performance ::: What results should you expect?

McKinsey & Company (Global management consultants) on
the disappointing realities of change programs and learning / training

“We need a new concept of information and
a new understanding of learning and teaching.” — Peter Drucker

Chaotics: The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of Turbulence

What Matters Now: How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious
Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation
by Gary Hamel

When consultants and other advice givers ↑ do their thing,
there is a foundational assumption that the object of their focus can be tweaked
so as to last forever — disco, station wagons …
In other words they are trying to predict what is unpredictable.

Successful careerS are not planned ↓ continue

Five stages of decline ↓


… By now everybody at General Motors knows that these are the crucial problems. And yet General Motors does not seem able to resolve them. Instead General Motors has tried to sidestep them by the old — and always unsuccessful — attempt to “diversify.” Acting on the oldest delusion of managements: “if you can’t run your own business buy one of which you know nothing,” General Motors has bought first Electronic Data Systems and then Hughes Aircraft. Predictably this will not solve General Motors’s problems. Only becoming again a truly effective automobile manufacturer can do that. — The Concept of the Corporation


The theory of the business et. al.


The spirit of performance




Taking careerS responsibility in a world repeatedly moving toward unimagined futureS — continuing radical changes in the world of work ↑ ↓ and the world of employers ↑ (it’s all around you already)

Stuck in a rut



larger version

This responsibility ↑ includes: (a foundation of awareness ::: the right kind of education ::: a valuable, mobile knowledge specialty (a knowledge specialty applicable to a specific application where they need you more than you need them) ::: self-knowledge ::: finding meaningful work that builds on your strengths and values ::: self-placement ::: contribution thinking and doing ::: self-development ::: evolving aspirations that aim high (#impact) ::: not depending on any one organization ::: becoming and remaining mobile (what do — or will — you have that others want? and why would they be interested in you?) ::: the second half of your life + ? the main career evolution exploration path

For knowledge workers, How do I perform? may be an even more important question than What are my strengths?


“You must take integrating responsibility for putting yourself into the big picture.” Pluralism


Knowledge Work As A System — orthopedic surgeons


Where do MBAs fit in a knowledge organization? continue

The most successful of the young entrepreneurs today are people who have spent five to eight years in a big organization … The ones without that background are the entrepreneurs who, no matter how great their success, are being pushed out continue


The Educated Personhtml or PDF


Young people not knowing how to connect their knowledgeDrucker on Asia


No matter how much money you’re making you may still be a passenger on a Titanic. Try to keep an eye on external conditions and maintain an realistic, effective escape strategy and plan. (calendarize this?)


Make a difference

If you went to the mall or a major service provider and looked at the offerings → Which ones really make a difference? For whom? Under what circumstances?

Pretend that this thinking exercise ↑ was conducted at different points in time → What would you see?


Try to mentally arrange the elements ↑ above so they lead you …


larger view


A structural view ↑ ↓


larger view


The executive and the knowledge worker have only one toolinformation

Quantification for most of the phenomena in a social ecology is misleading or at best useless continue



Don’t tell anyone they can be anything they want ↓


“Most human beings excel at one thing at most, and not very many excel even at one.

And very few people excel at more than one.

And I don’t think you’ll find anybody who excels at three.” — PFD


Apply this ↑ observation to
Managing Oneself and Post-capitalist executive




“It’s up to you to keep yourself engaged & productive
during a work life that may span some 50 years.” Druckerism


… But in our knowledge economy, says Drucker, “if you haven’t learned how to learn, you’ll have a hard time.

Knowing how to learn is partly curiosity.

But it’s also a discipline.”


He’s talking about learning for life — rather than schools, grading etc.
Is that learning to do what the life situation needs?




Warning: the corporate-ladder is a dying concept — think symphony orchestra and taking on one assignment after the other.


Managing the boss is an essential career skill.


Promotions don’t automatically confer new magical capability continue



Leaders and leadershipbeware of snake-oil sales pitches

… “And another thing, they know how to say no.

The pressure on leaders to do 984 different things is unbearable, so the effective ones learn how to say no and stick with it.

They don’t suffocate themselves as a result.

Too many leaders try to do a little bit of 25 things and get nothing done.

They are very popular because they always say yes.

But they get nothing done.” (calendarize this?)



In my job there isn't much challenge, not enough achievement, not enough responsibility; and there is no mission, there is only expediency

Today, the great majority of Americans live in big cities and their suburbs.

They have moved away from their moorings, but they still need a community.

And it is working as unpaid staff for a non-profit institution that gives people a sense of community, gives purpose, gives directioncontinue


Beware of good intentions


Successful people in Holland ↓


Successful careerS ↑ are not planned ↓

They develop when people
are prepared for opportunities
because they know
their strengths, their method of work, and their values ↓
back to the top

Being prepared for opportunities


This is who I am ::: The new job

(Attention, dissect, harvest, calendarize these ↑?)

Traditional career paths are an endangered species and
all career paths will lead toward unimagined futureS — continued below

This ↑ takes place within the dynamics of a changing world


This thoughtscape ↑ ↓ is not about looking for or doing jobs.
It is about continuously looking for YOUR future liveS
and own person — a moving target.

Our natural mental foundation in life is that of a baby, a teenager,
a beginner, an imitator of numerous other ordinary people …
with no exposure toward top-of-the-food-chain vision and thinking.

The best time (remember time usage?)
to work on creating your futureS is when you don’t need to —
when there isn’t a serious cloud in the sky — like now.
Nobody is going to do it for you … Josh Abrams stages ++

What do you want to be remembered for?

First, one has to ask oneself what one wants to be remembered for.
Second, that should change. It should change both with one's own maturity
and with changes in the world.
Finally, one thing worth being remembered for
is the difference one makes in the lives of people.
"None of my books or ideas mean anything to me in the long run.
What are theories? Nothing. The only thing that matters is how you touch people.
Have I given anyone insight? That's what I want to have done.
Insight lasts; theories don't. And even insight decays into small details,
which is how it should be. A few details that have meaning in one's life are important."
A tribute to Peter Drucker by Rick Warren

What Got You Here Won't Get You There

Mojo: How to Get It, How to Keep It, How to Get It Back if You Lose It

Richard Hackborn: The Man Behind the Curtain in the Hewlett-Compaq Merger

From an overall viewpoint this thoughtscape ↑ ↓
is about the future of society
If capable people just keep on doing
what they are currently doing
there will be stagnation or worse → road ahead PCS



The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons

Deciding ↑ where to jump next ↓ — there
are no guaranteed safe landing spots … and
that’s why you need to be mobile
Why great companies fail

Ice flows ↓


Nine groups larger view


Money ↑ knows no fatherland ↑ Nor does information … An economic
landscape and timescape → content and structure of the economy

FULL UP: there is no vacuum, there are no gaps.
Time, space and resources are all committed continue

Knowledge system view ↑ ↓ (image only)



The terms knowledge industries, knowledge work and knowledge worker
are nearly fifty years old. (#impact)

They were coined around 1960, simultaneously but independently—
the first by a Princeton economist, Fritz Machlup,
the second and third by this writer.

Now everyone uses them, but as yet hardly anyone
understands their implications
for human values and human behavior,
for managing people and making them productive,
for economics, and for politics.


What is already clear, however, is that the emerging knowledge society
and knowledge economy will be radically different
from the society and economy of the late twentieth century.
Chapter 4, Management, Revised Edition




This is far more than a social change. It is
a change in the human condition. continue


The Emerging Knowledge Society

… “For the major new insights in every one
of the specialized knowledges arise out of another,
separate specialty, out of another one of the knowledges.

Both economics and meteorology are being transformed
at present by the new mathematics of chaos theory.
Geology is being profoundly changed by the physics of matter;
archaeology, by the genetics of DNA typing;
history, by psychological, statistical, and technological analyses
and techniques.” Chapter 48, Management, Revised Edition

How Knowledges Work

The Employee Society

What Is an Employee?

The Social Sector

Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity

School and Education as Society’s Center
(not the present system)

The Competitive Knowledge Economy

How Can Government Function?

Conclusion: The Priority Tasks — The Need for
Social and Political Innovations

The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing
social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades.

The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still
than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened,
the social transformations of the twentieth century.




Knowledge exists only in application


Peter observed that we are now in another critical moment:
the transition from the industrial to the knowledge-based economy
We should expect radical changes in society
as well as in business.
“We haven’t seen all those changes yet,” he added.
Even the very products we buy will change drastically. …
He spent the better part of the next two hours defining and pulling this idea apart
(the application of knowledge to knowledge): the importance of
accessing, interpreting, connecting, and translating knowledge” …  more

Political map and knowledge connections ↓


How Baby Boomers Broke America

A Princeton sociologist spent 8 years asking rural Americans why they're so pissed off

The 9.9 Percent Is the New American Aristocracy


3 kinds of intelligence and 9 action behaviors ↑ ↓ ← Niccolò Machiavelli ↑ ↓


Harvesting and implementing larger view ↑ ::: TEC-PISCO

Thought collector and harvested action items

It is impossible to work on things that aren't on your mental radar

The Wisdom of Peter Drucker

Life 2.0

Finishing Well

“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
Druckerism (calendarize this?)

Concentration—that is, the courage to impose on time and events
[one’s] own decision as to what really matters and comes first—is
the executive’s only hope of becoming the master
of time and events instead of their whipping boy.” PFD


Big picture connected to project work view

dense reading and dense listening plus thinking broad and thinking detailed

Six Thinking Hats ↓ ::: Teach Yourself to Think ↓ ::: Why?

Thinking canvases are needed

Aim high ↑ ↓ Parallel thinking ::: “Begin with an end in mind — in sight”

Executive responsibilities: decisions → that lead to real change

Operacy — the thinking that goes into doing

Water logic vs. rock logic

“The actual results of action are not predictable ” continue


Project work larger view

Constant vigilance is required to prevent oneself from being mentally blind to the changes taking place around them while they are busy encapsulated within their own mental involvements (calendarize this?)


In the real world → levels of work and impact can be perceived:

The invisible hand


The designing network

The shaping network

The doing networks

Professional football

College football

High school football


“Follow effective action with quiet reflection. (#impact) #mbr

From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action.” — Peter Drucker




It’s not just that the world has changed.
It is that the way the world ↓ functions ↓ has changed !

… but it is happening at different times and speed in different places

ExampleSthe manager and the moron ↑ ↓
Knowledge not economic ::: Information economics

Next? Return to top or Knowledge economy +++ ↑ or Far-east cities




Unimagined FutureS ↑ ↓ (#impact)
Post Capitalist Society PCS ::: a thoughtscape


A Century of Social Transformation — Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity !!! ↑


The shift from manual workers


“Every few hundred years in Western history there occurs a sharp transformation.

We cross what in an earlier book, I called a “divide.”

The New Realities—1989.

Within a few short decades, society rearranges itself
its worldview; its basic values; its social and political structure; its arts; its key institutions.

Fifty years later, there is a new world.

And the people born then cannot even imagine the world in which their grandparents lived and into which their own parents were born.

awareness ↑ ↓

… and at that time ↓, unimagined futureS seemed unthinkable …
because tomorrow is always going to be like yesterday … right?

Downton Abbey


back to top

Who would imagine the British Empire and social system ↑ unraveling? …
And then almost a century later the withdrawal from the EU (brexit)

Successful careerS are not planned continue

On June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand ↓ of Austria was assassinated.

This lead to WW I and the punitive treaty at its conclusion
which lead to Hitler and WW II, which lead to
the awakening of a sleeping giant (the U.S.), which lead to Japan’s ascendance
as a global economic power and
then to the rise of South Korea, Singapore, and the overseas Chinese …

Long Shadow


… and at that time ↓, unimagined futureS seemed unthinkable …


… and at that time ↓, unimagined futureS seemed unthinkable …


… and at that time ↓, unimagined futureS seemed unthinkable …

Early TV or early television


Will this ↑ be the last unimagined change in the sequence portrayed above?
If not, when will unimagined change come to a halt?

Yahoo! — an organization odyssey



We are currently living through just such a transformation.

It is creating the post-capitalist society,
which is the subject of this book.

... snip, snip ...

A Century of Social Transformation —
Emergence of Knowledge Society

... snip, snip ...

Our period, two hundred years later, is such a period of transformation.

This time it is not, however, confined to Western society and Western history.

Indeed, it is one of the fundamental changes that there no longer is a “Western” history or, in fact, a “Western” civilization.

There is only world history and world civilization—but both are “Westernized.” see images below

... snip, snip ...

The Vanishing East

... snip, snip ...

The one thing we can be sure of is that the world that will emerge from the present rearrangement of values, beliefs, social and economic structures, of political concepts and systems, indeed, of worldviews, will be different from anything anyone today imagines. (so a “work approach” and “approach to work” is needed ↓)

... snip, snip ...

Making the future → a chance for survival

... snip, snip ...

That the new society will be both a non-socialist and a post-capitalist society is practically certain.

Moving Beyond Capitalism?

And it is certain also that its primary resource will be knowledge.

… but not knowledge as it is presented in the education system

left behind in the shift to knowledge work

This also means that it will have to be a society of organizations.

… and Knowledge Workers hold THE crucial card in their mobility

The Management Revolution

Certain it is that in politics we have already shifted from the four hundred years of the sovereign nation-state to a pluralism in which the nation-state will be one rather than the only unit of political integration.

It will be one component—though still a key component—in what I call the “post-capitalist polity,” a system in which transnational, regional, nation-state, and local, even tribal, structures compete and co-exist.”

“The more transnational the world becomes, the more tribal it will also be.

This undermines the very foundations of the nation-state.

In fact, it ceases to be a “nation-state,” and becomes a “state” plain and simple, an administrative rather than a political unit.

Internationalism, regionalism, and tribalism between them are rapidly creating a new polity, a new and complex political structure, without precedent”

... snip, snip ...

The economic challenge of the post-capitalist society will therefore be the productivity of knowledge work and the knowledge worker.

People can only get paid in accordance with their productivity

Knowledge: Its Economics and Its Productivity

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

The new-productivity challenge

... snip, snip ...

Forty years ago, people doing knowledge work and service work formed still less than one third of the work force.

Today, such people account for three quarters if not four fifths of the work force in all developed countries—and their share is still going up.

Their productivity, rather than the productivity of the people who make and move things, is THE productivity of a developed economy.

It is abysmally low.

The productivity of people doing knowledge work and service work may actually be going down rather than going up.

... snip, snip ...

To improve the productivity of knowledge workers will in fact require drastic changes in the structure of the organizations of post-capitalist society, and in the structure of society itself.

... snip, snip ...

Unless we can learn how to increase the productivity of knowledge workers and service workers, and increase it fast, the developed countries will face economic stagnation and severe social tension.

... snip, snip ...

… This means a radical change in structure for the organizations of tomorrow.

It means that the big business, the government agency, the large hospital, the large university will not necessarily be the one that employs a great many people.

Outsourcing (not offshoring) ::: Making the future

“To get productivity, you have to outsource activities
that have their own senior management

Believe me, the trend toward outsourcing
has very little to do with economizing
and a great deal to do with quality.” continue

It will be the one that has substantial revenues and substantial results—achieved in large part because it itself does only work that is focused on its mission; work that is directly related to its results; work that it recognizes, values, and rewards appropriately.

The rest it contracts out.


The Management Revolution


... snip, snip ...


Outflanking the Nation-State

The nation-state is not going to wither away.

It may remain the most powerful political organ around for a long time to come, but it will no longer be the indispensable one.

Increasingly, it will share power with other organs, other institutions, other policy-makers.

What is to remain the domain of the nation-state?

These questions will be central political issues for decades to come.

In its specifics, the outcome is quite unpredictable.

But the political order will look different from the political order of the last four centuries, in which the players differed in size, wealth, constitutional arrangements, and political creed, yet were uniform as nation-states—each sovereign within its territory and each defined by its territory.

We are moving—we have indeed already moved—into post-capitalist polity. continue


... snip, snip ...

I am often asked whether I am an optimist or a pessimist.

For any survivor of this century to be an optimist would be fatuous.

We surely are nowhere near the end of the turbulences, the transformations, the sudden upsets, which have made this century one of the meanest, cruelest, bloodiest in human history. continue

see ↑ Conflict and Power is a reality


The alternative to tyranny


... snip, snip ...


Nothing “post” is permanent or even long-lived.

Ours is a transition period.

What the future society will look like, let alone whether it will indeed be the “knowledge society” some of us dare hope for, depends on how the developed countries RESPOND to the challenges of THIS transition period, the post-capitalist period—their intellectual leaders, their business leaders, their political leaders, but above all each of us in our own WORK and LIFE.

Yet surely this is a time to make the future—precisely because everything is in flux.

This is a time for action.




“The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades.

The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened, the social transformations of the twentieth century” ↓


A Century of Social Transformation —
Emergence ↓ of Knowledge Society,
Society of Organizations, and
Network Society


Not so long ago the world ↑ looked like this ↓

… and at that time, unimagined futureS seemed unthinkable …

Old photo: rural life


There is more to this story
and there is “remanence” for a long time …




YouTube: The History of the World in Two Hours
— beginning with the industrial revolution (#impact)



Netflix: Marco Polo

Netflix: Empire of the Tsars


The Lessons of History by Will & Ariel Durant



… Juxtaposing the great lives, ideas, and accomplishments with cycles of war and conquest, the Durants reveal the towering themes of history and give meaning to our own.

Hesitations | History and the Earth | Biology and History | Race and History | Character and History | Morals and History | Religion and History | Economics and History | Socialism and History | Government and History | History and War | Growth and Decay | Is Progress Real?



“The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade after Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage. Invasive species, including communicable diseases, were a byproduct of the Exchange. The changes in agriculture significantly altered and changed global populations. However, the most significant immediate impact of the Columbian Exchange was the cultural exchanges and the transfer of people between continents.

The new contact between the global population circulated a wide variety of crops and livestock, which supported increases in population in both hemispheres, although diseases initially caused precipitous declines in the numbers of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traders returned to Europe with maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the 18th century.

The term was first used in 1972 by American historian Alfred W. Crosby in his environmental history book The Columbian Exchange. It was rapidly adopted by other historians and journalists and has become widely known.” continue



Landmarks of Tomorrow — a 1957 worldview

At some unmarked point during the last twenty years
we imperceptibly moved out of the Modern Age and
into a new, as yet nameless, era.

Post-Capitalist Society

Our view of the world changed; we acquired a new perception
and with it new capacities.


A time like this is not comfortable, secure, lazy.

It is a time when tides of history — over which he has no controlsweep over the individual.

It is a time of agony, of peril, of suffering—an ugly, hateful, cruel, brutish time at best.

It is a time of war, of mass slaughter, of depravity, of mockery of all laws of God or man.

It is a time in which no one can take for granted the world he lives in, the things he treasures, or the values and principles that seem to him so obvious.

Those of us who have been spared the horrors in which our age specializes, who have never suffered total war, slave-labor camp or police terror, not only owe thanks; we owe charity and compassion.

¶ ¶ ¶

But ours is also a time of new vision and greatness, of opportunity and challenge, to everyone in his daily life, as a person and as a citizen.

It is a time in which everyone is an understudy to the leading role in the drama of human destiny.

Everyone must be ready to take over alone and without notice, and show himself saint or hero, villain or coward.

On this stage the great roles are not written in the iambic pentameter or the Alexandrine of the heroic theater.

They are prosaic—played out in one’s daily life, in one’s work, in one’s citizenship, in one’s compassion or lack of it, in one’s courage to stick to an unpopular principle, and in one’s refusal to sanction man’s inhumanity to man in an age of cruelty and moral numbness.

¶ ¶ ¶

In a time of change and challenge, new vision and new danger, new frontiers and permanent crisis, suffering and achievement, in a time of overlap such as ours, the individual is both all-powerless and all-powerful.

He is powerless, however exalted his station, if he believes that he can impose his will, that he can command the tides of history.

He is all-powerful, no matter how lowly, if he knows himself to be responsible.

How could you calendarize this ↑ ↓?



The Age of Discontinuity:
Guidelines To Our Changing Society
— 1968

… But these revolutions are largely the effects of shifts in the foundations
that precede them and make the revolutions inevitable




Purposeful Innovation (#impact)

Entrepreneurs innovate.

Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship.

It is the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.

Innovation, indeed, creates a resource.

There is no such thing as a “resource” until man finds a use for something in nature and thus endows it with economic value.

Until then, every plant is a weed and every mineral just another rock.

Not much more than a century ago, neither mineral oil seeping out of the ground nor bauxite, the ore of aluminum, were resources.

They were nuisances; both render the soil infertile.

The penicillin mold was a pest, not a resource. continue


Three Case Studies on Innovation Strategy



The 6 Laws of Technology Everyone Should Know

Professor who summarized the impact of technology on society 30 years ago seems prescient now, in the age of smartphones and social media

Three decades ago, a historian wrote six laws to explain society’s unease with the power and pervasiveness of technology.

1. ‘Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral’

2. ‘Invention is the mother of necessity.’

Yes, that’s backward from the way you remember it.

3. ‘Technology comes in packages, big and small.

4. ‘Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions.’

5. ‘All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant.’

6. ‘Technology is a very human activity.’

As Prof. Kranzberg presciently noted at the dawn of the internet age, “Many of our technology-related problems arise because of the unforeseen consequences when apparently benign technologies are employed on a massive scale.”



Financial survival

… “There are so many great families whose former grandeur survives only as an echo — in the names of museums, converted mansions, streets, and towns. Their descendants don't have it anymore. Taxes, inflation, expropriation, and changing times have pulled them down. If they, armed with the cleverest advisers, bankers, and lawyers couldn't keep their money, can it be easy?

Survival is a competition. What you have, including your savings, others want, and will struggle to get. The push to take it back from you is as relentless as that of the sea to overcome the dikes that contain it or the jungle to enfold a patch of cleared ground. The whole order of nature pushes to reclaim its own. Governments bow to that kind of pressure. Pieces of paper are a weak defense.

How did Vladimir Putin become so rich?

Only through deep understanding and superior tactics can the investor hope to preserve even part of what he has saved, and the job gets harder every year.

In many countries it is virtually impossible, and almost everybody eventually becomes a ward of the state, whose pretensions thus become irresistible. The barons being impoverished, King John is supreme.” continue and Warren Buffett



A basic challenge confronting all of us is that we get older and older and more and more set in our ways and thoughts in a world that is going to become less and less recognizable — a world that bears less and less resemblance to the worldS of 1910, 1920, 1930, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 ...

BTY there are surely movies or TV shows that focus on the major events and situations of each of these ↑ time periods.

Beyond the above there are changing strategic situations that cause individuals a great deal of difficulty, damage and pain: things not working out the way we assumed, wars, epidemics, rampant inflation, government incompetence and cruelty, terror attacks, community and industry meltdowns, conspiracies, job and career loss, crime, not getting or digesting the memo, boredom …

People that have no real connection to you may seek repeated revenge on you for actions by other people that have no real connection to you — The Savage Peace

What else can you imagine?

There’s no way to know what goes on behind closed doors that is going to have an impact on you … prepare yourself … #wgobcd

Economists, Politicians, Hitler, Churchhill, Stalin …


Post-capitalist executive

Strategic situations change so slowly that the motion may be practically invisible or undetectable and yet they can change so fast that it’s almost impossible to keep up.

“Few people in America during the Depression years believed in “recovery,” certainly not after 1937 when the slight economic improvement that had followed Roosevelt’s reelection spending proved a short-lived mirage.” continue


What could you do if your prime source of income immediately came to an end? continue

End of loyalty ::: IBM corrects seniority mix


Why great companies fail



Picture technology: larger view

“Corporations once built to last like pyramids
are now more like tents.

Tomorrow they’re gone or in turmoil.”

There ↓ can’t be reached from heretomorrowS can’t be reached from yesterdayS
— at least not directly …




In 9 Out Of 10 Cities, Middle-Income Families Are Slipping Away


Why America’s Richest Cities Are Pulling Away From All the Others
(What are the implications for them and the rest?)


YouTube: 1000 years of European borders change ↓ —
wars, migration, killing, stealing, enslavement, rape, revenge
and the roots of terrorism and other bad stuff.
The wounds still fester … and yet.

List of wars by death toll

What thinking can be observed ↑ ↓?
on the part of individuals and social groups?


Netflix: Long Shadow — Each episode explores an enduring legacy
of the First World War through the century that followed,
tracing the impact on attitudes to war and peace,
on politics and on nationalism. Liberal democracy

Netflix: Armistice by David Reynolds

Netflix: Apocalypse: The Second World War

Netflix: World War Two: 1941 and the Man of Steel → Stalin the terrorist

What could be added to a person’s pre-thought work-approach
that would be adequate for dealing with
the challenges presented by
or Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff or Stalin’s behavior?

Google: Putin's hidden treasure

Google: Putin "the food that never came"

Google image search: Putin money laundering flowchart

Money trail involving global banks ↓ ::: Larger view


Money laundering

Operation Otto Preliminary Plan for Operation Barbarossa ↓


See the immediate human impact along the initial thrust lines and
the broader subsequent impacts created by
the reactions to the immediate impacts. This is a common change theme …

larger view

Netflix: Winston Churchill: Walking with Destiny

The Prime Minister and the Prof — How does friendship
influence political power? The story of Winston Churchill’s close friend
and confidant — an eccentric scientist named
Frederick Lindemann — whose
connection to Churchill
altered the course of British policy in World War II.
And not in a good way. Revisionist History ::: #wgobcd

Netflix: Hitler and the Nazis

Netflix: Tokyo Trial

Netflix: Hiroshima: BBC History of World War II

Netflix: World War II in Colour

Netflix: World War Two: 1942 and Hitler's Soft Underbelly

Netflix: Auschwitz: The nazis and the final solution

Netflix: World War II: Final Days

Europe’s Last Chance

Netflix: World War II Spy School (an evolutionary tale)

Netflix: Ian Fleming — The Man Who be Bond (an evolutionary tale)

Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

The Constant Gardener

The Good Shepherd (an evolutionary tale on multiple fronts)

Netflix: Navy SEALs: Their Untold Story (an evolutionary tale)

Out of Africa

The Thomas Crown Affair (1968)

Netflix: The Honorable Woman (a tale of deception, sabotage, and conspiracies)

The End of Economic Man: The Origins of Totalitarianism

Schindler’s List

Netflix: Afghanistan: The Great Game
tells the story of foreign intervention by
Britain, Russia, and the United States in Afghanistan
from the 19th century to the present day.
Slow learners

The Vietnam War :( — a heart-breaking American television documentary.
Total political and military incompetence + stupidity. (#wgobcd)
Written by Geoffrey C. Ward and
directed by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick

Saigon, 1965 — In the early 1960s, the Pentagon
set up a top-secret research project in an old villa
in downtown Saigon. The task? To interview
captured North Vietnamese soldiers and guerrillas
in order to measure their morale:
Was the relentless U.S. bombing
pushing them to the brink of capitulation? Revisionist History

The Unabomber Trial: The Manifesto

Extreme survival skills and tools: Taken, Jack Reacher, The Racheteer, Jason Bourne +++

Run, Hide, Fight


The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli — Kindle version available


Only fairy tales end with: “They lived happily everafter”


Zero Days
a documentary thriller about warfare in a world without rules —
the world of cyberwar. The film tells the story of Stuxnet … The
cyber ability to cause physical damage …


Freakonomics — The hidden side of everything


The alternative to tyranny


The Unfashionable Kierkegaard


Planning is frequently misunderstood as making future decisions,
but decisions exist only in the present.”







“Individuals hold worldviews, beliefs about the purpose of existence, who they must ultimately answer to, and what they are responsible for … ” continue

“But a worldview is, above all, an experience”



Management and the World’s Work (here) — 1850 … ↑ ↓
In less than 150 years, management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries. It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓



What Everybody Knows Is Frequently Wrong ::: If You Keep Doing What Worked in the Past You’re Going to Fail ::: Approach Problems with Your Ignorance—Not Your Experience ::: Develop Expertise Outside Your Field to Be an Effective Manager ::: Outstanding Performance Is Inconsistent with Fear of Failure ::: You Must Know Your People to Lead Them ::: People Have No Limits, Even After Failure ::: Base Your Strategy on the Situation, Not on a Formula — A Class With Drucker: The Lost Lessons of the World's Greatest Management Teacher

The Management Revolution

Thinking broad and thinking detailed ↑ ↓

Why Peter Drucker Distrusted Facts (HBR blog) and PDF
Opinions come first ::: Prepared to see


Limits of Quantification

The unique event that changes the universe is an event “at the margin.”

By the time it becomes statistically significant, it is no longer “future”;
it is, indeed, no longer even “present.”

It is already “past.”



Making the future → a chance for survival


True Detective


… A good many organizations and their managements do not even make their present organizations effective — and yet the organizations somehow survive for a while. #mbr

The big business, in particular, seems to be able to coast a long time on the courage, work, and vision of earlier managers.


But tomorrow always arrives.

It is always different.

And then even the mightiest company is in trouble if it has not worked on the future.

It will have lost distinction and leadership—all that will remain is big-company overhead.

It will neither control nor understand what is happening.

Not having dared to take the risk of making the new happen, it perforce took the much greater risk of being surprised by what did happen.

And this is a risk that even the largest and richest organization cannot afford and that even the smallest one need not run. continue




The inherent weaknesses in all possible information systems

The information system can be

as well designed as possible

as complete as possible

as much in “real time” as possible.


It only answers questions which top management has already asked.

It can only report what had already had impact—that is what is already yesterday.

For one can only codify the past.

Every report is codification.

The new developments that really matter

Are always by definition outside any possible reporting system.

By the time they show up in the figures, it is very late—and may well be too late.

Unless one understands what is truly relevant.

Unless one has the ability to hold the actual reality against one’s expectations.

One will be overtaken by events.

One will become aware of problems only when they become “trouble.”

One will see opportunities only when they have already been missed.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices




But precisely because there are so many different areas of importance,
the day-by-day method of management
is inadequate
even in the smallest and simplest business. #mbr

Because deterioration is what happens normally—that is,
unless somebody counteracts it—there is need for
a systematic and purposeful program.

There is need to reduce the almost limitless possible tasks
to a manageable number.

There is need to concentrate scarce resources
on the greatest opportunities and results.

There is need to do the few right things
and do them with excellence.

Managing for Results connect by Peter Drucker

… more on organization efforts



“Managers are synthesizers #mbr
who bring resources together
and have that ability to “smell ↓” opportunity and timing.

Today perceptiveness is more important than analysis

In the new society of organizations,
you need to be able to recognize patterns
to see what is there
rather than what you expect to see.”
Interview: Post-Capitalist Executive


Find “How Perception Works” in the overview of
I Am Right — You Are Wrong
(From this to the New Renaissance: from Rock Logic to Water Logic)




Freedom is not fun. (#impact)

It is not the same as individual happiness, nor is it security or peace or progress.

It is a responsible choice.

Freedom is not so much a right as a duty.

Real freedom is not freedom from something; that would be license.

It is freedom to choose between doing or not doing something, to act one way or another, to hold one belief or the opposite.

It is not “fun” but the heaviest burden laid on man:

to decide his own individual conduct as well as the conduct of society and to be responsible for both decisions. ↓



Power has to be used

“It is a reality.

If the decent and idealistic toss power in the gutter, the guttersnipes pick it up.

If the able and educated refuse to exercise power responsibly, irresponsible and incompetent people take over the seats of the mighty and the levers of power.

Power not being used for social purposes passes to people who use it for their own ends.

At best it is taken over by the careerists who are led by their own timidity into becoming arbitrary, autocratic, and bureaucratic.” — PFD


The antidote and the alternative to tyranny #mbr

A revolution in every generation is not the answer#mbr


Moving Beyond Capitalism?


Citizenship through the social sector



“Beware the man on the white horse promising to fix things”continue

Hitler’s PR



The Original Donald Trump

Roy Cohn: Joe McCarthy’s henchman and Donald Trump’s mentor

Senator Joseph McCarthy and Roy Cohn ↓



Roy Cohn and Donald Trump ↓


Trump and Putin



The Great War laid waste to the economic and political foundations of Europe, but did not establish a new international order, thus setting the stage for the disasters of the 1930s and 1940s. As the world approaches another period of vast economic and political change, the lessons of the interwar interregnum are more relevant than ever. The Great Crack-Up, Then and Now

Ten Weimar Lessons


… “The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges
looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still
than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened,
the social transformations of the twentieth century” continue



You can’t have a healthy organization
in a sick society
” — Druckerism


“Man in his social and political existence must have a functioning society just as he must have air to breathe in his biological existence.

However, the fact that man has to have a society does not necessarily mean that he has it.

Nobody calls the mass of unorganized, panicky, stampeding humanity in a shipwreck a “society.”

There is no society, though there are human beings in a group.

Actually, the panic is directly due to the breakdown of a society; and the only way to overcome it is by restoring a society with social values, social discipline, social power, and social relationships.

Social life cannot function without a society; but it is conceivable that it does not function at all.

The evidence of the last twenty-five years of Western civilization hardly entitles us to say that our social life functioned so well as to make out a prima-facie case for the existence of a functioning society.” — The Daily Drucker



Drucker: The Man Who Invented the Corporate Society

Homeland Security ↓

“For the individual there is no society unless he has social status and function.”

The individual must know where he stands in the order and be able to feel with good reason that he fills a role in making that society work.

The rulers must be legitimate rulers, representative of those whom they rule and responsive to their needs.

Collage created using TurboCollage software from

The individual who lacks status and function is not only unhappy; HE IS DANGEROUS.

Lacking a fixed (though not immutable) place in the order of things, he is a destructive wanderer through the cosmos.

Feeling no responsibility to a society in which he has no place, he sets little value on life.

He will DESTROY and KILL because he has NO REASON not to destroy and kill.

Here we see prefigured the current, awful realities of the rootless destroyers — the Symbionese Liberation Army, the Weather Underground, the Palestinian Liberation Organization.

“Status-seeking,” Drucker was saying, is not an egocentric foible.

It is a part of the human condition.

When human beings seek status and do not find it, THE WORLD IS IN TROUBLE.

jumping forward

He anticipates the debate that was to grow over the question of “relativism versus eternal verities.”

He scorns both extremes — but he is a lot tougher on the relativists.

He dismisses the “masses” and derides the kind of thinking that glorifies the faceless crowd.

The masses are not glorious; they are “a product of SOCIAL DECOMPOSITION and a RANK POISON.”

Cold? Remote? Cynically snobbish?

Maybe; but Drucker’s aim is to take people out of the mass and MAKE THEM FUNCTIONING INDIVIDUALS in a FUNCTIONING SOCIETY.” ← Make everybody a contributor — The knowledge based organization → from command to information to the responsibility-based organization continue



The political scene is infested with deniers accumulating wealth at the expense of society. They deny climate change, the holocaust, Russian actions …



…“I was lost long before the (Berlin) wall fell.

I was once destined to become a man much like yourself—true hearted, determined, full of purpose—but character is easier kept than recovered.

We cannot control the things that life does to us.

They are done before we know it, and once they are done they make you do other things until at last everything comes between you and the man you wanted to be.

... snip, snip ...

Sometimes a man can meet his destiny on the road he took to avoid it.

... snip, snip ...

… The system guarantees IBBC’s safety because everyone is involved …

… Hezbollah, the CIA, the Colombian drug traffickers, Russian organized crime, governments of China, Iran, U.S., every multinational corporation, everyone.

They all need banks like IBBC so they can operate within the black and grey latitudes.

This is why your investigative efforts have been ignored or undermined”

The International

Is this ↑ something that would be beneficial to calendarize?



May’s Day

“No one should underestimate [Theresa] May.

Like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who has proved her mettle in successive crises, May has all the tools she needs to get things done.

She is clever and tough, with little patience for nonsense.

She has a strong sense of public service, and an equally strong set of values.

She carries little ideological baggage, and is adept at staying in control, operating within self-imposed boundaries that keep her on familiar terrain.

May wins most of the battles she fights, and shows little mercy to those who have used underhanded tactics against her.

Yet she has few known enemies within her party and is popular with its rank and file.

It is a robust combination – one that she will need to use fully as she attempts to lead Britain out of the EU.”

Flash forward

“The actual results of (current) action are not predictable” continue

Is this ↑ something that would be beneficial to calendarize?




How can the individual survive?

The society of organizations demands of the individual decisions regarding himself.

At first sight, the decision may appear only to concern career and livelihood.

“What shall I do?”

is the form in which the question is usually asked.

But actually it reflects a demand that the individual take responsibility for society and its institutions.

What cause do I want to serve?” is implied.

Josh Abrams → allocating one’s life

And underlying this question is the demand the individual take responsibility for himself.

What shall I do with myself?” rather than “'What shall I do?”

is really being asked of the young by the multitude of choices around them.

The society of organizations forces the individual to ask of himself:

“Who am I?”

“What do I want to be?”

“What do I want to put into life and what do I want to get out of it?”” in context



Warning: the corporate-ladder is a dying concept — think symphony orchestra and taking on one assignment after the other.


“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
Druckerism (calendarize this?)



Richard Branson


Entrepreneurship is “risky” mainly because so few of the so-called entrepreneurs know what they are doing continue. #mbr (#impact)



The individual in entrepreneurial society

Notes on entrepreneurial activities and destabilizer

… “They can no longer assume that what they have learned as children and youngsters will be the “foundation” for the rest of their lives.

It will be the “launching pad”—the place to take off from rather than the place to build on and to rest on.


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two

A discipline is a necessary container

Knowledge and Technology

Knowledge economy, knowledge polity

Conditions for survival

Knowledge based management

Career danger

They can no longer assume that they “enter upon a career” which then proceeds along a pre-determined, well-mapped and well-lighted “career path” to a known destination—what the American military calls “progressing in grade.””

The assumption from now on has to be that individuals on their own will have to find, determine, and develop a number of “careers” during their working lives. (calendarize this?) See Josh Abrams story

sound players

And the more highly schooled the individuals, the more entrepreneurial their careers and the more demanding their learning challenges. (calendarize this?) continue

Learning to learn


Successful careerS are not planned continue ::: Katie Couric


“The stepladder is gone, and
there’s not even the implied structure
of an industry’s rope ladder.

It’s more like vines …


and you bring your own machete.

You don’t know
what you’ll be doing next

Managing in a Time of Great Change


“You can’t design your life around a
temporary organization”
— Peter Drucker



Peter Drucker — social ecologist → My life as a knowledge worker (#impact)


The leading management thinker describes seven personal experiences that taught him how to grow, to change, and to age—without becoming a prisoner of the past. (calendarize this?)




The Essential Drucker

The linked page above ↑ contains links to additional pages exploring many of the topics below

bbx Introduction: The Origin and Purpose of TED

Where do I begin to read Drucker?


bbx Management as Social Function and Liberal Art

bbx The Dimensions of Management

bbx The Purpose and Objectives of a Business

The profit motive and its offspring maximization of profits are just as irrelevant to the function of a business, the purpose of a business, and the job of managing a business.

In fact, the concept is worse than irrelevant: it does harm.

Actually, a company can make a social contribution only if it is highly profitable.

bbx What the Nonprofits Are Teaching Business

bbx Social Impacts and Social Problems

bbx Management’s New Paradigms

bbx The Information Executives Need Today

bbx Management by Objectives and Self-Control

bbx Picking People—The Basic Rules

The following three chapters are from Innovation and Entrepreneurship

bbx The Entrepreneurial Business

bbx The New Venture

bbx Entrepreneurial Strategies



bbx Effectiveness Must Be Learned

bbx Focus on Contribution

bbx Know Your Strengths and Values

For knowledge workers, How do I perform? may be an even more important question than What are my strengths?

bbx Know Your Time

bbx Effective Decisions

bbx Functioning Communications

bbx Leadership as Work

bbx Principles of Innovation

bbx The Second Half of Your Life

bbx The Educated Personhere and here



bbx A Century of Social Transformation — Emergence of Knowledge Society

The priority tasks

bbx The Coming of Entrepreneurial Society

bbx Citizenship through the Social Sector ← a bbx top of the food chain mental landscape

Good intentions ↑ aren’t enough.

You have to define the results you’re after.

There has been a huge expansion in the number of nonprofits and charitable organizations the past several years.

A lot of people want to put their resources to work where they can do the most good.

Unfortunately, as Peter noted, many of them get poor results — or no results.

“The problem,” he said, “is that they don’t ask about results, and they don’t know what results they want in the first place.

They mean well, and they have the best of intentions, but the only thing good intentions are for (as the old maxim says) is to pave the road to hell.”

The best results are achieved, he said, when people ask the right questions and then partner with others who have the expertise, knowledge, and discipline to get the right results. See network society below.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

“The nonprofits are human-change agents.

And their results are therefore always a change in people—in their behavior, in their circumstances, in their vision, in their health, in their hopes, above all, in their competence and capacity.

In the last analysis, the nonprofit institution, whether it’s in health care or education or community service, or a labor union, has to judge itself by its performance in creating vision, creating standards, creating values and commitment, and in creating human competence.

The non-profit institution therefore needs to set specific goals in terms of its service to people.

And it needs constantly to raise these goals—or its performance will go down.”


How to guarantee non-performance


Creating Tomorrow’s Society Of Citizens and Refining the Mission Statement

You have vital judgments ahead: whether to change the mission, whether to abandon programs that have outlived their usefulness and concentrate resources elsewhere, how to match opportunities with your competence and commitment, how you will build community and change lives.

Self-assessment is the first action requirement of leadership: the constant re-sharpening, constant refocusing, never being really satisfied.

And the time to do this is when you are successful.

If you wait until things start to go down, then it’s very difficult.


Management and Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution

tblue Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organization

tblue Managing Public-Service Institutions For Performance

tblue Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution


The change in the individual’s situation … The world of the American citizen in those days looked very much like the Kansas prairie. Except for one hill, the individual citizen was the tallest thing as far as the eye could see. And even this hill, the federal government, while it looked imposing, was only a few hundred feet high. continue


bbx From Analysis to Perception—The New Worldview.

We are now in a fourth surge, triggered by information and biology.

Like the earlier entrepreneurial surges, the present one is not confined to “high tech”; it embraces equally “middle tech,” “low tech,” and “no tech.”

Like the earlier ones, it is not confined to new or small enterprises, but is carried by existing and big ones as well—and often with the greatest impact and effectiveness. continue

And, like the earlier surges, it is not confined to “inventions,” that is, to technology.

Social innovations are equally “entrepreneurial” and equally important. continue


Find “How Perception Works” in the overview of
I Am Right — You Are Wrong
(From this to the New Renaissance: from Rock Logic to Water Logic)

bbx Afterword: The Challenge Ahead

bbx The paradox of rapidly expanding economy and growing income inequality—the paradox that bedevils us now

bbx Growing health care and education, possibly a shrinking market for goods and services

bbx Center of power shifting to the consumer—free flow of information

bbx Knowledge workers—expensive resource

bbx Governments depending on managers and individuals



Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations


Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution


“Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.”




Josh Abrams: Allocating one’s life (the second half) (#impact)

Additional life allocation horizons ↓

Specific topics

Values; Time Management; Knowledge society; Society of Organizations; Mission; Network society; Abandonment; Opportunities; Design; Brainroads and brainscapes; Topic work (a work approach for topics—like these pages); Action Plans; Project thinking and planning; About growth and development efforts; Globalization; Education; Learning; Data, Information, Knowledge; Data; Information; Knowledge; Knowledge specialty; Knowledge workers; Knowledge technologists; Management; Leadership; Managing people; Entrepreneurship; Results created by organizations; Performance: organizations and individual; Measurements; Marketing; Innovation; Productivity; Profitability; Spending :: A foundation for future directed decisions; Strategy; Execution; Organization; Working with people; Production; Organization Culture; Strengths; Contribution; Thinking; Questions; Alliances and Collaborations; Kaizen; Using book pages; Knowledge management; Concepts; From computer literacy to information literacy; Community; Other word challenges

Some timescape vistas …

bbx The First Technological Revolution and its Lessons


bbx Technology (more than you might think)

bbx Up to Poverty — the agents of revolution

bbx The Vanishing East — the end of the European power system

bbx The Manager and the Moron

bbx Luther, Machiavelli, and the Salmon

bbx The New PluralismLandmarks of Tomorrow ::: Frontiers of Management ::: Foundational books → the need for a political and social theory ::: How can government function? ::: Un-centralizing ::: The society of organizations PDF ::: see from Analysis to Perception — The New Worldview below ↓

bbx Trade lessons from the world economy g

No More Superpower → “Because of the emergence of the transnational company and of the symbol economy as the determinant force in the world market, there is no more economic superpower.

No matter how big, powerful, and productive a country may be, it competes every day for its world market position.

No one country can, in fact, expect long to maintain a competitive lead in technology, in management, in innovation, in design, in entrepreneurship; but it does not matter much to the transnational company which country is in the lead.

It does business in all of them and is at home in all of them.

However, the individual company too can no longer take its leadership position for granted.

There is no more “superpower” in industry, either; there are only competitors.

A company’s home country becomes a “location,” that is a headquarters and communications center.

But in any one industry there are a number of companies — some American, some German, some British, some Japanese — which together are the “superpowers” in that industry worldwide.

Managers need increasingly to base business policy on this new transnational structure of industry and markets” … see from Analysis to Perception — The New Worldview below ↓

bbx From Analysis to Perception — The New Worldview

Find “How Perception Works” in the overview of
I Am Right — You Are Wrong
(From this to the New Renaissance: from Rock Logic to Water Logic)

bbx Citizenship through the social sector

bbx Knowledge and Technology

bbx What Needs to Be Done?

bbx Adventures of a Bystander

bbx The Unfashionable Kierkegaard

“Like all religious thinkers, Kierkegaard places in the center the question, How is human existence possible?

All through the nineteenth century this question — which before had been the core of Western thought — was not only highly unfashionable; it seemed senseless and irrelevant.

The era was dominated by a radically different question, How is society possible?

Rousseau asked it; Hegel asked it; the classical economists asked it.

Marx answered it one way; liberal Protestantism another way.

But in whatever form it is asked, it must always lead to an answer which denies that human existence is possible except in society.

Rousseau formulated this answer for the whole era of progress: whatever human existence there is; whatever freedom, rights, and duties the individual has; whatever meaning there is in individual life all is determined by society according to society's objective need of survival.

The individual, in other words, is not autonomous.

He is determined by society.

He is free only in matters that do not matter.

He has rights only because society concedes them.

He has a will only if he wills what society needs.

His life has meaning only insofar as it relates to the social meaning and as it fulfills itself in fulfilling the objective goal of society.

There is, in short, no human existence; there is only social existence.

There is no individual; there is only the citizen.

It is hardly possible to exaggerate the differences between Rousseau's "General Will," Hegel's concept of history as the unfolding of ideas, and the Marxian theory of the individual's determination through his objectively given class situation.

But they all gave the same answer to the question of human existence: there is no such thing, there is no such question!

Ideas and citizens exist, but no human beings.

What is possible is merely the realization of ideas in and through society.

For if you start with the question, How is society possible?, without asking at the same time, How is human existence possible?, you arrive inevitably at a negative concept of individual existence and of freedom: individual freedom is then what does not disturb society.

Thus freedom becomes something that has no function and no autonomous existence of its own.

It becomes a convenience, a matter of political strategy, or a demagogue's catch phrase.

It is nothing vital.

To define freedom as that which has no function is, however, to deny the existence of freedom.

For nothing survives in society save it have a function.

But the nineteenth century believed itself far too secure in the possession of freedom to realize this.

Prevailing opinion failed to see that to deny the relevance of the question, How is human existence possible?, is to deny the relevance of human freedom.

It actually saw in the question, How is society possible?, a key to the gospel of freedom — largely because it aimed at social equality.

And the break of the old fetters of inequality appeared equivalent to the establishment of freedom.

We now have learned that the nineteenth century was mistaken.

Nazism and Communism are an expensive education — a more expensive education, perhaps, than we can afford; but at least we are learning that we cannot obtain freedom if we confine ourselves to the question, How is society possible?

It may be true that human existence in freedom is not possible; which is, indeed, asserted by Hitler and the Communists as well as, less openly, by all those well-meaning “social engineers” who believe in social psychology, propaganda, re-education, or administration as a means of molding and forming the individual.

But at least the question, How is human existence possible?, can no longer be regarded as irrelevant.

For those who profess to believe in freedom, there is no more relevant inquiry.” continue

bbx Managing the Family Business: see December 28 and 29 in The Daily Drucker

bbx The shakeout

The “shakeout” sets in as soon as the “window” closes.

And the majority of ventures started during the “window” period do not survive the shakeout, as has already been shown for such high-tech industries of yesterday as railroads, electrical apparatus makers, and automobiles.

bbx Mission

bbx Good for what?

bbx Ten Principles for Life 2.0 Bob Buford

“Making a living is no longer enough,” …
Work also has to make a life.”
Druckerism (calendarize this?)

bbx The Wisdom of Peter Drucker Bob Buford

Finishing Well Bob Buford

bbx The World is Full of Options Bob Buford

bbx My life as a knowledge worker

bbx Peter's Principles — Harriet Rubin → “no human being has built a better brand by just managing himself”

bbx Interview: Post-Capitalist Executive

bbx Interview: Managing in a Post Capitalist Society



bbx Landmarks of Tomorrow — This Post-Modern World ::: The New World-View ::: From Progress to Innovation ::: 1. The New Perception of Order ::: 2. The Power of Innovation ::: 3. Innovation—The New Conservatism? ::: Beyond Collectivism and Individualism ::: 1. The New Organization ::: 2. From Magnate to Manager ::: 3. Beyond Collectivism and Individualism ::: The New Frontiers ::: The Educated Society ::: 1. The Educational Revolution ::: 2. Society's Capital Investment ::: 3. Education for What? ::: "Up to Poverty" ::: 1. The Frontier of Development ::: 2. Building an Industrial Society ::: Modern Government in Extremis ::: 1. The End of the Liberal State ::: 2. The New Pluralism ::: The Vanishing East ::: The Work to Be Done ::: The Human Situation Today continue


bbx The Practice of Management (1954) Preface g

Management books, though only few of them, had been written and published before The Practice of Management appeared in 1954.

I myself had published in 1946 my first management book, Concept of the Corporation (New York: John Day).

A few years earlier, in 1938, Chester I. Barnard’s The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press) had appeared.

The papers on management Mary Parker Follett had written in the 1920s and early 1930s were collected and published under the title Dynamic Administration (New York: Harper & Brothers) in 1941.

Elton Mayo, the Australian-born Harvard professor, had published his two short books on work and worker: The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan) and The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press) in 1933 and 1945, respectively.

The English translation of Henry Fayol’s Industrial and General Administration—first published in Paris in 1916—had come out in 1930 (London, England: Pitman); and Frederick W. Taylor’s Scientific Management had come out even earlier, in 1911 (New York: Harper & Brothers), and had been reprinted many times since. ¶¶¶

Every one of these books is still being read widely, and deserves to be read widely.

Every one was a major achievement.

Every one laid firm and lasting foundations; indeed, in their respective fields, none has yet been surpassed.

There are no better guides to what we now call organizational psychology and organizational development than Barnard and Mary Parker Follett.

When we talk of “quality circles” and “worker involvement,” we only echo what Elton Mayo wrote forty and fifty years ago.

Fayol’s language is outdated, but his insights into the work of management (not the tasks of management) and its organization are still fresh and original.

Little has been added in respect to top management, its functions and its policies to what I wrote in Concept of the Corporation. ¶¶¶

And we find ourselves today going back to Taylor in order to understand the work of knowledge-workers and to learn how to make knowledge-work productive. ¶¶¶

Still, The Practice of Management was the first true “management” book.

It was the first to look at management as a whole, the first that attempted to depict management as a distinct function, managing as specific work, and being a manager as a distinct responsibility.

All earlier books had dealt with one aspect of management and managing—with communications, for instance, as did Barnard’s Functions of the Executive, or with top management, organizational structure, and corporate policy, as did my Concept of the Corporation.

The Practice of Management talks of “managing a business,” “managing managers,” and “the management of worker and work”—the titles, respectively, of Parts One,Two, and Four.

It talks of “the structure of management” (Part Three) but also of “making decisions” (Chapter 28).

It talks of “the nature of management,” its role, its jobs, and the challenges managements face.

But it also talks of managers as people, of the individual men and women who perform managerial work and hold managerial positions: their qualifications, their development, their responsibilities, their values.

The Practice of Management has a chapter entitled “The Spirit of an Organization” (Chapter 13), in which can be found everything that is now discussed under the heading of “corporate culture.”

The Practice of Management was the first book to talk of “objectives,” to define “key result areas,” to outline how to set objectives, and to describe how to use them to direct and steer a business and to measure its performance.

Indeed The Practice of Management probably invented the term “objectives” at least, it is not to be found in the earlier literature.

And The Practice of Management was the first book to discuss both managing the existing business and innovating the business of tomorrow. ¶¶¶

Conditions for survival

Perhaps even more important—and certainly more novel—was the fact that The Practice of Management was a “first” also in that it saw the enterprise as a whole.

All earlier management books—and indeed most management books even now—only see one aspect.

Indeed, they usually see only the internal dimension: organization, policies, human relations within the organization, authority within it, and so on.

The Practice of Management portrays the enterprise three-dimensionally:

first, as a “business” that is an institution existing to produce economic results outside of it, in the market and for customers;

second, as a human and social “organization” which employs people, has to develop them, has to pay them, has to organize them for productivity, and therefore requires governance, embodies values and creates relationships of power and responsibility; and

third, as a “social institution” embedded in society and community and thus affected by the public interest.

The Practice of Management also discusses the “social responsibilities of business”—a term that was practically unknown at the time the book was published. ¶¶¶

The Practice of Management thus created some thirty years ago what we now refer to as the “discipline” of management.

And this was neither accident nor good luck—it was the book’s mission and intent. ¶¶¶

When I wrote The Practice of Management, I had ten years’ successful consulting practice under my belt.

My own starting point had been neither business nor management.

To be sure, I had, much earlier, worked for banks—one short year in Germany, three years in England.

But I had become a writer and journalist and taught government and political science.

I thus came to management almost by accident.

In 1942 I published a book, The Future of Industrial Man, in which I argued that a good many of the social tasks which community and family had performed in earlier societies had come to be discharged by organizations and especially by the business enterprise.

This book attracted the attention of a senior executive of the world’s largest manufacturing company, General Motors, who, in the late fall of 1943, invited me to make an in-depth study of his top management, its structure and its basic policies.

Out of this study grew Concept of the Corporation, finished in 1945 and published in 1946. ¶¶¶

I found the work fascinating—but also frustrating.

There was practically nothing to help me prepare myself for it.

Worse, what few books on management and business enterprise existed were totally inadequate.

Landmarks of Tomorrow

They dealt with one aspect, and one aspect only, as if it existed in isolation.

They reminded me of a book on human anatomy that would discuss one joint in the body—the elbow, for instance—without even mentioning the arm, let alone the skeleton and musculature.

Worse still, there were no studies at all on most aspects of management.

Yet what made management and the work of the manager so interesting, I thought, was precisely that there was always a true whole, a three-dimensional entity.

Managing, I soon learned, always had to take into account the results and performance for the sake of which the business exists, the internal organization of people engaged in a common task and the outside social dimension—the dimension of social impacts and social responsibilities.

Yet nothing could be found on most of these topics, let alone on their relationship to one another.

Plenty of books existed at the time on the impact of government policy on business; indeed, courses on government regulation of business were then—and still are—highly popular.

But what about the impact of business on society and community?

There was ample material on corporate finance—but virtually nothing on business policy and so on. ¶¶¶

I continued for some time as a consultant to General Motors after I had finished my study.

And then I gradually was called in to consult by some other large corporations—Sears, Roebuck, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, General Electric. #mbr

Everywhere I found the same situation: a near-total absence of study, thought and knowledge regarding the job, function and challenges of management—nothing but fragments and specialized monographs.

And so I decided to sit down, first to map out that “dark continent,” management, then to define what pieces were missing and had to be forged and finally to put the whole together into one systematic, organized—yet short—book.

In my consulting assignments I was meeting large numbers of able younger people, people in middle- and upper-middle management positions or in their first major assignment, either as a manager or as an individual professional contributor.

These were the people who knew that they were managers—their predecessors, who had made their careers before World War II, were often barely conscious of that fact.

These younger achieving people knew that they needed systematic knowledge; needed concepts, principles, tools—and had none.

It was for them that I wrote the book.

And it was that generation which made the book an immediate success, that generation which converted being a manager from being a “rank” into work, function and responsibility.

And the book was an immediate success, not only in the United States but worldwide, in Europe, in Latin America and, especially, in Japan. ¶¶¶

Indeed, the Japanese consider it the foundation of their economic success and industrial performance. ¶¶¶

Some of my subsequent management books have taken one major theme of The Practice of Management and developed it at greater length—for instance, Managing for Results (1964), which was the first book on business strategy connect , and The Effective Executive (1966), which treats managing oneself as a manager and executive in an organization.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (1973) was written as a systematic handbook for the practicing executive but also as a systematic text for the student of management; it thus aims at being comprehensive and definitive, whereas The Practice of Management aims at being accessible and stimulating.

Managing in Turbulent Times (1980) further develops basic questions raised in The Practice of Management

What is our business?

What could it be?

What should it be?

but also considers the question of how a business both innovates and maintains continuity in a time of change, thus turning change into opportunity.

These four volumes—all originally published by Harper & Row—have now come out as Harper paperbacks in the same format as this paperback edition of The Practice of Management. ¶¶¶

But The Practice of Management has remained the one book which students of management, young people aspiring to become managers and mature managers still consider the foundation book.

“If you read only one book on management,” the chairman of one of the world’s largest banks tells his officers again and again, “read The Practice of Management.”

What explains this success is, I believe, the book’s balance between being comprehensive and being accessible and easy to read.

Each chapter is short, yet each presents the fundamentals in their entirety.

This is, of course, the result of the book’s origins; I wanted something that would give the managers I was working with in my client companies everything they would need to do their jobs and prepare themselves for top-management responsibilities; yet the material had to be accessible, had to be readable, had to fit the limited time and attention busy people could give to it.

It is this balance, I believe, that has made this book keep on selling and being read for thirty years despite the plethora of books on management that have been written and published since.

This balance, I believe, has made it the preferred book of the practitioner of management and of those who aspire to become managers, in public-service organizations as well as in businesses.

And I hope this paperback edition will serve the same function and make the same contribution to new generations of students, aspiring young management professionals, and seasoned practitioners for years to come. 
table of contents


Claremont, California 

Thanksgiving Day, 1985 


Where do I begin to read Drucker?


Management and the World’s Work

↑ In less than 150 years,
management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries.

It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries
that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓


Post Capitalist Executive


bbx Practice of ManagementThe Nature of Management ::: The Role of Management ::: The Jobs of Management ::: The Challenge to Management ::: Managing a Business ::: The Sears Story ::: What is a Business? ::: What is Our Business—and What Should it be? ::: The Objectives of a Business ::: Today's Decisions for Tomorrow's Results ::: The Principles of Production ::: Managing Managers ::: The Ford Story ::: Management by Objectives and Self-Control ::: Managers must manage ::: The spirit of an organization ::: Chief Executive and Board ::: Developing Managers ::: Structure of Management ::: What kind of Structure ::: Building the Structure ::: The Small, The large, the growing business ::: The Management of Worker and Work ::: The IBM Story ::: Employing the Whole Man ::: Is Personnel Management Bankrupt? ::: Human Organization For Peak Performance ::: Motivating To Peak Performance ::: The Economic Dimension ::: The Supervisor ::: The Professional Employee ::: What parts of this can be done by top management and what part by the manager in charge of the operation ::: What it Means to be a Manager ::: The Manger and His Work ::: Making Decisions ::: The Manager of Tomorrow ::: Conclusion: The Responsibilities of Management continue


bbx Men, Ideas, and Politics — Preface ::: “Political (or social) ecology” ::: The aim is an understanding of the specific natural environment of man, his “policical ecology,” as a prerequisite to effective and responsible action, as an executive, as a policy-maker, as a teacher, and as a citizen. ::: The New Markets And The New Entrepreneurs ::: The Unfashionable Kierkegaard ::: Notes On The New Politics ::: This Romantic Generation ::: Calhoun’s Pluralism ::: American Directions ::: The Secret Art Of Being An Effective President ::: Henry Ford ::: The American Genius Is Political ::: Japan Tries For A Second Miracle ::: What We Can Learn From Japanese Management ::: Keynes: Economics As A Magical System ::: The Economic Basis Of American Politics continue

bbx Technology, Management, Society — Preface ::: Information, Communications and Understanding ::: What We Have Learned ::: Communication Is Perception ::: Communication Is Expectations ::: Communication Is Involvement ::: Communication and Information Are Different and Largely Opposite—Yet Interdependent ::: Management’s New Role ::: The Old Assumptions ::: Management is management of business, and business is unique and the exception in society ::: “Social responsibilities” of management ::: The primary task of management is to mobilize the energies of the business organization ::: It is the manual worker ::: Management is a “science” or at least a “discipline” ::: Management is the result of economic development ::: —And the New Realities ::: Every major task of developed society is being carried out ::: Because our society is rapidly becoming a society of organizations ::: Entrepreneurial innovation will be as important to management as the managerial function ::: A primary task of management in the developed countries in the decades ahead ::: There are management tools and techniques ::: Management creates economic and social development ::: Admittedly, these new assumptions oversimplify ::: Work and Tools ::: Work and Tools-1 ::: Work and Tools-2 ::: Work and Tools-3 ::: Work and Tools-4 ::: Technological Trends in the Twentieth Century ::: The Structure of Technological Work ::: The Methods of Technological Work ::: The Systems Approach ::: Technology and Society in the Twentieth Century ::: The Pretechnological Civilization of 1900 ::: Technology Remakes Social Institutions ::: Emancipation of Women ::: Changes in the Organization of Work ::: The Role of Education ::: Change in Warfare ::: A Worldwide Technological Civilization ::: Man Moves into a Man-made Environment ::: Modern Technology and the Human Horizon ::: Technology and Man ::: The Once and Future Manager ::: The Conglomerates Will Be the Stranded Giants of the Next Decade ::: Never Look at Any One Measure Alone in Any Business; Look at Multiple Measures ::: The First Yardstick by Which Management Is Judged Is, Do They Keep Us Busy? ::: The Facts and the Myth of Job Mobility in America Are Not Necessarily the Same ::: Small Business Has Done Much Better Than Any Other in the Last Twenty Years ::: The Main Impact of the Computer Has Been to Create Unlimited Jobs for Clerks ::: The Job Which Most Managers Were Brought Up to Spend Most Time on Will Disappear ::: Is the Traditional Organization Structure Going to Work Tomorrow as It Has till Now? ::: Managers Have to Accept That Industrial Relations Will Become Increasingly Bitter ::: The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessons ::: Long-Range Planning ::: Business Objectives and Survival Needs ::: The Need for a Theory of Business Behavior ::: What Are the Survival Needs of Business Enterprise? ::: The Work to Be Done ::: An Operational View of the Budgeting Process ::: The Manager and the Moron ::: The Obsolescence of Experience ::: Enter the Knowledge Utility ::: A New Age of Information ::: Managing the Moron ::: Beyond the Numbers Barrier ::: The Technological Revolution: Notes on the Relationship of Technology, Science, and Culture ::: Can Management Ever Be a Science? continue


bbx Managing for Results ::: Understanding the business ::: The business realities ::: There are three different dimensions to the economic task ::: The present business must be made effective. ::: The present business's potential must be identified and realized. ::: It must be made into a different business for a different future. ::: One unified strategy ::: Requires an understanding of the true realities ::: of the business as an economic system ::: of its capacity for economic performance and ::: of the relationship between available resources and possible results ::: The generalizations regarding results and resources ::: Results and resources exist outside the business. ::: Results are obtained by exploiting opportunities ::: Economic results are earned only by leadership ::: Any leadership position is transitory and likely to be short-lived. ::: The generalizations regarding efforts within the business and their cost. ::: Making the business fit the realities of today ::: Allocating efforts/cost to high revenue producing activities ::: Concentration is the key to economic results. ::: Result area identification ::: Nothing succeeds like concentration on the right business. ::: The basic business analysis ::: Identify & understand those areas in a business for which results can measured ::: Defining the product/service ::: 3 dimensions of business results ::: The burden of pushing through the step-by-step process of analysis ::: Revenues, resources, prospects ::: Relate result areas to the revenue contribution and share of cost burden ::: Question ::: What are the essential, few but fundamental facts on which to base a diagnosis of a business and its result areas? ::: Concepts apply to … ::: Products/services ::: Customers, markets, end-uses ::: Distributive channels ::: The form of analysis examines the entire product range of a business ::: - "Revenue contribution" based on transaction cost ::: Allocation of key resources to each result area. ::: - "Key resources" committed to result areas : quality /purpose ::: Questions ::: What are the scarce & expensive resources being used for? ::: In what areas are they deployed? ::: Are they applied to opportunities or to problems? ::: And to the most promising opportunities? ::: Key resources … ::: Knowledge-people resources - trained people ::: Money/working capital ::: Quality of resources vs. total resources ::: Mobility of resources ::: Analysis format : people ::: Product ::: Revenue ::: Quantity & quality of key personnel support ::: Analysis format : money ::: Product identification ::: Revenue ::: Money allocation as a % of company totals ::: Leadership position and prospects of each result area. ::: - "Leadership"(outside) analysis & growth prospects(future) ::: Leadership ::: Not a quantitative term. ::: Product must be ::: Best fitted for one or more of the genuine wants of market or customer. ::: Customer must be willing to pay for. ::: Preferring the product to its competitors ::: Market size, development, monopoly, & market position ::: Need to be the leader in the areas of the business ::: which are the mainstay of the business ::: produce the bulk of the sales ::: generate the bulk of the costs ::: absorb the most important & most valuable resources ::: Foundations of leadership position ::: Analysis format ::: Product … ::: Revenue ::: Leadership position & comments ::: Short-term prospects ::: Tentative diagnosis of result areas ::: Classify the result area ::: Factors involved in diagnosing the product ::: What to do with a result area diagnosed as… ::: Analysis format ::: Anticipate a change in the character of a product ::: Cost analysis ::: What matters about costs ::: Prerequisites for effective cost control p.69 ::: To be able to control cost need an analysis that: ::: Identifies the "cost centers" ::: Finds the important "cost points" in each major cost center ::: Looks at the entire business as one cost stream ::: Defines cost as what the customer pays rather than by entities ::: Classifies cost [points] according to their basic characteristics ::: Tied to market analysis before action ::: Format ::: Conclusions: ::: What to tackle? ::: Where to go to work? ::: What to aim at? ::: Market analysis ::: Introduction ::: How are we doing? Is answered by the analysis of the business. ::: How do we know whether we are doing the right things ::: What in other words is our business—and what should our business be ::: Business is a process which ::: The purpose of a business is to create a customer. ::: Need to find out what one gets paid for. ::: The disparity between what producers and customers see as related products ::: People inside a business can rarely be expected to recognize their own distinct knowledge ::: An appraisal of ::: Looking at one's own business from the outside. ::: The marketing realities ::: These marketing realities lead to one conclusion ::: The market analysis ::: Market analysis is a good deal more than ordinary market research or customer research ::: Other books ::: Analytical questions ::: Analysis worksheets ::: Picture ::: Knowledge analysis ::: Knowledge ::: Need a leadership position and differentiation ::: What a business is able to do with excellence may be quite humdrum but this one does much better ::: May be purely technological ::: Examples—from an outsiders point of view ::: Uncovering one's specific business knowledge strengths ::: What have we done well? ::: What have we done poorly? ::: What explains our performance? ::: Ask good customers: what do we do for you that no one else does as well? ::: Need to learn to set goals and measure in terms of one's specific knowledge ::: Knowledge realities ::: A valid definition of the specific knowledge of a business is deceptively simple. ::: Takes practice to do a knowledge analysis well. ::: Knowledge is a perishable commodity. ::: Every knowledge becomes the wrong knowledge. ::: Need to concentration on doing a few things superbly well ::: Evaluations (diagnosis)—how good is our knowledge? ::: Do we have the right knowledge? ::: How effectively the right knowledge is being used? ::: The conclusions ::: - of the knowledge analysis ::: must be fed back into the marketing analysis to bring out market opportunities that might have been missed or underrated. ::: of the market analysis ::: are projected on the knowledge analysis ::: to bring out needs for new and changed knowledge. ::: Superimpose ::: Combining the various analysis ::: The analysis ::: Results, revenues, resources ::: Cost centers and cost structure ::: Marketing ::: Knowledge ::: Should be able to ::: Understand itself ::: Diagnose itself ::: Direct itself ::: Market analysis  knowledge analysis: Needs for new or changed knowledge. ::: Knowledge analysis  market analysis: Missed or underrated market opportunities. ::: Reexamine tentative diagnois in light of the market and knowledge analysis ::: Change of classification ::: Change of definition ::: Change in the way products/services, channels, markets/customers/end-uses fit together. ::: Substantial modification in … ::: Radical reclassification of costs and to change in the deployment ::: Examples of actions taken ::: What is lacking (3 gaps) ::: Need a major development ::: Lack of "adequate support" to exploit opportunities & success ::: Gap in knowledge needs & opportunities ::: The end result of the self-analysis ::: The business's contribution ::: Knowledge area excellences ::: Target result areas ::: Vehicles required to reach these targets ::: The leadership position required in each result area ::: Focus on opportunity ::: Building on strength ::: Ideal business concept ::: Maximizing opportunities ::: Maximizing resources ::: What these approaches have in common ::: The three together (what they do) ::: Procedure ::: Develop concept of ideal business ::: Design of the ideal business ::: IDEAL BUSINESS design controls itself ::: The "present" ::: Important thing is to get Major Results fast. ::: Project the ideal business design on the analysis of the existing business ::: Sort all the … into 3 categories ::: Push priorities ::: Rapid & purposeful abandonment ::: Also rans ::: What are the different things that ought to be done? ::: Identify replacements ::: Distinguishing between a replacement and a development ::: Should never present great technical difficulty. ::: Identify innovations ::: Examples ::: Innovation is ::: Questions: describing the need ::: What is lacking to make effective what is already possible? ::: What one small step would transform our economic results? ::: What small change would alter the capacity of the ::: Decide whether the results can be obtained ::: Maximizing resources/staffing for performance ::: Obstacles ::: Opportunity & resource ranking ::: List & rank opportunities ::: List & rank first-rate people & staff groups ::: The highest ranked opportunities is assigned all the high ranking ::: The next ranking opportunity comes next ::: Finding business potential ::: Restraints & limitations ::: Questions ::: The restraints of the business and industry ::: The vulnerabilities of the business and industry ::: The limitations of the business and industry ::: Examples ::: The essentials ::: Three major areas in which restraint should be looked for ::: The most promising area of potential is the built-in restraint of a business. ::: Imbalances—turning weaknesses into strengths ::: Chronic imbalance ::: Cost structure ::: The required action depends on the cause of the imbalance ::: Imbalances in support/policing activities or waste ::: Imbalances caused by productive efforts ::: Most important cases—Businesses that are the wrong size ::: Threats ::: Examples ::: Hidden opportunity in developments that seem to threaten a business or industry ::: What everybody in the business "knows" can never happen should be examined carefully. ::: What opportunities does this trend offer? ::: Conclusion ::: Making the future today ::: The future ::: We know only two things about the future: ::: The implications ::: On risk ::: The one thing that man can try ::: The future that has already happened ::: The clues/sources of change ::: Knowledge ::: Major cultural changes ::: Industry and marketing structures ::: Population ::: Other industries, countries, markets ::: Internal friction within the company. ::: A business or activity that has reached its objectives. ::: Own assumptions ::: Looking for the future that has already happened ::: The power of this approach ::: Making the future happen (the power of an idea) ::: A different idea. ::: An entrepreneurial idea. ::: Source of the idea ::: By converting an existing theoretical proposition into and effective business. ::: By converting an existing idea into a business ::: Merely imitation of something that works in another country or industry ::: What's needed? ::: Willingness to ask ::: Willingness to look beyond products to ideas ::: Requires courage to commit resources to such an idea. ::: A touchstone of validity and practicality. ::: Operation validity ::: Economic validity ::: Personal commitment ::: Is this necessary? ::: A personal opportunity. ::: Performance program ::: Key decisions ::: Idea of the business ::: The requirements of validity ::: Sums up the answers to the questions: ::: It establishes objectives ::: It sets goals & direction ::: It determines what ::: The specific excellence the business needs ::: What is our excellence? ::: Very different definitions of excellence can be equally valid. ::: Basis for the decisions on personnel: ::: Cannot be changed very often ::: The priorities ::: There have to be priority decisions or nothing will get done. ::: Priority decisions ::: Need to set posteriorities ::: Principles of maximizing opportunities & resources govern the priority decisions ::: The key decisions must be made systematically. ::: What ever a company's program, it must ::: Decide on the right opportunities and right risks ::: A business has to try to minimize risks. ::: No way to make sure that the right opportunities are chosen. ::: Opportunities ::: Risks need to be classified ::: Decide on scope & structure ::: Every business needs a core - an area where it leads ::: Must specialize. ::: Must diversify. ::: The balance between the two ::: Determines the scope ::: Largely determines the productivity of the company's resource. ::: The perfect balance can be easily upset. ::: Integration is often used as a means to diversify or concentrate. ::: Seek the right balance between … ::: specialization ::: diversification ::: integration ::: These are strategies of high impact & high risk. ::: Need a map of concentration, diversification, and integration ::: Decide between "building one's own" & "buying" to attain one's goals. ::: Main thrust of development comes from within - requires time. ::: Financial strategies & the tools of finance: ::: Sale of subsidiary business or product line ::: Acquisition or merger ::: Joint venture ::: Decide on organization structure ::: Appropriate to: ::: Its economic realities. ::: Its opportunities. ::: Its program for performance. ::: Structure has to highlight the results that are truly meaningful ::: As changes occur: ::: One job that always needs to be organized as a distinct ::: Implementing the program ::: Building economic performance into a business ::: Program must be converted into work for which someone is responsible. ::: The work plan ::: The foundations are the decisions on ::: Derive goals & targets ::: Assessment of the efforts required ::: Selection of the resources to be committed. ::: Work assignments ::: Performance becomes the job for which someone is responsible. ::: Deadline ::: Special attention needs to be paid to planning knowledge work. ::: Demands ::: Especially for research of any kind. ::: It is important in knowledge work ::: Not to do things that will not lead to major results ::: To abandon what is no longer productive ::: Concentrate the scarce resources where the results are. ::: Done by people of extraordinary ability ::: Program must be anchored in the practices of the business. ::: Proposals ::: All proposals should be directed toward company's program for performance. ::: All proposals should be presented together rather than piecemeal. ::: Each proposal should clearly spell out ::: Systematic review ::: The focus on economic performance must be built into the ::: Jobs of people ::: Spirit of the organization. ::: If a company is to obtain the needed contributions, it must reward those who make them. ::: Spirit of the organization made by the people it chooses for senior positions. ::: The crucial promotion ::: Grounds for promotion ::: Building business performance into a human organization ::: Conclusion ::: Every knowledge worker has to act the entrepreneur. ::: The task of top management ::: The executive's commitment ::: The first social responsibility of the manager today ::: The knowledge worker continue


bbx Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices — Preface - The Alternative to Tyranny ::: Introduction - From Management Boom to Management Performance ::: The Emergence of Management ::: The Management Boom and Its Lessons ::: The New Challenges ::: The Tasks ::: The Dimensions of Management ::: Performance ::: Business Performance ::: Managing a Business: The Sears Story ::: What Is a Business? ::: Business Purpose and Business Mission ::: The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons ::: Strategies, Objectives, Priorities, and Work Assignments ::: Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill ::: Performance in the Service Institution ::: The Multi - Institutional Society ::: Why Service Institutions Do Not Perform ::: The Exceptions and Their Lessons ::: Managing Service Institutions for Performance ::: Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: The New Realities ::: What We Know (and Don’t Know) About Work, Working, and Worker ::: Making Work Productive: Work and Process ::: Making Work Productive: Controls and Tools ::: Worker and Working: Theories and Reality ::: Success Stories: Japan, Zeiss, IBM ::: The Responsible Worker ::: Employment, Incomes, and Benefits ::: “People Are Our Greatest Asset” ::: Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: Management and the Quality of Life ::: Social Impacts and Social Problems ::: The Limits of Social Responsibility ::: Business and Government ::: Primum Non Nocere: ::: The Manager: Work, Jobs, Skills, and Organization ::: Why Managers? ::: The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: What Makes a Manager? ::: The Manager and His Work ::: Design and Content of Managerial Jobs ::: Developing Management and Managers ::: Management by Objectives and Self-Control ::: From Middle Management to Knowledge Organization ::: The Spirit of Performance ::: Managerial Skills ::: The Effective Decision ::: Managerial Communications ::: Controls, Control, and Management ::: The Manager and the Management Sciences ::: Managerial Organization ::: New Needs and New Approaches ::: The Building Blocks of Organization… ::: … And How They Join Together ::: Design Logics and Design Specifications ::: Work- and Task- Focused Design: Functional Structure and Team ::: Result - Focused Design: Federal and Simulated Decentralization ::: Relations - Focused Design: The Systems Structure ::: Organization Conclusions ::: Top Management: Tasks, Organization, Strategies ::: Georg Siemens and the Deutsche Bank ::: Top - Management Tasks and Organization ::: Top - Management Tasks ::: Top - Management Structure ::: Needed: An Effective Board ::: Strategies and Structures ::: On Being the Right Size ::: Managing the Small, the Fair - Sized, the Big Business ::: On Being the Wrong Size ::: The Pressures for Diversity ::: Building Unity Out of Diversity ::: Managing Diversity ::: The Multinational Corporation ::: Managing Growth ::: The Innovative Organization ::: Conclusion: The Legitimacy of Management continue


bbx Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices — Contents ::: Peter Drucker’s Legacy by Jim Collins ::: Introduction to the Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices ::: Preface ::: 1 Introduction: Management and Managers Defined ::: 2 Management as a Social Function and Liberal Art ::: 3 The Dimensions of Management ::: Part I Management’s New Realities ::: 4 Knowledge Is All ::: 5 New Demographics ::: 6 The Future of the Corporation and the Way Ahead ::: 7 Management’s New Paradigm ::: Part II Business Performance ::: 8 The Theory of the Business ::: 9 The Purpose and Objectives of a Business ::: 10 Making the Future Today ::: 11 Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill ::: Part III Performance in Service Institutions ::: 12 Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations ::: 13 What Successful and Performing Nonprofits Are Teaching Business ::: 14 The Accountable School ::: 15 Rethinking “Reinventing Government” ::: 16 Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution ::: Part IV Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: 17 Making Work Productive and the Worker Achieving ::: 18 Managing the Work and Worker in Manual Work ::: 19 Managing the Work and Worker in Knowledge Work ::: Part V Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: 20 Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: 21 The New Pluralism: How to Balance the Special Purpose of the Institution with the Common Good ::: Part VI The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: 22 Why Managers? ::: 23 Design and Content of Managerial jobs ::: 24 Developing Management and Managers ::: 25 Management by Objectives and Self-Control ::: 26 From Middle Management to Information-Based Organizations ::: 27 The Spirit of Performance ::: Part VII Managerial Skills ::: 28 The Elements of Effective Decision Making ::: 29 How to Make People Decisions ::: 30 Managerial Communications ::: 31 Controls, Control, and Management ::: 32 The Manager and the Budget ::: 33 Information Tools and Concepts ::: Part VIII Innovation and Entrepreneurship ::: 34 The Entrepreneurial Business ::: 35 The New Venture ::: 36 Entrepreneurial Strategies ::: 37 Systematic Innovation Using Windows of Opportunity ::: Part IX Managerial Organization ::: 38 Strategies and Structures ::: 39 Work- and Task-Focused Design ::: 40 Three Kinds of Teams ::: 41 Result- and Relation-Focused Design ::: 42 Alliances ::: 43 The CEO in the New Millennium ::: 44 The Impact of Pension Funds on Corporate Governance ::: Part X New Demands on the Individual ::: 45 Managing Oneself ::: 46 Managing the Boss ::: 47 Revitalizing Oneself—Seven Personal Experiences ::: 48 The Educated Person ::: Conclusion: The Manager of Tomorrow ::: Author’s Note ::: Bibliography ::: Drucker Annotated Bibliography ::: Index continue


bbx Management Cases (Revised Edition) — Preface ::: Foreword: Rigor and Relevance by Warren G. Bennis ::: Part I Management’s New Realities ::: Yuhan-Kimberly’s New Paradigm: Respect for Human Dignity ::: Part II Business Performance ::: What Is OUR Business? ::: What Is a Growth Company? ::: Success in the Small Multinational ::: Health Care as a Business ::: Part III Performance in Service Institutions ::: The University Art Museum: Defining Purpose and Mission ::: Rural Development Institute: Should It Tackle the Problem of the Landless Poor in India? ::: The Future of Mt. Hillyer College ::: The Water Museum ::: Should the Water Utility Operate a Museum? ::: Meeting the Growing Needs of the Social Sector ::: The Dilemma of Aliesha State College: Competence versus Need ::: What Are “Results” in the Hospital? ::: Cost Control in the Hospital ::: Part IV Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: Work Simplification and the Marketing Executive ::: The Army Service Forces ::: How Does One Analyze and Organize Knowledge Work? ::: Can One Learn to Manage Subordinates? ::: How to Staff the Dead-end job? ::: The New Training Director in the Hospital ::: Are You One of “Us” or One of “Them”? ::: Midwest Metals and the Labor Union ::: Safety at Kajak Airbase ::: Part V Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: Corporate Image to Brand Image: Yuhan-Kimberly ::: The Peerless Starch Company of Blair, Indiana ::: Part VI The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: Alfred Sloan’s Management Style ::: Performance Development System at Lincoln Electric for Service and Knowledge Workers ::: Internal and External Goal Alignment at Texas Instruments ::: Can You Manage Your Boss? ::: Ross Abernathy and the Frontier National Bank ::: The Failed Promotion ::: Part VII Managerial Skills ::: Lyndon Johnson’s Decision ::: The New Export Manager ::: The Insane Junior High School Principal ::: The Structure of a Business Decision ::: The Corporate Control Panel ::: Part VIII Innovation and Entrepreneurship ::: Research Strategy and Business Objectives ::: Who Is the Brightest Hamster in the Laboratory? ::: Andy Grove of Intel: Entrepreneur Turned Executive ::: The Chardack-Greatbatch Implantable Pacemaker ::: Part IX Managerial Organization ::: The Invincible Life Assurance Company ::: The Failed Acquisition ::: Banco Mercantil: Organization Structure ::: The Universal Electronics Company ::: Research Coordination in the Pharmaceutical Industry ::: The Aftermath of Tyranny ::: What Is the Contribution of Bigness? ::: Part X New Demands on the Individual ::: The Function of the Chief Executive ::: Drucker’s Ideas for School Reform ::: What Do You Want to Be Remembered For? continue


bbx The Ecological VisionPart One: American Experiences ::: Introduction to Part One ::: The American Genius is Political ::: Calhoun’s Pluralism ::: Henry Ford: The Last Populist ::: IBM’s Watson: Vision for Tomorrow ::: The Myth of American Uniformity ::: Part Two: Economics as a Social Dimension ::: Introduction to Part Two ::: The Economic Basis of American Politics ::: The Poverty of Economic Theory ::: The Delusion of Profits ::: Schumpeter and Keynes ::: Keynes: Economics as a Magical System ::: Part Three: The Social Function of Management ::: Introduction to Part Three ::: Management’s Role ::: Management: The Problems of Success ::: Social Innovation: Management’s New Dimension ::: Part Four: Business as a Social Institution ::: Introduction to Part Four ::: Can There Be “Business Ethic”? ::: The New Productivity Challenge ::: The Emerging Theory of Manufacturing ::: The Hostile Takeover and Its Discontents ::: Part Five: Work, Tools, and Society ::: Introduction to Part Five ::: Work and Tools ::: Technology, Science, and Culture ::: India and Appropriate Technology ::: The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessions ::: Part Six: The Information-Based Society ::: Introduction to Part Six ::: Information, Communications, and Understanding ::: Information and the Future of the City ::: The Information-Base Organization ::: Part Seven: Japan as Society and Civilization ::: Introduction to Part Seven ::: A View of Japan through Japanese Art ::: Japan: The Problems of Success ::: Behind Japan’s Success ::: Misinterpreting Japan and the Japanese ::: How Westernized Are the Japanese? ::: Part Eight: Why Society is Not Enough ::: Introduction to Part Eight ::: The Unfashionable Kiekegaard ::: Afterword: Reflections of a Social Ecologist continue


bbx A Functioning Society — This collection presents the full range of Drucker’s thought on community, society, and the political structure, and constitutes an ideal introduction to his work ::: Contents ::: Introduction: Community, Society, Polity Acknowledgments ::: Prologue: What is a Functioning Society? connect ::: Part 1: Foundations ::: Introduction to Part ::: 1. From Rousseau to Hitler ::: 2. The Conservative Counter Revolution of 1776 ::: 3. A Conservative Approach ::: Part 2: The Rise of Totalitarianism ::: Introduction to Part 2 ::: 4. The Return of Demons 4 ::: 5. The Failure of Marxism ::: Part 3: The Sickness of Government ::: Introduction to Part 3 ::: 6. From Nation-State to Megastate ::: 7. The Sickness-of Government ::: 8. No More Salvation by Society ::: Part 4: The New Pluralism ::: Introduction to Part 4 ::: 9. The New Pluralism ::: 10. Toward a Theory of Organizations ::: 11. The Society of Organizations ::: Part 5: The Corporation as a Social Institution ::: Introduction to Part 5 ::: 12. The Governance of Corporations ::: 13. The Corporation as a Social Institution ::: 14. The Corporation as a Political Institution ::: Part 6: The Knowledge Society ::: Introduction to Part 6 ::: 15. The New World-View ::: 16. From Capitalism to Knowledge Society ::: 17. The Productivity of the Knowledge Worker ::: Part 7: The Next Society ::: Introduction to Part 7 ::: 19. The Next Society continue


bbx The Definitive Drucker — Endorsements ::: Title and copyright info ::: Contents ::: Foreword by A.G. Lafley Chairman, President, and CEO P&G ::: Introduction ::: A call from Peter Drucker ::: An already full schedule ::: Twenty-first century realities ::: The shaping and creation of this book ::: Peter Drucker’ liberating impact ::: Drucker Ideas ::: Book contents ::: Drucker’s declarations ::: Drucker Philosopy ::: Efficiency vs. Effectiveness ::: On Money ::: On Management ::: On Knowledge ::: On the Individual ::: Doing Business in the Lego World ::: The Silent Revolution ::: Embracing The Future ::: The Primacy Of Knowledge ::: The Lego World ::: A New Solution Space ::: Implications For Managers ::: Conclusion ::: The Customer: Joined at the Hip ::: Medtronic ::: Connecting With Your Customer: Four Drucker Questions ::: Who Should Be Considered A Customer? ::: Ideas In Action: Shadow Customers ::: Customer Versus Competitor? ::: Who Is Not Your Customer? ::: Which Of Your Current Noncustomers Should You Be Doing Business With? ::: What Does Your Customer Consider Value? ::: Does Your Customer’s Perception Of Value Align With Your Own? ::: How Do Connectivity And Relationships Influence Value? ::: Which Customer Wants Remain Unsatisfied? ::: What Are Your Results With Customers? ::: How Are Outsiders Measuring And Sharing Results And Information About Your Products And Services? ::: Are You Fully Leveraging The Information Your Results Provide? ::: Are You Honest And Socially Responsible In Presenting Your Results? ::: Does Your Customer Strategy And Your Business Strategy Work Together? ::: Procter & Gamble ::: The Grandfather Of Marketing ::: Conclusion ::: Innovation and Abandonment ::: Creating Your Tomorrow: Four Drucker Questions ::: What Do You Have To Abandon To Create Room For Innovation? ::: If You Weren’t In This Business Today, Would You Invest The Resources To Enter It? ::: What Unconscious Assumptions Limit Your Innovative Thinking? ::: Are Your Highest-Achieving People Assigned To Innovative Opportunities? ::: Do You Systematically Seek Opportunities ::: Do You Look For Opportunities As If Your Survival Depended On It? ::: Are You Looking At The Seven Key Sources Of Opportunities? ::: The Unexpected ::: Industry Disparities across Time or Geography ::: Incongruities ::: Process Vulnerabilities ::: Demographic Changes ::: Perception and Priority Changes That Shift Buying Habits ::: New Knowledge ::: Do You Use A Disciplined Process For Converting Ideas Into Practical Solutions? ::: Do You Brainstorm Effectively? ::: Do You Match Up Ideas With The Opportunity? ::: Do You Test And Refine Ideas Based On The Market Response? ::: Do You Deliver The Results? ::: Does Your Innovation Strategy Work With Your Business Strategy? ::: What Is Your Company’s Target Role In Defining New Markets? ::: Do Your Opportunities Fit With Your Business Strategy? ::: Are You Allocating Resources Where You Want To Be Making Bets? ::: How Innovation Enables Ge’s Longevity And Valuation ::: Making Innovation Everyone’s Business ::: In Contrast To Ge: Siemens Ag ::: Different Cultures ::: Differing Results ::: Conclusion ::: Collaboration and Orchestration ::: The Power Of Collaboration ::: Collaboration And Orchestration: Three Drucker Questions ::: What Are The Goals Of Your Collaboration? ::: How Should The Collaboration Be Structured? ::: How Can You Orchestrate Your Collaboration to ... ::: Create A Living Business Plan ::: Structure Communications For Agile Decision Making ::: Track Progress As Measured By Expected Results ::: In one of our conversations, Bill Pollard ::: Conclusion ::: People and Knowledge ::: Alcoa And People ::: Investing In People And Knowledge: Five Drucker Questions ::: What Is The Task? ::: What Knowledge And Working Style Will Help An Individual Win? ::: Drucker listed five rules for making hiring decisions: ::: Are You Accessing The Full Diversity Of The Population? ::: Is There A Clear Mission And Direction That Builds Commitment? ::: Are People Given Autonomy And Support? ::: Are You Playing To People’s Strengths Rather Than Managing Around Their Problems? ::: Do You Systematically Match Strengths With Opportunities? ::: Do Your Structure And Processes Maximize The Knowledge Worker’s Contribution And Productivity? ::: Do You Systematically Develop Employees? ::: Using Talent Management To Accelerate Strategic Change ::: Background ::: A Changing World ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Customer Connection? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Innovation Process? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Collaborations? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your People And Knowledge Management? ::: How People Make The Difference At Edward Jones ::: Google’s 10 Golden Rules For Knowledge Workers ::: Conclusion ::: Decision Making: The Chassis That Holds the Whole Together ::: Decision Making: The Right Risks ::: Decision Making: Four Drucker Questions ::: Is Action Required? ::: Who Should Make The Decision? ::: What’s The Real Issue? ::: What Specifications Must The Solution Meet? ::: Have You Fully Considered All The Alternative Solutions? ::: Have You Gained Commitment And Capacity Of The Implementers? ::: Do You Have Mechanisms That Provide Tracking And Feedback? ::: The Decision Process ::: How Toyota Gets Its Edge ::: The Origins Of The Toyota Way ::: How Toyota Makes Decisions ::: Do the Homework First ::: Look at All Solutions, Build Consensus among Stakeholders, and Set Sights High ::: Implement Rapidly ::: Decision Making By Alfred Sloan ::: Conclusion ::: The Twenty-First-Century CEO ::: Field Of Vision ::: On my first meeting with Frances Hesselbein ::: The CEO Brand ::: When Frank Weise became the CEO of Cott Beverage ::: Influence On People--Collectively And Individually ::: Each Of Us As CEO ::: Endnotes ::: Books By Peter F. Drucker ::: Acknowledgments continue


bbx The Effective Executive — Preface ::: Introduction: What Makes An Effective Executive? ::: Get The Knowledge You Need ::: Write An Action Plan ::: Act ::: Take responsibility for decisions ::: Take responsibility for communicating ::: Focus on opportunities ::: Make meetings productive ::: Think And Say “We” ::: Rule: Listen first, speak last. ::: Effectiveness can be learned and must be earned ::: 1. Effectiveness Can Be Learned ::: Why We Need Effective Executives ::: Who Is An Executive? ::: Executive Realities ::: The Promise Of Effectiveness ::: But Can Effectiveness Be Learned? ::: 2. Know Thy Time ::: The Time Demands On The Executive ::: Time-Diagnosis ::: Pruning The Time-Wasters ::: Consolidating “Discretionary Time” ::: 3. What Can I Contribute? ::: The Executive’s Own Commitment ::: How To Make The Specialist Effective ::: The Right Human Relations ::: The Effective Meeting ::: 4. Making Strength Productive ::: Staffing From Strength ::: How Do I Manage My Boss? ::: Making Yourself Effective ::: 5. First Things First ::: Sloughing Off Yesterday ::: Priorities And Posteriorities ::: 6. The Elements of Decision-making ::: Two Case Studies In Decision-Making ::: The Elements Of The Decision Process ::: 7. Effective Decisions ::: Decision-Making And The Computer ::: Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned ::: Index continue


bbx The Effective Executive in Action — Contents ::: Foreword ::: Introduction: How to Use The Effective Executive in Action ::: 1 Effectiveness Can Be Learned ::: Introduction ::: Getting the Right Things Done ::: The Authority of Knowledge ::: Executive Realities ::: The Effective Personality ::: 2 Know Thy Time ::: Introduction ::: Time: The Limiting Factor to Accomplishment ::: Time Management: The Three Steps ::: Recording Time ::: Activities Involved in Managing Time ::: Eliminate Time-Wasters ::: Delegate Activities ::: Wasting Time of Other People ::: Prune Activities Resulting from Poor Management ::: Overstaffing ::: Malorganization ::: Malfunction in Information ::: Create and Consolidate Blocks of Discretionary Time ::: Effective Use of Discretionary Time ::: 3 Focus on Contribution ::: Introduction ::: Focus on Contribution: Results, Values, and Developing People ::: Focus on Results ::: Contribution of Knowledge Workers ::: Three Key Performance Areas ::: Direct Results ::: For What Does the Organization Stand? ::: Executive Succession ::: Focus on Contribution and People Development ::: Challenges and Contribution ::: Executive Failure ::: Communicating Knowledge ::: Good Human Relations ::: Communications ::: Teamwork ::: Individual Self-Development ::: Develop Others ::: Make Meetings Productive ::: Effective Meetings ::: 4 Making Strength Productive ::: Introduction ::: Purpose of the Organization ::: Staff from Strength ::: Weaknesses in People ::: Look for Outstanding Strength ::: Make Each Job Demanding and Big ::: Make Weaknesses Irrelevant ::: Jobs Structured to Fit Personalities ::: Decision Steps for Effective Staffing Decisions ::: Think Through the Assignment ::: Consider Several Qualified People ::: Study the Performance Records of Candidates ::: Discuss Candidates with Former Colleagues ::: Appointee Should Understand the Assignment ::: Five Ground Rules for Effective Staffing Decisions ::: Responsibility for Failed Placements ::: Responsibility for Removing Non-Performers ::: Right People Decisions for Every Position ::: A Second Chance ::: Place Newcomers in Established Positions ::: Appraise Based on Strengths ::: Character and Integrity ::: How Do I Manage My Boss? ::: A Boss List ::: Input from Bosses ::: Help Bosses Perform ::: Build on Bosses' Strengths ::: Keep Bosses Informed ::: No Surprises ::: Common Mistakes in Managing the Boss ::: Managing Oneself ::: Steps for Managing Oneself ::: Identify Your Strengths ::: Recognize Your Work Style ::: Determine How to Best Make Your Contribution ::: Take Responsibility for Work Relationships ::: Develop Opportunities for the Second Half of Your Life ::: 5 First Things First ::: Introduction ::: Concentration ::: Abandonment ::: Where Abandonment Is Always Right ::: An Abandonment Process ::: Concentrate on a Few Tasks ::: Priorities and Posteriorities ::: Postponing the Work of Top Management ::: Deciding on Posteriorities ::: Rules for Priority Setting ::: 6 Effective Decisions ::: Introduction ::: Decision Making ::: Is a Decision Really Necessary? ::: Elements of Effective Decision Making ::: Classifying the Problem ::: Defining the Problem ::: Specifications of a Decision ::: Deciding on What Is Right ::: The Right Compromise ::: Building Action into the Decision ::: Testing the Decision Against Actual Results ::: The Effective Decision ::: Start with Untested Hypotheses ::: Opinions Rather Than Facts ::: Develop Disagreement ::: The Decision ::: Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned ::: Best Hope to Make Society Productive ::: Authors' Note continue


bbx Managing OneselfHistory’s great achievers ::: Learning to manage oneself ::: What Are My Strengths? ::: Feedback analysis ::: Action implications ::: How Do I Perform? ::: Am I a reader or a listener? ::: How do I learn? ::: Alone or with others—in what relationship? ::: Decision maker or advisor ::: What kind of work environment? ::: Conclusion ::: What Are My Values? ::: Where Do I Belong? ::: What Should I Contribute? ::: Responsibility For Relationships ::: Accepting others as individuals ::: Responsibility for communications ::: The Second Half of Your Life ::: The boredom challenge ::: Three ways to develop a second career ::: Starting a new one ::: The parallel career ::: The social entrepreneur ::: Those who manage themselves are the leaders and models for the rest of society ::: Starting early—a prerequisite ::: Serious setbacks—another motivator ::: Summary—A revolution in human affairs ::: About The Author continue


bbx Managing in Turbulent Times — Introduction ::: Managing the Fundamentals which pertain to TODAY's enterprise ::: Introduction ::: Adjusting for Inflation ::: Managing for liquidity & financial strength ::: Managing the productivities of all resources (PIMS) ::: Earning today the cost of staying in business. ::: Managing for TOMORROW ::: Tomorrow is being made today ::: Concentrating resources on results ::: Sloughing off yesterday ::: Managing Growth ::: Managing Innovation & Change ::: Business Strategies for Tomorrow ::: Management Performance: preparing today's business for the future ::: Managing the Sea-Change: The New Population Structure and the New Population Dynamics ::: Introduction ::: The New Population Realities—Labor forces and customers ::: Institutional affects ::: From "Labor Force" to "Labor Forces" ::: The End of Mandatory Retirement Age ::: The "Double-Headed Monster" ::: Job Needs ::: The Need for Redundancy Planning ::: Managing in Turbulent Environments ::: In three related facets of its environment management faces new realities, challenges, uncertainties ::: Economic ::: Social ::: Political ::: The challenge to Management ::: Management is now being stridently attacked ::: Management will survive ::: Management is the organ of institutions ::: The form which management will take may be quite different tomorrow continue


bbx The Changing World of The Executive — A Society of Organizations ::: Executive Agenda ::: Inflation-Proofing the Company ::: A scorecard for managers ::: Helping Small Business Cope ::: Is Executive Pay Excessive? ::: On Mandatory Executive Retirement ::: The Real Duties of A Director ::: The Information Explosion ::: Learning From Foreign Management ::: Business Performance ::: Delusion of Profits ::: Aftermath of a Go-Go Decade ::: Managing Capital Productivity ::: Six durable Economic Myths ::: Measuring Business Performance ::: Why Consumer's Aren't Behaving ::: Good Growth and Bad Growth ::: The Re-Industrialization Of America ::: The Danger of Excessive Labor Income ::: The Non-Profit Sector ::: Managing the Non-Profit Institution ::: Managing the Knowledge Worker ::: Meaningful Government Reorganization ::: The Decline of Unionization ::: The Future of Health Care ::: The Professor as Featherbedder ::: The Schools in 1990 ::: People at Work ::: Unmaking the Nineteenth Century ::: Retirement Policy ::: Report on the Class of 68 ::: Meaningful Unemployment Figures ::: Baby Boom Problems ::: Planning for Redundant Workers ::: Job as a Property Right ::: The Changing Globe ::: The rise of Production Sharing ::: Japan's Economic Policy Turn ::: The Battle Over Co-Determination ::: A troubled Japanese Juggernaut ::: India & appropriate Technolgy ::: Toward a New Form of Money? ::: How Westernized Are the Japanese? ::: Needed: A Full-Investment Budget ::: A return to Hard Choices ::: The Matter of Business Ethics continue


bbx Frontiers of Management — The Future is Being Shaped Today ::: Interview ::: Economics ::: The Changed World Economy ::: America's Entrepreneurial Job Machine ::: Why OPEC Had to Fail ::: The Changing Multinational ::: Managing Currency Exposure ::: Export Markets and Domestic Policies ::: Europe's High-Tech Ambitions ::: What We Can Learn from the Germans ::: On Entering the Japanese Market ::: Trade with Japan: The Way It Works ::: The Perils of Adversarial Trade ::: Modern Prophets: Schumpeter or Keynes? ::: People ::: Picking People: The Basic Rules ::: Measuring White Collar Productivity ::: Twilight of the first-Line Supervisor? ::: Overpaid Executives: The Greed Effect ::: Overage Executives: Keeping Firms Young ::: Paying the Professional Schools ::: Jobs and People: The Growing Mismatch ::: Quality Education: The New Growth Area ::: Management ::: Management: The Problems of Success ::: Getting Control of Staff Work ::: Slimming Management's Midriff ::: The Information-Based Organization ::: Are Labor Unions Becoming Irrelevant ::: Union Flexibility: Why Its Now a Must ::: Management as a Liberal Art ::: The Organization ::: The Hostile Takeover and Its Discontents ::: Five Rules of Successful Acquisitions ::: Innovative Organization ::: The No-Growth Enterprise ::: Why Automation Pays Off ::: IBM's Watson: Vision for Tomorrow ::: The Lessons of the Bell Breakup ::: Social Needs and Business Opportunities ::: Social Innovation—Management's New Dimension ::: Priorities continue


bbx Managing For The Future — Preface ::: Interview: Notes on the Post-Business Society ::: Economics ::: The futures already around us ::: The poverty of economic theory ::: The transnational economy ::: From world trade to world investment ::: The lessons of the U.S. export boom ::: Low wages: no longer a competitive edge ::: Europe in the 1990s: Strategies for survival ::: U.S.-Japan trade needs a reality check ::: Japan’s great postwar weapon ::: Misinterpreting Japan and the Japanese ::: Help Latin America and help ourselves ::: Mexico’s ace in the hole: the maquiladora ::: People ::: The New Productivity Challenge ::: The mystique of the business leader ::: Leadership: ::: People, work, and the future of the city (Social impacts of information) ::: The fall of the blue-collar worker ::: End work rules and job descriptions ::: Making managers of communist bureaucrats ::: China’s nightmare: ::: Management ::: Tomorrow’s managers: the major trends ::: How to manage the boss ::: What really ails the U.S. auto industry ::: The new Japanese business strategies ::: Manage by walking around—Outside! ::: Corporate culture: Use it, don’t lose it ::: Permanent cost cutting: permanent policy ::: What the nonprofits are teaching business ::: Nonprofit governance: lessons for success (for non-profits) ::: The Nonprofits’ outreach revolution ::: The organization ::: The governance of corporations ::: Four marketing lessons for the future ::: Tomorrow’s company: dressed for success ::: Company performance: five telltale tests ::: R&D: the best is business driven ::: Sell the mailroom: Unbundling in the ’90s ::: The 10 rules of effective research ::: The trend toward alliances for progress ::: A crisis in capitalism: Who’s in charge? ::: The emerging theory of manufacturing ::: Afterword: 1990s and beyond ::: The changing world economy ::: Innovation and entrepreneurship ::: Personal effectiveness continue



bbx Management Challenges for the 21st Century Introduction

One thing is certain for developed countries—and probably for the entire world:

We face long years of profound changes.

The changes are not primarily economic changes.

They are not even primarily technological changes.


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two

They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in worldview.

... snip, snip ...

Thus it can be confidently predicted that a large number of today’s leaders in all areas, whether business, education or health care, are unlikely still to be around thirty years hence, and certainly not in their present form.

... snip, snip ...

But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful.

These changes are not predictable.

The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future. continue

❡ ❡ ❡

bbx The actual results of action are not predictable.

Indeed, if there is one rule for action, and especially for institutional action, it is that the expected results will not be attained.

The unexpected is practically certain.

But are the unexpected results deleterious? Read more

bbx The future that has already happened

bbx The unexpected success


bbx Management Challenges for the 21st Century

bbx Introduction

Those who do work on these challenges today, and thus prepare themselves and their institutions for the new challenges, will be the leaders and dominate tomorrow.

Those who wait until these challenges have indeed become “hot” issues are likely to fall behind, perhaps never to recover.

… snip, snip …

These challenges are not arising out of today.

… snip, snip …

In most cases they are at odds and incompatible with what is accepted and successful today.

We live in a period of PROFOUND TRANSITION and the changes are more radical perhaps than even those that ushered in the “Second Industrial Revolution” of the middle of the 19th century, or the structural changes triggered by the Great Depression and the Second World War.

… snip, snip …

For in many cases— … — the new realities and their demands require a REVERSAL of policies that have worked well for the last century and, even more, a change in the MINDSET of organizations as well as of individuals.

bbx Management’s new paradigms (below)

bbx Strategy: The new certainties

bbx Introduction Why Strategy?

bbx The Collapsing Birthrate

bbx The Distribution of Income

Industries, whether businesses or nonbusinesses, have to be managed differently depending on whether they are growth industries, mature industries or declining industries

… snip, snip …

In conclusion, institutions—businesses as well as nonbusinesses—will have to learn to base their strategy on their knowledge of, and adaptation to, the trends in the distribution of disposable income and, above all, to any shifts in this distribution. And they need both quantitative information and qualitative analysis.

bbx Defining Performance

bbx Global Competitiveness

Competition on the roadS ahead: … “One consequence of this is that every business must become globally competitive, even if it manufactures or sells only within a local or regional market. The competition is not local anymore—in fact, it knows no boundaries. Every company has to become transnational in the way it is run. … But in e-commerce there are neither local companies nor distinct geographies. Where to manufacture, where to sell, and how to sell will remain important business decisions. But in another twenty years they may no longer determine what a company does, how it does it, and where it does it” … source

All institutions have to make global competitiveness a strategic goal.

No institution, whether a business, a university or a hospital, can hope to survive, let alone to succeed, unless it measures up to the standards set by the leaders in its field, anyplace in the world.

One implication: It is no longer possible to base a business or a country’s economic development on cheap labor.

However low its wages, a business—except for the smallest and most purely local one, for example, a local restaurant—is unlikely to survive, let alone to prosper, unless its workforce rapidly attains the productivity of the leaders of the industry anyplace in the world.

This is true particularly in manufacturing.

For in most manufacturing industries of the developed world the cost of manual labor is rapidly becoming a smaller and smaller factor—one-eighth of total costs or less.

Low labor productivity endangers a company’s survival.

But low labor costs no longer give enough of a cost advantage to offset low labor productivity.

This (as already said in Chapter One) also means that the economic development model of the 20th century—the model first developed by Japan after 1955 and then successfully copied by South Korea and Thailand—no longer works.

Despite their enormous surplus of young people qualified only for unskilled manual work, emerging countries from now on will have to base growth either on technological leadership (as did the United States and Germany in the second half of the 19th century), or on productivity equal to that of the world leaders in a given industry, if not on themselves becoming the world’s productivity leaders.

The same is true for all areas: Design, Marketing, Finance, Innovation—that is, for management altogether.

Performance below the world’s highest standards stunts, even if the costs are very low and even if government subsidies are very high.

And “Protection” no longer protects, no matter how high the custom duties or how low the import quotas.

Still, in all likelihood, we face a protectionist wave throughout the world in the next few decades.

For the first reaction to a period of turbulence is to try to build a wall that shields one’s own garden from the cold winds outside.

But such walls no longer protect institutions—and especially businesses—that do not perform up to world standards.

It will only make them more vulnerable.

The best example is Mexico, which for fifty years from 1929 on had a deliberate policy of building its domestic economy independent of the outside world.

It did this not only by building high walls of protectionism to keep foreign competition out.

it did it—and this was uniquely Mexican in the 20th century world—by practically forbidding its own companies to export.

This attempt to create a modern but purely Mexican economy failed dismally.

Mexico actually became increasingly dependent on imports, both of food and of manufactured products, from the outside world.

It was finally forced to open itself to the outside world, since it simply could no longer pay for the needed imports.

And then Mexico found that a good deal of its industry could not survive.

Similarly, the Japanese tried to protect the bulk of their business and industry by keeping the foreigners out while creating a small but exceedingly competitive number of export industries—and then providing these industries with capital at very low or no cost, thus giving them a tremendous competitive advantage.

That policy too has failed.

The present (1999) crisis in Japan is in large part the result of the failure to make the bulk of Japanese business and industry (and especially its financial industries) globally competitive.

Strategy, therefore, has to accept a new fundamental.

Any institution—and not just businesses—has to measure itself against the standards set by each industry’s leaders anyplace in the world.

bbx The Growing Incongruence Between Economic Reality and Political Reality

bbx The change leader

sr One cannot manage change

“One can only be ahead of it.

We do not hear much anymore about “overcoming resistance to change,” which ten or fifteen years ago was one of the most popular topics of management books and management seminars.

Everybody has accepted by now that “change is unavoidable.”

But this still implies that change is like “death and taxes”: It should be postponed as long as possible, and no change would be vastly preferable.

But in a period of upheavals, such as the one we are living in, change is the norm.

To be sure, it is painful and risky, and above all it requires a great deal of very hard work.

But unless it is seen as the task of the organization to lead change, the organization whether business, university, hospital and so on will not survive.

In a period of rapid structural change, the only ones who survive are the Change Leaders.

It is therefore a central 21st-century challenge for management that its organization become a change leader.

A change leader sees change as opportunity.

A change leader looks for change, knows how to find the right changes and knows how to make them effective both outside the organization and inside

bbx Change policies

sb Organized abandonment

bbx Organized improvement

bbx Exploiting success

Reports and meetings ::: staffing opportunities

bbx Creating change

The last policy for the change leader to build into the enterprise is a systematic policy of INNOVATION, that is, a policy to create change.

It is the area to which most attention is being given today.

It may, however, not be the most important one—organized abandonment, improvement, exploiting success may be more productive for a good many enterprises.

And without these policies—abandonment, improvement, exploitation—no organization can hope to be a successful innovator.

But to be a successful change leader an enterprise has to have a policy of systematic innovation.

And the main reason may not even be that change leaders need to innovate—though they do.

The main reason is that a policy of systematic innovation produces the mindset for an organization to be a change leader.

It makes the entire organization see change as an opportunity.

bbx Windows of opportunity

  • Unexpected successes ::: unexpected failures ::: unexpected events
  • Incongruities
  • Process needs
  • Changes in industry and market structures
  • Changes in demographics
  • Changes in meaning and perception
  • New knowledge

This requires a systematic policy to look, every six to twelve months, for changes that might be opportunities

The unexpected success was Drucker’s favorite

… but if innovation is based on exploiting what has already happened—in the enterprise itself, in its markets, in knowledge, in society, in demographics and so on—it is far less risky

And this work should be organized as a regular part of every unit within the enterprise, and of every level of management.

Important to harvest and apply Dense reading and Dense listening and Thinking broad and Thinking detailed

bbx What not to do

bbx Piloting

bbx The change leader’s two budgets

bbx Change and continuity

bbx Making the future

“One thing is certain for developed countries—and probably for the entire world:

We face long years of profound changes.

The changes are not primarily economic changes.

They are not even primarily technological changes.

They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in worldview.

See these

Economic theory and economic policy are unlikely to be effective by themselves in such a period.

And there is no social theory for such a period either.

Only when such a period is over, decades later, are theories likely to be developed to explain what has happened.

But a few things are certain in such a period.

It is futile, for instance, to try to ignore the changes and to pretend that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.

This, however, is the position that existing institutions tend to adopt in such a period—businesses as well as nonbusinesses.

It is, above all, the policy likely to be adopted by the institutions that were most successful in the earlier period before the changes.

They are most likely to suffer from the delusion that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.

Thus it can be confidently predicted that a large number of today’s leaders in all areas, whether business, education or health care, are unlikely still to be around thirty years hence, and certainly not in their present form.

But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful.

These changes are not predictable.

The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future.

Changes of course have to fit the certainties (which this book attempted to outline in the preceding chapter).

Within these restraints, however, the future is still malleable.

It can still be created.

To try to make the future is highly risky.

It is less risky, however, than not to try to make it.

A goodly proportion of those attempting to do what this chapter discusses will surely not succeed.

But, predictably, no one else will.” (survive?)

Creativity — making the future II

“The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades.

The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened, the social transformations of the twentieth century” — A Century of Social Transformation

bbx Information challenges

bbx Knowledge worker productivity

bbx Managing oneself (a revolution in human affairs)



bbx Managing in the Next Society



bbx Beyond the Information Revolution

bbx The Exploding World of the Internet

bbx From Computer Literacy to Information Literacy

bbx E-Commerce: The Central Challenge

bbx The New Economy Isn’t Here Yet

bbx The CEO in the New Millennium


bbx Entrepreneurs and Innovation

bbx They’re Not Employees, They’re People

bbx Financial Services: Innovate or Die

bbx Moving Beyond Capitalism?


bbx The Rise of the Great Institutions

bbx The Global Economy and the Nation-State

bbx It’s the Society, Stupid

bbx On Civilizing the City


bbx The Next Society

bbx The New Demographics

bbx The New Workforce

bbx The Manufacturing Paradox

bbx Will the Corporation Survive?

bbx The Future of Top Management

bbx The Way Ahead



bbx The Effective Executive(#impact)

To be reasonably effective it is not enough for the individual to be intelligent, to work hard or to be knowledgeable.

Effectiveness is something separate, something different.


The realities of the executive’s situation both demand effectiveness from him and make effectiveness exceedingly difficult to achieve.

Indeed, unless executives work at becoming effective, the realities of their situation will push them into futility.

Take a quick look at the realities of a knowledge worker outside an organization to see the problem.

A physician has by and large no problem of effectiveness.

The patient who walks into his office brings with him everything to make the physician’s knowledge effective.

During the time he is with the patient, the doctor can, as a rule, devote himself to the patient.

He can keep interruptions to a minimum.

The contribution the physician is expected to make is clear.

What is important, and what is not, is determined by whatever ails the patient.

The patient’s complaints establish the doctor’s priorities.

And the goal, the objective, is given: It is to restore the patient to health or at least to make him more comfortable.

Physicians (doctors) are not noted for their capacity to organize themselves and their work.

But few of them have much trouble being effective.

The executive in organization is in an entirely different position.

In his situation there are four major realities over which he has essentially no control.

Every one of them is built into organization and into the executive’s day and work.


He has no choice but to “cooperate with the inevitable.”


But every one of these realitiesexerts pressure toward nonresults and nonperformance.

tblue The executive’s time tends to belong to everybody else

tblue Executives are forced to keep on “operating” unless they take positive action

tblue Being within an “organization” pushes the executive toward ineffectiveness

tblue Finally, the executive is “within” an organization

see Executive realities




“Men of high effectiveness are conspicuous by their absence in executive jobs.

High intelligence is common enough among executives.

Imagination is far from rare.

The level of knowledge tends to be high.

But there seems to be little correlation between a man’s effectiveness and his intelligence, his imagination, or his knowledge.

Brilliant men are often strikingly ineffectual; they fail to realize that the brilliant insight is not by itself achievement.

They never have learned that insights become effectiveness only through hard systematic work.

Conversely, in every organization there are some highly effective plodders.

While others rush around in the frenzy and busyness which very bright people so often confuse with creativity,’ the plodder puts one foot in front of the other and gets there first, like the tortoise in the old fable.”

Executive realities

The Effective Executive in Action

What executives should remember



“Follow effective action with quiet reflection.

From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action.” — Peter Drucker



“Success always obsoletes the very behavior that achieved it.

It always creates new realities.

It always creates, above all, its own and different problems …” continue



“The last twenty years have been very unsettling.

Executives really don’t understand the world they live in” — PFD Forbes


bbx What Makes An Effective Executive?

… a brief introduction from Peter F. Drucker’s work

An effective executive does not need to be a leader in the sense that the term is now most commonly used.

Harry Truman did not have one ounce of charisma, for example, yet he was among the most effective chief executives in US. history.

Similarly, some of the best business and nonprofit CEOs I’ve worked with over a 65-year consulting career were not stereotypical leaders.

They were all over the map in terms of their personalities, attitudes, values, strengths, and weaknesses.

They ranged from extroverted to nearly reclusive, from easy-going to controlling, from generous to parsimonious.

What made them all effective is that they followed the same eight practices:

1. They asked, “What needs to be done?

sidebar ↓

“I’ve seen a great many people who are exceedingly good at execution, but exceedingly poor at picking the important things.

They are magnificent at getting the unimportant things done.

They have an impressive record of achievement on trivial matters” — PFD

main brainroad continues ↓

The answer to the question “What needs to be done?” almost always contains more than one urgent task.

But effective executives do not splinter themselves.

They concentrate on one task if at all possible.

If they are among those people—a sizable minority—who work best with a change of pace in their working day, they pick two tasks.

I have never encountered an executive who remains effective while tackling more than two tasks at a time.

Hence, after asking what needs to be done, the effective executive sets priorities and sticks to them.

For a CEO, the priority task might be redefining the company’s mission.

For a unit head, it might be redefining the unit’s relationship with headquarters.

Other tasks, no matter how important or appealing, are postponed.

However, after completing the original top-priority task, the executive resets priorities rather than moving on to number two from the original list.

He asks, “What must be done now?”

This generally results in new and different priorities.

… But Welch also thought through another issue before deciding where to concentrate his efforts for the next five years.

He asked himself which of the two or three tasks at the top of the list he himself was best suited to undertake.

Then he concentrated on that task; the others he delegated.

Effective executives try to focus on jobs they’ll do especially well.

They know that enterprises perform if top management performs—and don’t if it doesn’t.

2. They asked, “What is right for the enterprise?”

Effective executives’ second practice—fully as important as the first—is to ask, “Is this the right thing for the enterprise?”

They do not ask if it’s right for the owners, the stock price, the employees, or the executives.

Of course they know that shareholders, employees, and executives are important constituencies who have to support a decision, or at least acquiesce in it, if the choice is to be effective.

They know that the share price is important not only for the shareholders but also for the enterprise, since the price/earnings ratio sets the cost of capital.

But they also know that a decision that isn’t right for the enterprise will ultimately not be right for any of the stakeholders.

3. They developed action plans.

4. They took responsibility for decisions.

People decisions — the true control of an organization

5. They took responsibility for communicating.

6. They were focused on opportunities rather than problems.

7. They ran productive meetings.

8. They thought and said “we” rather than “I.”

The first two practices gave them the knowledge they needed.

The next four helped them convert this knowledge into effective action.

The last two ensured that the whole organization felt responsible and accountable.

We’ve just reviewed eight practices of effective executives.

I’m going to throw in one final, bonus practice.

This one’s so important that I’ll elevate it to the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last.

bbx Managing the Non-Profit Organization and part-one summary

Beware of good intentions

bbx Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations

bbx Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution

bbx How to guarantee nonperformance

bbx What results should you expect? — a user’s guide to MBO

bbx Organization actions: creating change to abandonment


Job-holder horizons

StrengthsFinder 2.0

Mojo: How to Get It, How to Keep It, How to Get It Back if You Lose It by Marshall Goldsmith

How to Win Friends & Influence People

Winning: The Answers





Management Worldviews #mbr

future of the planet


Management and the World’s Work


“None of our institutions exists by itself and is an end in itself,” Drucker wrote in his book Management — Revised Edition

“Every one is an organ of society and exists for the sake of society.

Business is no exception.

Free enterprise cannot be justified as being good for business;

it can be justified only as being good for society.” continue


“The CEO in the New Millennium” here




Management and Economic Development (#impact)

“Management creates economic and social development.

Economic and social development is the result of management.

It can be said, without too much oversimplification, that there are no “underdeveloped countries.”

There are only “undermanaged” ones. continue


Urban world ↓ ::: Larger view


Frontiers of development

This means that management is the prime mover and that development is a consequence.

All our experience in economic development proves this.

Wherever we have only capital, we have not achieved development.

In the few cases where we have been able to generate management energies, we have generated rapid development.

Development, in other words, is a matter of human energies rather than of economic wealth.

And the generation and direction of human energies is THE task of management.” continue

Feb 20 — The Daily Drucker



Post-capitalist executive




… Of course, it is always important to adapt to economic changes rapidly, intelligently, and rationally. (#impact) #mbr

But managing implies responsibility

for attempting to shape the economic environment;

for planning, initiating, and carrying through changes in that economic environment;

for constantly pushing back the limitations of economic circumstances on the enterprise’s ability to contribute.

What is possible—the economist’s “economic conditions”—is therefore only one pole in managing a business.

What is desirable in the interest of economy and enterprise is the other.

And while humanity can never really “master” the environment, while we are always held within a tight vise of possibilities, it is management’s specific job to make what is desirable first possible and then actual.

Management is not just a creature of the economy; it is a creator as well.

And only to the extent to which it masters the economic circumstances, and alters them by consciously directed action, does it really manage.

To manage a business means, therefore, to manage by objectives

Chapters 4 - 11, Management, Revised Edition


What need’s doing? ::: How to guarantee non-performance ::: The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ever Ask About Your Nonprofit Organization ::: What Results Should You Expect? — A Users’ Guide to MBO ::: The Wisdom of Peter Drucker ::: Life 2.0 ::: Finishing Well ::: Allocating your life ::: Without an effective mission there will be no results ::: Managing Oneself ← a revolution in human affairs ::: Creating Tomorrow’s Society Of Citizens ::: Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations ::: Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution ::: Purposeful Innovation (try a page search for “purpose” in Innovation and Entrepreneurship)




DESPITE its crucial importance, its high visibility and its spectacular rise, management is the least known and the least understood of our basic institutions.

Even the people in a business often do not know what their management does and what it is supposed to be doing, how it acts and why, whether it does a good job or not.

Indeed, the typical picture of what goes on in the “front office” or on “the fourteenth floor” in the minds of otherwise sane, well-informed and intelligent employees (including, often, people themselves in responsible managerial and specialist positions) bears striking resemblance to the medieval geographer’s picture of Africa as the stamping ground of the one-eyed ogre, the two-headed pygmy, the immortal phoenix and the elusive unicorn.

What then is management: What does it do?


“Management, in most business schools, is still taught as a bundle of techniques, such as the technique of budgeting.

To be sure, management, like any other work, has its own tools and its own techniques.

But just as the essence of medicine is not the urinalysis, important though it is, the essence of management is not techniques and procedures.

The essence of management is to make knowledge productive. — here, here and here

Management, in other words, is a social function.

And in its practice, management is truly a “liberal art.”” different view





The Management Revolution #mbr


From Post-Capitalist Society — “When I decided …”


“The change in the meaning of knowledge that began two hundred fifty years ago has transformed society and economy. History of the World in Two Hours

A new view

Formal knowledge is seen as both the key personal and the key economic resource.


In fact, knowledge is the only meaningful resource today.

The traditional “factors of production” — land (i. e., natural resources), labor, and capital — have not disappeared, but they have become secondary.

They can be obtained and obtained easily, provided there is knowledge.

And knowledge in this new sense means knowledge as a utility, knowledge as the means to obtain social and economic results.

❡ ❡ ❡

These developments, whether desirable or not, are responses to
an irreversible change:

knowledge is now being applied to knowledge.


This is the third and perhaps the ultimate step in the transformation of knowledge.


Supplying knowledge
to find out how
existing knowledge
can best be applied
to produce results
is, in effect,
what we mean by management.


But knowledge is now also being applied
and purposefully
to define
what new knowledge is needed,
whether it is feasible,
and what has to be done
to make knowledge effective


It is being applied, in other words, to systematic innovation. purposeful innovation



Picture technology: larger view


This third change in the dynamics of knowledge can be called the “Management Revolution.”


Like its two predecessors — knowledge applied to tools, processes, and products, and knowledge applied to human work — the Management Revolution has swept the earth.


It took a hundred years, from the middle of the eighteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century, for the Industrial Revolution to become dominant and worldwide.

Management and the World's Work

It took some seventy years, from 1880 to the end of World War II, for the Productivity Revolution to become dominant and world-wide.


It has taken less than fifty years—from 1945 to 1990—for the Management Revolution to become dominant and worldwide.

❡ ❡ ❡

Most people when they hear the word “management” still hear “business management.”

Management did indeed first emerge in its present form in large-scale business organizations.

When I began to work on management some fifty years ago, I too concentrated on business management

But we soon learned that management is needed in all modern organizations

In fact, we soon learned that it is needed even more in organizations that are not businesses, whether not-for-profit but non-governmental organizations (what in this book I propose we call the “social sector”) or government agencies.

Management: The Central Social Function

These organizations need management the most precisely because they lack the discipline of the “bottom line” under which business operates.

Citizenship through the social sector

That management is not confined to business was recognized first in the United States.

But it is now becoming accepted in every developed country.

❡ ❡ ❡

We now know that management is a generic function of all organizations, whatever their specific mission.

It is the generic organ of the knowledge society.



T. George Harris ::: Post-capitalist executive


Management has been around for a very long time.

I am often asked whom I consider the best or the greatest executive.

My answer is always: “The man who conceived, designed, and built the first Egyptian Pyramid more than four thousand years ago—and it still stands.”

But management as a specific kind of work was not seen until after World War I—and then by just a handful of people.

Management as a discipline only emerged after World War II.

Management and the World’s Work

As late as 1950, when the World Bank began to lend money for economic development, the word “management” was not even in its vocabulary.

In fact, while management was invented thousands of years ago, it was not discovered until after World War II.

❡ ❡ ❡

One reason for its discovery was the experience of World War II itself, and especially the performance of American industry.

But perhaps equally important to the general acceptance of management has been the performance of Japan since 1950.

Japan was not an “underdeveloped” country after World War II but its industry and economy were almost totally destroyed, and it had practically no domestic technology.

The nation’s main resource was its willingness to adopt and adapt the management which the Americans had developed during World War II (and especially training).

Within twenty years—from the 1950s, when the American occupation of Japan ended, to the 1970s—Japan became the world’s second economic power, and a leader in technology.

When the Korean War ended in the early 1950s, South Korea was left even more devastated than Japan had been seven years earlier.

And it had never been anything but a backward country, especially as the Japanese systematically suppressed Korean enterprise and higher education during their thirty-five years of occupation.

But by using the colleges and universities of the United States to educate their able young people, and by importing and applying the concepts of management, Korea became a highly developed country within twenty-five years.

❡ ❡ ❡

With this powerful expansion of management came a growing understanding of what management really means.

When I first began to study management, during and immediately after World War II, a manager was defined as “someone who is responsible for the work of subordinates.”

A manager in other words was a “boss,” and management was rank and power.

This is probably still the definition a good many people have in mind when they speak of “managers” and “management.”

❡ ❡ ❡

But by the early 1950s, the definition of a manager had already changed to one who “is responsible for the performance of people.”

Today, we know that that is also too narrow a definition.


The right definition of a manager is one who “is responsible for the application and performance of knowledge.”

The CEO in the New Millennium

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

Managing in the Next Society

❡ ❡ ❡

This change means that we now see knowledge as the essential resource.

Land, labor, and capital are important chiefly as restraints.

Without them, even knowledge cannot produce; without them, even management cannot perform.

But where there is effective management, that is, application of knowledge to knowledge, we can always obtain the other resources.

❡ ❡ ❡

That knowledge has become THE resource, rather than a resource, is what makes our society post-capitalist.”


This fact changes—fundamentally—the structure of society.

Imagining a world moving toward unimagined futureS ↓ ::: ECS → time — larger composite view


larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two

It creates new social and economic dynamics.

It creates new politics.”



Conditions for survival


The Society of Organizations (PDF) and
the accompanying destabilization


The alternative to tyranny


Management as a liberal art


From Command to Information
to the Responsibility-based organization


What is management? a first look


Because the knowledge society
perforce has to be a society of organizations,
its central and distinctive organ
is management


What is management? a second look


What executives should remember


From Landmarks of Tomorrow through
management and
economic development
et al.


Management Cases


Drucker’s management books


The relationship between
leadership and management


a Leadership bread-crumb trail



Post-capitalist society has to be decentralized.

Its organizations must be able to make fast decisions, based on closeness to performance, closeness to the market, closeness to technology, closeness to the changes in society, environment, and demographics, all of which must be seen and utilized as opportunities for innovation. continue


Dense reading and dense listening ↑ ↓ plus
thinking broad and thinking detailed ↑ ↓




“Indeed the disagreement was not about GM policies but about the nature of policies altogether.

The GM executives believed, consciously or not, that they had discovered principles and that these principles were absolutes, like laws of nature.

Once thought through and tested, they were considered to be certain.

I, by contrast, have always held that principles of this kind, being man-made, are at best heuristic—that is, ways of identifying the right question rather than the one right answer.

The GM executives, for all that they saw themselves as practical men, were actually ideologues and dogmatic, and they had for me the ideologue’s contempt for the unprincipled opportunist.

This by the way has been the one point on which my approach to management has always differed from most of the writers or theoreticians on the subject—and the reason perhaps that I have never been quite respectable in the eyes of academia.

I do believe that there are basic values, especially human ones.

I am convinced that there is a fairly small number of basic questions.

But I do not believe that there is the “one right answer.” diversity

There are answers that have a high probability of being the wrong ones—at least to the point where one does not even try them unless all else has failed.

But the test of any policy in management or in any other social discipline is not whether the answer is right or wrong, but whether it works.

Management, I have always maintained, is not a branch of theology but at bottom a clinical discipline.

The test, as in the practice of medicine, is not whether the treatment is “scientific” but whether the patient recovers.

When, eight years after the publication of Concept of the Corporation, I brought out the first systematic book on management—still the most widely read management treatise all the world over—I deliberately called it The Practice of Management rather than Principles of Management, even though my publisher pointed out that my title would seriously impede the book’s acceptance as a textbook in colleges and universities.” continue




the end of business is not “to make money.” #mbr

Making money is a necessity of survival.

It is also a result of performance and a measurement thereof.

But in itself it is not performance.

As I mentioned earlier, the purpose of a business is to create a customer and to satisfy a customer.

That is performance and that is what a business is being paid for.

The job and function of management as the leader, decision maker, and value setter of the organization, and, indeed, the purpose and rationale of an organization altogether, is to make human beings productive so that the skills, expectations, and beliefs of the individual lead to achievement in joint performance. continue



… I have always emphasized in my writing, in my teaching, and in my consulting the importance of financial measurements and financial results. #mbr

Indeed, most businesses do not earn enough.

What they consider profits are, in effect, true costs.

One of my central theses for almost forty years has been that one cannot even speak of a profit unless one has earned the true cost of capital.

And, in most cases, the cost of capital is far higher than what businesses, especially American businesses, tend to consider as “record profits.”

I have also always maintained—often to the scandal of liberal readers—that the first social responsibility of a business is to produce an adequate surplus.

Without a surplus, it steals from the commonwealth and deprives society and the economy of the capital needed to provide jobs for tomorrow.

❡ ❡ ❡

Further, for more years than I care to remember, I have maintained that there is no virtue in being nonprofit and that, indeed, any activity that could produce a profit and does not do so is antisocial.

Professional schools are my favorite example.

There was a time when such activities were so marginal that their being subsidized by society could be justified.

Today, they constitute such a large sector that they have to contribute to the capital formation of an economy in which capital to finance tomorrow’s jobs may well be the central economic requirement, and even a survival need. continue



Indeed, the first task of management is to define what results and performance are in a given organization — and this, as anyone who has worked on this task can testify, is in itself one of the most difficult, one of the most controversial, but also one of the most important tasks #mbr

It is, therefore, the specific function of management to organize the resources of the organization for results outside the organization

From chapter 44 of Management, Revised Edition

We no longer need to theorize about how to define performance and results in the large enterprise.

Rather, they maximize the wealth-producing capacity of the enterprise.

It is this objective that integrates short-term and long-term results and that ties the operational dimensions of business performance—market standing, innovation, productivity, and people and their development—to financial needs and financial results.

It is also this objective on which all constituencies depend for the satisfaction of their expectations and objectives, whether shareholders, customers, or employees.

To define performance and results as maximizing the wealth-producing capacity of the enterprise may be criticized as vague.

To be sure, one doesn’t get the answers by filling out forms.

Decisions need to be made, and economic decisions that commit scarce resources to an uncertain future are always risky and controversial.

Financial objectives are needed to tie all this together.

Indeed, financial accountability is the key to the performance of management and enterprise.

Without financial accountability, there is no accountability at all.

And without financial accountability, there will also be no results in any other area.

What we have is not the “final answer.”

Still, it is no longer theory but proven practice.

... snip, snip ...

For while the business audit need not be conducted every year (every three years may be enough in most cases), it needs to be based on predetermined standards and go through a systematic evaluation of business performance, starting with mission and strategy, through marketing, innovation, productivity, people development, community relations, all the way to profitability.

Still, the question remains, Who is going to use this tool?

In the American context, there is only one possible answer: a revitalized board of directors



“75%+ of U.S. board members & execs worry that management sets strategy with stale assumptions” — Twitter


Increasingly, the true investment in the knowledge society is not in machines and tools.

It is in the knowledge of the knowledge worker. continue




Five deadly sins #mbr

1. Worship of high profit margins and of “premium pricing.”

2. Mispricing a new product by charging “what the market will bear.”

3. Cost-driven pricing

4. Slaughtering tomorrow’s opportunity on the altar of yesterday.

5. Feeding problems and starving opportunities. continue



Conditions for survival #mbr

… It should have been obvious from the beginning that management and entrepreneurship are only two different dimensions of the same task. continue

… snip, snip …

Every institution—and not only business—must build into its day-to-day management four entrepreneurial activities that run in parallel.

Organization efforts ::: Problems or Opportunities?


1. One is the organized abandonment of products, services, processes, markets, distribution channels and so on that are no longer an optimal allocation of resources.

sidebar ↓

… “But if it is known throughout the organization that the dead will be left to bury their dead, then the living will be willing—indeed, eager—to go to work on innovation.” more on abandonment

main brainroad continues ↓

This is the first entrepreneurial discipline in any given situation.


2. Then any institution must organize for systematic, continuing improvement (what the Japanese call kaizen).


3. Then it has to organize for systematic and continuous exploitation, especially of its successes.

It has to build a different tomorrow on a proven today.


4. And, finally, it has to organize systematic innovation, that is, to create the different tomorrow that makes obsolete and, to a large extent, replaces even the most successful products of today in any organization.


Innovation is not a technical term.

It is an economic and social term.

Its criterion is not science or technology, but a change in the economic or social environment, a change in the behavior of people as consumers or producers, as citizens, as students or as teachers, and so on.

Innovation creates new wealth or new potential of action rather than new knowledge.

This means that the bulk of innovative efforts will have to come from the places that control the manpower and the money needed for development and marketing, that is, from the existing large aggregation of trained manpower and disposable money—existing businesses and existing public-service institutions — see here (calendarize this?)


Innovation in the existing organization requires special effort


Network society


More on marketing and innovation

… snip, snip …

… “But unless it is seen as the task of the organization to lead change, the organization whether business, university, hospital and so on will not survive.” more on the change leader

… snip, snip …

… “But the tools we originally fashioned to bring the outside to the inside have all been penetrated by the inside focus of management.

They have turned into tools to enable management to ignore the outside.

Even worse, they are used to make management believe it can manipulate the outside and turn it to the organization’s purpose.” more on this topic


High tech is living in the nineteenth century,
the pre-management world. #mbr

They believe that people pay for technology.

They have a romance with technology.

But people don't pay for technology:
they pay for what they get out of technology.”

The Frontiers of Management



Executives of any large organization #mbr — whether business enterprise, Roman Catholic diocese, university, health care institution, government agency — are woefully ignorant of the outside, as everybody knows who has worked with decisions in a large organization” continue



“Success always obsoletes the very behavior that achieved it.

It always creates new realities.

It always creates, above all, its own and different problems …” continue



“The customer never buys what you think you sell.

And you don’t know it.

That’s why it’s so difficult to differentiate yourself.”


To the outside customer,
what is the value of the different kinds of work
that take place inside an organization?


“People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete—the things that should have worked but did not, the things that once were productive and no longer are.” Druckerism



Concentration is the key to economic results. No other principles of effectiveness is violated as constantly today as the basic principle of concentration.



Businesses that go unchallenged for long decades are rare exceptions.

The great majority, no matter how successful, need to think through their basic assumptions much sooner.

The great majority, moreover, then find it almost impossible to change.

The business which, after ten years of continuing success, retains the capacity to change and to maintain its effectiveness, is in the minority.

It may not disappear, but it is likely to become an ‘also ran’ and to fall way behind.

The American magazine Fortune has for more than forty years published each year a list of the 500 top manufacturing companies in the US.

During these forty years, one-third of the companies in the original list have disappeared from it altogether — either because they have been liquidated or merged or because they have become insignificant.

Another third has lost position in the list, that is, has dropped from being a major to become a relatively minor business.

Only one-third have maintained themselves in the list, that is, in their position in the American economy.

Every one of these companies that has been able to prosper for four decades has had to change fundamentally.

Yet, the last forty years have been years of great continuity and, generally, years of tremendous prosperity, not only in the American economy but in the world economy.

What is needed is not only the capacity to overcome adversity.

Equally important, and equally needed, is the capacity to take advantage of opportunity, and this, too, is equally threatened by continuing success, threatened by complacency. without an effective mission, there will be no performance



Financial results are not the purpose

Mission statements that express the purpose of the enterprise in financial terms fail inevitably, to create the cohesion, the dedication, the vision of the people who have to do the work so as to realize the enterprise’s goal.

An old saying — going back to ancient Rome, I believe states that ‘Human beings eat to live, but do not live to eat.’

Similarly, enterprises have to have satisfactory financial results to live; without them they cannot survive and cannot, in fact, do their job.

However, they do not exist to have financial results.

Financial results, by themselves, are not adequate, are not the purpose of the enterprise, and are not the justification and reason for its existence. continue




In some cases they started the next chapter early enough
and in others they waited for a near deadly crisis — they
were busy working on other things.

“Today’s executives are, of course, a good deal more
than passive custodians of the past.

They can, and properly should,
modify the decisions they inherit.

Indeed to bail out these decisions
when they go wrong,
as all decisions in respect to the future
are likely to do,
is one of their most important
and most difficult assignments.

But today’s executives are also charged with the
responsibility for making the future of the business—with
lead times that are becoming increasingly longer
and in some areas
range up to ten years or so.” —
The Changing World of the Executive



“AS WE ADVANCE deeper into the knowledge economy, the basic assumptions underlying much of what is taught and practiced in the name of management are hopelessly out of date. They no longer fit reality.”Management’s New Paradigm



Despite all the outpouring of management writing these last twenty-five years, the world of management is still little-explored. #mbr

It is a world of issues, but also a world of people.

And it is undergoing rapid change right now.




These essays explore a wide variety of topics.

They deal with changes in the work force, its jobs, its expectations, with the power relationships of a “society of employees,” and with changes in technology and in the world economy.

They discuss the problems and challenges facing major institutions, including business enterprises, schools, hospitals, and government agencies.

They look anew at the tasks and work of executives, at their performance and its measurement and at executive compensation.

However diverse the topics, all the pieces reflect upon the same reality: In all developed countries the workaday world has become a “society of organizations” and thus dependent on executives, that is on people—whether called managers or administrators—who are paid to direct organizations and to make them perform.

These chapters have one common theme: the changing world of the executive

changing rapidly within the organization;

changing rapidly in respect to the visions, aspirations, and even characteristics of employees, customers, and constituents;

changing outside the organization as well—economically, technologically, socially, politically.

The Changing World of The Executive



Management: The Central Social Function #mbr

Noneconomic institutions need a yardstick that does for them what profitability does for business.

Nonbusiness institutions flock in increasing numbers to business management to learn from it how to manage themselves.

The hospital, the armed service, the Catholic diocese, the civil service—all want to go to school for business management.

This does not mean that business management can be transferred to other, nonbusiness institutions.

On the contrary, the first thing these institutions have to learn from business management is that management begins with the setting of objectives and that, therefore, noneconomic institutions, such as a university or a hospital, will also need very different management from that of a business.

But these institutions are right in seeing business management as the prototype.

Business, far from being exceptional, is simply the first of the species and the one we have studied the most intensively.

Noneconomic institutions need a yardstick that does for them what profitability does for the business.

“Profitability,” in other words, rather than being the “exception” and distinct from “human” or “social” needs, emerges, in the pluralist society of organizations, as the prototype of the measurement needed by every institution in order to be managed and manageable.

The Ecological Vision



Modern Organization Must Be a Destabilizer #mbr

The Daily Drucker

Only a society in dynamic disequilibrium has stability and cohesion.

Society, community, and family are all conserving institutions.

They try to maintain stability and to prevent, or at least to slow, change.

And yet we also know that theories, values, and all the artifacts of human minds do age and rigidify, becoming obsolete, becoming afflictions.

Yet “revolutions” every generation, as was recommended by Thomas Jefferson, are not the solution.

We know that “revolution” is not achievement and the new dawn.

It results from senile decay, from the bankruptcy of ideas and institutions, from a failure of self-renewal.

The only way in which an institution—whether a government, a university, a business, a labor union, an army—can maintain continuity is by building systematic, organized innovation into its very structure.

Institutions, systems, policies, eventually outlive themselves, as do products, processes, and services.

They do it when they accomplish their objectives, and they do it when they fail to accomplish their objectives.

Innovation and entrepreneurship are thus needed in society as much as in the economy, in public service institutions as much as in business.

The modern organization must be a destabilizer; it must be organized for innovation.

Managing in a Time of Great Change

The Ecological Vision

Innovation and Entrepreneurship




Return to top

Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity


Conditions for survival

knowledge technology

Knowledge technology

More on the modern chaos ↑ ↓


Knowledge and Technology #mbr (#impact)

Now we are increasingly organizing knowledge and the search for it around areas of application rather than around the subject areas of disciplines.

Interdisciplinary work has grown everywhere.

This is a symptom of the shift in the meaning of knowledge from an end in itself to a resource, that is, a means to some result.

Research Laboratory: Obsolete? continue

Now many research directors, as well as high-tech industrialists, tend to believe that such labs are becoming obsolete. Why?

Technologies crisscross industries and travel incredibly fast, making few of them unique anymore.

And increasingly, the knowledge needed in a given industry comes out of some totally different technology with which, very often, the people in the industry are quite unfamiliar.

Technologies And End-Users Are Fixed And Given

Now the assumption to start with is that the technologies that are likely to have the greatest impact on a company and an industry are technologies outside its own field.

Today’s technologies, unlike the nineteenth-century technologies, no longer run in parallel.

They constantly crisscross, as discussed briefly in chapter 6.

Technology that people in their given industries have barely heard of (just as the people in the pharmaceutical industry had never heard of genetics, let alone medical electronics) revolutionizes those industries.

Such outside technologies force industries to learn, to acquire, to adapt, to change their very mindset, not to mention their technical knowledge.

Therefore, management now has to start out with the assumption that there is no one technology that pertains to an industry and that, on the contrary, all technologies are capable—and indeed likely—to be of major importance to any industry and to have impact on any industry.



Similarly, management has to start with the assumption that there is no one given end-use for any product or service and that, conversely, no end-use is going to be linked solely to any one product or service.

And then there is the new “basic resource” information.

It differs radically from all other commodities in that it does not stand under the scarcity theorem.

On the contrary, it stands under an abundance theorem

If I sell a thing, e.g., a book, I no longer have the book.

If I impart information I still have it and can sell it again and again.

What this means for economics is well beyond the scope of this paper—though it is clear that it will force us radically to revise basic economic theory.

But economics aside, managements had better understand what this means to them.

Information does not pertain to any specific industry or business.

Information also does not have any one end-use nor does any one end-use require a particular kind of information

One implication of this is that noncustomers are as important as customers, if not more important: because they are potential customers.

There are very few institutions which supply as large a portion of a market as 30%.

In other words, there are very few institutions where the noncustomers do not amount to at least 70% of the potential market.

And yet very few institutions know anything about the noncustomers—very few of them even know that they exist, let alone know who they are.

And even fewer know why they are not customers.

Yet it is with the noncustomers that changes always start.

… The foundations have to be customer values and customer decisions on the distribution of their disposable income.

It is with those that management policy and management strategy increasingly will have to start

New Knowledge

New knowledge is not the most reliable or most predictable source of successful innovations.

For all the visibility, glamour, and importance of science-based innovation, it is actually the least reliable and least predictable one.


There ↓ can’t be reached from heretomorrowS can’t be reached from yesterdayS
— at least not directly …

evolution of refrigeration evolution of refrig

Successful careerS are not planned continue

Mission ::: Continuity and Change

sound players

October 16th, 2003 — “Hell Froze Over.” Apple launched – iTunes for Windows.
That opened up the iPod to the 97% of people who had PCs.
Their first iPods turned into their first iPhones
… switched to a Macintosh all together
… along the way Apple’s market cap climbed to
the most valuable company in the world …


The evolution ↓ of photography technologies →
From Film to Point-and-shoot to Smartphones

Successful careerS are not planned continue

picture tech picture tech

Technology adoption


More illustrations → 1 ::: 2 ::: 3 ::: 4 ::: 5 ::: 6

How useful would “guidance” from something with a Management Golf or Chaotics: The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of Turbulence thoughtscape be in the situations above ↑ — the evolution of refrigeration, the evolution of sound transportation, or the evolution of picture taking? Mike Kami’s world (Corporate or Strategic Planning) ::: Mike Kami’s “razor blade reading and clue management” vs. situations — Management Cases


Conditions for survival


The Divide

Even in the flattest landscape there are passes where the road first climbs to a peak and then descends into a new valley.

Most of these passes are only topography, with little or no difference in climate, language, or culture between the valleys on either side.

But some passes are different.

They are true divides.

They often are neither high nor spectacular.

The Brenner is the lowest and gentlest of the passes across the Alps; yet from earliest times it has marked the border between Mediterranean and Nordic cultures.

The Delaware Water Gap, some seventy miles west of New York City, is not even a real pass; yet it still divides Eastern seaboard and mid-America.

History, too, knows such divides.

They also tend to be unspectacular and are rarely much noticed at the time.

But once these divides have been crossed, the social and political landscape changes.

Social and political climate is different and so is social and political language.

There are new realities.

Some time between 1965 and 1973 we passed over such a divide and entered “the next century.”

We passed out of creeds, commitments, and alignments that had shaped politics for a century or two.

We are in political terra incognita with few familiar landmarks to guide us.

No one except a mere handful of Stalinists believes any more in salvation by society — the faith which since the eighteenth century’s Enlightenment had been the dominant force and main engine of politics.

But the one effective political counterforce is also spent: political integration in and through interest blocs.

It was America’s own contribution to the art and practice of politics, fashioned first by Mark Hanna at the very end of the last century and then perfected, forty years later, by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the New Deal.

The last of the colonial empires, Russia, has entered the final phase of decolonization.

Whatever succeeds, it is unlikely to be either “Russian” or “Empire.”

And after three hundred or more years in which armaments were “productive” and worked as instruments of policy, they have become “counterproductive”: an economic drain if not economically crippling; treacherous as a tool of politics; and—the most important and least expected change — impotent militarily.




Executive realitiesIMPORTANT

The realities of the executive’s situation both demand effectiveness from him and make effectiveness exceedingly difficult to achieve.

Indeed, unless executives work at becoming effective, the realities of their situation will push them into futility.

tblue The executive’s time tends to belong to everybody else

tblue Executives are forced to keep on “operating” unless they take positive action

tblue Being within an “organization” pushes the executive toward ineffectiveness

tblue Finally, the executive is “within” an organization

People of high effectiveness are conspicuous by their absence in executive jobs continue




Return to top

Management creates economic development ↑ ↓ continue


Management and the World’s Work — 1850 … ↑ ↓ #mbr
In less than 150 years, management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries. It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓

How are you participating in this? ↓

The Competitive Knowledge Economy

Internet activity ↓ ::: ← → Form and function


China’s One Belt, One Road


Cities of the world

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

World’s largest cities

List of cities by population density

American clothing styles 1940s

American clothing styles 1970s

American clothing styles 1990s

Lonely Planet travel destinations ↓ ::: Larger view


World at night — electricity ↓ ::: Larger view


Not so bright in North Korea ↓ ::: Larger view


Why America’s Richest Cities Are Pulling Away From All the Others
(What are the implications for them and the rest?)

What does your state hate? ↓ ::: Larger view


Why does? ↓ ::: Larger view





Seoul post Korean war ↓



Seoul in more recent years ↓



Shanghai post-WW II



Shanghai later ↓



Shanghai more recent ↓



Singapore back then ↓



Singapore more recent

Cosmopolis → an internationally important city
inhabited by many different peoples
reflecting a great variety of cultures, attitudes, etc.

The New Metropolis

The future of the central city

Try searching this page for the words “city” or “cities”

What about “organized crime” and “money laundering”?



Population Growth Means a City is Thriving, or Does it?

“Public officials and reporters alike adopt the myth that bigger is better. That’s not always the case.

Every year, the U.S. Census Bureau releases its latest data on cities and population growth. The reaction is always the same: News outlets look at the numbers showing which places gained and which ones shed residents, and use them as instant proxies for a decline, a boom or a turnaround in cities all over the country.

Population loss can become a symbol for other things people feel is going wrong in a city, such as rising poverty and unemployment rates, vacant and blighted housing, increased violent crime, the exit of pro sports franchises, racial segregation and police brutality. The “decline” in newspaper headlines may refer to the population, but it’s often shorthand for a host of complex problems, an easy-to-understand indicator that things are getting worse.

In Detroit, where the population fell 64 percent between 1950 and 2016, Mayor Mike Duggan told The Wall Street Journal shortly after he took office three years ago that “the single standard a mayor should be defined on is whether the population of the city is going up or going down.”

Every year, the U.S. Census Bureau releases its latest data on cities and population growth. The reaction is always the same: News outlets look at the numbers showing which places gained and which ones shed residents, and use them as instant proxies for a decline, a boom or a turnaround in cities all over the country.

Population loss can become a symbol for other things people feel is going wrong in a city, such as rising poverty and unemployment rates, vacant and blighted housing, increased violent crime, the exit of pro sports franchises, racial segregation and police brutality. The “decline” in newspaper headlines may refer to the population, but it’s often shorthand for a host of complex problems, an easy-to-understand indicator that things are getting worse.

In Detroit, where the population fell 64 percent between 1950 and 2016, Mayor Mike Duggan told The Wall Street Journal shortly after he took office three years ago that “the single standard a mayor should be defined on is whether the population of the city is going up or going down.” continue

10 Most Advanced Cities in the World with High-Tech Infrastructure

“The number of advanced cities in the world are increasing year over year. But it's difficult for other tech destinations around the world to grab position from other well established advanced cities. Tokyo is considered as the most advanced city in the world, thanks to their world class infrastructure, number of people working STEM, best railway network, healthcare facilities, and much more.” continue

Google search: migration growth fastest growing shrinking cities in the world


Illegal border crossings ↓ ::: Larger view



Coming to America ↓ ::: Larger view


Jupiter Cable ↓ ::: Larger view


NTT Cable ↓ ::: Larger view


What has to happen ↓ to make people realize that the way the world functions ↑ ↓ has changed and that different situations ↑ ↓ require new thinking and behavior?

A change in the way the world works



The Definitive DruckerThe world is flat → Living in a Lego™ World#mbr


The walking dead




Innovation requires abandonment

Innovation (a condition for survival) requires major effort.

It requires hard work on the part of performing, capable people — the scarcest resource in any organization.

“Nothing requires more heroic efforts than to keep a corpse from stinking, and yet nothing is quite so futile,” is an old medical proverb.


Picture technology: larger view




In almost any organization I have come across, the best people are engaged in this futile effort; yet all they can hope to accomplish is to delay acceptance of the inevitable a little longer and at great cost.

Executive realities

Organization efforts ::: Problems or Opportunities?

But if it is known throughout the organization that the dead will be left to bury their dead, then the living will be willing—indeed, eager—to go to work on innovation and the conditions for survival.


↑ frequently seen in office buildings — the bigger
the building (e.g., The Pentagon) the more walkers you see

To allow it to innovate, a business has to be able to free its best performers for the challenges of innovation.

The danger of too much individual planning

Equally it has to be able to devote financial resources to innovation.

It will not be able to do either unless it organizes itself to slough off alike the successes of the past, the failures, and especially the “near-misses,” the things that “should have worked” but didn’t.

If executives know that it is company policy to abandon, then they will be motivated to look for the new, to encourage entrepreneurship, and will accept the need to become entrepreneurial themselves.

This is the first step—a form of organizational hygiene.” about Innovation



“Increasingly, organizations will have to plan abandonment
rather than try to prolong the life
of a successful policy, practice, or product … only a few
large Japanese companies have faced up to” Druckerism

The transition to a knowledge-based economy



“Effective innovations start small. They are not grandiose. They try to do one specific thing” continue




An Operational View of the Budgeting Process #mbr

The final conclusion is that we need a new approach to the process in which we make our value decisions between different objective areas—the budgeting process.

And in particular do we need a real understanding of that part of the budget that deals with the expenses that express these decisions, that is, the “managed” and “capital” expenditures.

Commonly today, budgeting is conceived as a financial process.

But it is only the notation that is financial; the decisions are entrepreneurial.

Commonly today, managed expenditures and capital expenditures are considered quite separate.

But the distinction is an accounting (and tax) fiction and misleading; both commit scarce resources to an uncertain future; both are, economically speaking, capital expenditures.

And they, too, have to express the same basic decisions on survival objectives to be viable.

Finally, today, most of our attention in the operating budget is given, as a rule, to other than the managed expenses, especially to the variable expenses, for that is where, historically, most money was spent.

But, no matter how large or small the sums, it is in our decisions on the managed expenses that we decide on the future of the enterprise.


Indeed, we have little control over what the accountant calls variable expenses—the expenses which relate directly to units of production and are fixed by a certain way of doing things.

We can change them, but not fast.

We can change a relationship between units of production and labor costs (which we, with a certain irony, still consider variable expenses despite the fringe benefits).

But within any time period these expenses can only be kept at a norm and cannot be changed.

This is, of course, even more true for the expenses in respect to the decisions of the past, our fixed expenses.

We cannot make them undone at all, whether these are capital expenses or taxes or what have you.

They are beyond our control.

In the middle, however, are the expenses for the future which express our risk-taking value choices: the capital expenses and the managed expenses.

Here are the expenses on facilities and equipment, on research and merchandising, on product development and people development, on management and organization.

This managed expense budget is the area in which we really make our decisions on our objectives.

(That, incidentally, is why I dislike accounting ratios in that area so very much, because they try to substitute the history of the dead past for the making of the prosperous future.)

We make decisions in this process in two respects.

First, what do we allocate people for?

For the money in the budget is really people.

What do we allocate people, and energy, and efforts to?

To what objectives?

We have to make choices, as we cannot do everything.

And, second, what is the time scale?

How do we, in other words, balance expenditures for long-term permanent efforts against any decision with immediate impact?

The one shows results only in the remote future, if at all.

The development of people (a fifteen-year job), the effectiveness of which is untested and unmeasurable, is, for instance, a decision on faith over the long range.

The other may show results immediately.

To slight the one, however, might, in the long range, debilitate the business and weaken it.

And, yet, there are certain real short-term needs that have to be met in the business—in the present as well as in the future.

Until we develop a clear understanding of basic survival objectives and some yardsticks for the decisions and choices in each area, budgeting will not become a rational exercise of responsible judgment; it will retain some of the hunch character that it now has.

But our experience has shown that the concept of survival objectives alone can greatly improve both the quality and effectiveness of the process and the understanding of what is being decided.

Indeed, it gives us, we are learning, an effective tool for the integration of functional work and specialized efforts and especially for creating a common understanding throughout the organization and common measurements of contribution and performance.

The approach to a discipline of business enterprise through an analysis of survival objectives is still a very new and a very crude one.

Yet it is already proving itself a unifying concept, simply because it is the first general theory of the business enterprise we have had so far.

It is not yet a very refined, a very elegant, let alone a very precise, theory.

Any physicist or mathematician would say: This is not a theory; this is still only rhetoric.

But at least, while maybe only in rhetoric, we are talking about something real.

For the first time we are no longer in the situation in which theory is irrelevant, if not an impediment, and in which practice has to be untheoretical, which means cannot be taught, cannot be learned, and cannot be conveyed, as one can only convey the general.

This should thus be one of the breakthrough areas; and twenty years hence this might well have become the central concept around which we can organize the mixture of knowledge, ignorance, and experience, of prejudices, insights, and skills, which we call “management” today. continue

Try searching this page for the word “budget”




Disintegration #mbr

… “But now the traditional axiom that an enterprise should aim for maximum integration has become almost entirely invalidated.

One reason is that the knowledge needed for any activity has become highly specialized.

It is therefore increasingly expensive, and also increasingly difficult, to maintain enough critical mass for every major task within an enterprise.

And because knowledge rapidly deteriorates unless it is used constantly, maintaining within an organization an activity that is used only intermittently guarantees incompetence” — Peter Drucker




Drucker on Asia — A Dialogue Between Peter Drucker and Isao Nakauchi

“I AM WRITING THIS PREFACE on March 11, 1995 — ten years to the day since the collapse of Communism and of the Soviet Empire began with Mikhail Gorbachev’s election as the First Secretary of the Communist Party.

The political world has changed beyond all recognition in these ten years.

But, while less dramatic, the changes in the economic world have been fully as great, fully as important, fully as irreversible.

And far too little attention is being paid to them. ¶¶¶

Specifically, government has become the storm center of the non-communist world, threatening sudden, unpredictable economic and currency upheavals — the legacy of forty years of failure of the ‘Keynesian Welfare State’ whose theories and policies dominated the Western noncommunist world before 1985.

These threats — and especially the threat of sudden panic and collapse undoing years of hard, steady work on economic development and prosperity such as only a few months ago occurred in Mexico — are by no means confined to developing countries.

Sweden and Italy, to name only two European countries, are equally unstable as a result of government over-spending and over-borrowing.

Even France’s stability is doubtful.

And the U.S. is engaged in a massive last-ditch attempt to cut its government deficit.

While Japan alone of all major countries in the developed world — has not indulged in the reckless expansion of government spending and in under-saving grossly, her government and policies too are in crisis.

Forty years of stability have come to an end.

And no country is as exposed to the shock waves which a collapse of government finance and currencies creates as is Japan — endaka is just a foretaste of what a collapse of the Chinese economy and Chinese currency under the threat of run-away inflation might, for instance, mean to Japan. ¶¶¶

Secondly, the structure and the dynamics of the world economy have changed profoundly.

The ‘growth economies’ of the world in the last ten years have not been Japan or the U.S. or Western Europe.

They have been the rapidly developing countries of mainland Asia — with Coastal China in the forefront — and some countries of Latin America which, returning to fiscal rectitude and free markets after years of wild inflation and protectionism, have shown almost explosive (though also very dangerous) growth.

There is no one ‘economic center’ in the world economy any more; the tiny island of Taiwan has now the world’s second-largest foreign-exchange surplus.

And there are no ‘superpowers’.

Japan leads in the development of mainland Asia.

But in the high-tech industries where the real growth is — biotechnology and genetics, information technology, software, the new finance — Japan is still sadly lagging.

The U.S. has put its manufacturing house in order.

Most of U.S. manufacturing industry is now as competitive as that of any other country; even the automotive industry has almost caught up.

And the U.S. has attained an almost unbeatable lead in the new growth industries, and especially in the high-tech industries.

But government finance and the savings rate are in sorry shape. ¶¶¶

Western Europe has not been able to exploit the enormous opportunities of economic unification and has fallen badly behind in manufacturing efficiency in all high-tech areas, and in employment. ¶¶¶

Thirdly, organization structure and business strategies are in flux.

Information is beginning to affect both, to the point where traditional business organization is becoming obsolete.

But also the traditional concept of the ‘employer’ — the company for which people work — is unravelling.

More and more people work as temporaries.

Outsourcing is becoming general.

In outsourcing people work with a company, for example doing its data processing, but do not work for the company, and are not its employees.

In the West — though apparently not yet in Japan — more and more of the most senior and most responsible employees, such as senior researchers, rarely even come to the company’s office any more but work at home or in small office clusters close to where they live. ¶¶¶

Fourthly, the work force is changing rapidly.

Blue-collar industrial workers in the mass-production plants were the center of the work force only yesterday.

Today, they are shrinking rapidly in numbers and, even more rapidly, in importance.

Even the people who do the jobs in the plant which the blue-collar worker did yesterday, are increasingly different people.

They are ‘technicians’ with a substantial theoretical knowledge rather than people who get paid for working with their hands or for tending machines.

And at the center of gravity of the work force in every developed country are increasingly knowledge workers, people who do not work with their hands at all but are being paid for what they have learned in school and university.

These people have totally different expectations — of their work; of the way they are being managed; of their opportunities and rewards.

But also the measures that made traditional blue-collar workers productive do not work to make knowledge workers productive.

They pose a different, but no less critical, productivity challenge.

And fifthly, underlying all this is the shift to