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Executive responsibilities: decisions

“To know something,
to really understand something important,
one must look at it from sixteen different angles.

People are perceptually slow,
and there is no shortcut to understanding;
it takes a great deal of time.” read more

 

“Decision-making is a time machine that synchronizes into a single time — the present — a great number of divergent time spans” Chapter 11, Strategic Planning, Management, Revised Edition

 

Decisions take place in time: the changing social and economic picture

 

Thinking Broad and Thinking Detailed by Edward de Bono

 

Individual decisions: see the questions raised in Career and Life Guidance from Peter Drucker. For example what do you want to put into life and what do you want to get out of it? calls for some decisions.

Day-to-day flow of events

bbx Six Action Shoes

bbx Practical Thinking (applies to all thinking and deciding)

Basic decision thinking by Edward de Bono

bbx de Bono’s Thinking Course

bbx Teach Your Child How to Think

bbx Teach Yourself to Think

Related

bbx The Six Thinking Hats

bbx The Six Value Medals

bbx Information

bbx Six Frames For Thinking about Information

bbx Management Challenges for the 21st Century

bbx Information challenges

bbx Water Logic

attention

Attention

 

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courage-effective-decision-pict

Decision Making: The Chassis That Holds the Whole Together

 

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“But management is always a decision-making process.

The importance of decision-making in management is generally recognized.

But a good deal of the discussion tends to center on problem-solving, that is, on giving answers.

And that is the wrong focus.

Indeed, the most common source of mistakes in management decisions is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question.

The only kind of decision that really centers in problem-solving is the unimportant, the routine, the tactical decision.

If both the conditions of the situation and the requirements that the answer has to satisfy, are known and simple, problem-solving is indeed the only thing necessary.

In this case the job is merely to choose between a few obvious alternatives.

And the criterion is usually one of economy: the decision shall accomplish the desired end with the minimum of effort and disturbance.

In deciding which of two secretaries should go downstairs every morning to get coffee for the office — to take the simplest example — the one question would be: What is the prevailing social or cultural etiquette?

In deciding the considerably more complex question: Shall there be a "coffee break" in the morning, there would be two questions: Does the "break" result in a gain or in a loss in work accomplished, that is, does the gain in working energy outweigh the lost time?

And (if the loss outweighs the gain): Is it worth while to upset an established custom for the sake of the few minutes?

Of course, most tactical decisions are both more complicated and more important.

But they are always one-dimensional, so to speak: The situation is given and the requirements are evident.

The only problem is to find the most economical adaptation of known resources.

But the important decisions, the decisions that really matter, are strategic.

They involve either finding out what the situation is, or changing it, either finding out what the resources are or what they should be.

These are the specifically managerial decisions.

Anyone who is a manager has to make such strategic decisions, and the higher his level in the management hierarchy, the more of them he must make.

Among these are all decisions on business objectives and on the means to reach them.

All decisions affecting productivity belong here: they always aim at changing the total situation.

Here also belong all organization decisions and all major capital-expenditures decisions.

But most of the decisions that are considered operating decisions are also strategic in character: arrangement of sales districts or training of salesmen; plant layout or raw-materials inventory; preventive maintenance or the flow of payroll vouchers through an office.

Strategic decisions — whatever their magnitude, complexity or importance — should never be taken through problem-solving.

Indeed, in these specifically managerial decisions, the important and difficult job is never to find the right answer, it is to find the right question.

For there are few things as useless — if not as dangerous — as the right answer to the wrong question.

Nor is it enough to find the right answer.

More important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon.

Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance.

Nothing is as useless therefore as the right answer that disappears in the filing cabinet or the right solution that is quietly sabotaged by the people who have to make it effective.

And one of the most crucial jobs in the entire decision-making process is to assure that decisions reached in various parts of the business and on various levels of management are compatible with each other, and consonant with the goals of the whole business.

Decision-making has five distinct phases:

defining the problem;

analyzing the problem;

developing alternate solutions;

deciding upon the best solution;

converting the decision into effective action.

Each phase has several steps.

Making decisions can either be time-wasting or it can be the manager's best means for solving the problem of time utilization.

Time should be spent on defining the problem.

Time is well spent on analyzing the problem and developing alternate solutions.

Time is necessary to make the solution effective.

But much less time should be spent on finding the right solution.

And any time spent on selling a solution after it has been reached is sheer waste and evidence of poor time utilization in the earlier phases.” — by Peter Drucker in The Practice of Management

 

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The Effective Decision (chapter 37, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices)

Executives do many things in addition to making decisions.

But only executives make decisions.

The first managerial skill is, therefore, the making of effective decisions.


There are countless books on the techniques of decision-making.

Complex logical and mathematical tools have been developed for the decision-making process.

But there is little concern with the essential process itself.

What is a “decision"?

What are the important elements in it?


The only people who have developed a systematic and standardized approach to decision-making are the Japanese.

Their decisions are highly effective.

Yet their approach violates every rule in the books on decision-making.

Indeed, according to the books, the Japanese should never be able to arrive at a decision, let alone an effective one.

It might, therefore, be fruitful to take a look at the Japanese way of decision-making in order to find out what the elements of the process are.


What are the advantages of this process?

And what can we learn from it?

… snip, snip …

In the first place, it makes for very effective decisions.

While it takes much longer in Japan to reach a decision than it takes in the West, from that point on they do better than we do.

After making a decision, we in the West spend much time “selling” it and getting people to act on it.

Only too often either the decision is sabotaged by the organization or, what may be worse, it takes so long to make the decision truly effective that it becomes obsolete, if not outright wrong, by the time the people in the organization actually make it operational.


The Japanese, by contrast, need to spend absolutely no time on selling a decision.

Everybody has been pre-sold.

Also, their process makes it clear where in the organization a certain answer to a question will be welcomed and where it will be resisted.

Therefore, there is plenty of time to work on persuading the dissenters, or on making small concessions to them which will win them over without destroying the integrity of the decision.

… snip, snip …

The Japanese process is focused on understanding the problem.

The desired end result is action and behavior on the part of people.

This almost guarantees that all the alternatives will be considered.

It rivets management attention to essentials.

It does not permit commitment until management has decided what the decision is all about.

Japanese managers may come up with the wrong answer to the problem (as was the decision to go to war against the United States in 1941), but they rarely come up with the right answer to the wrong problem.

And that, as all decision-makers learn, is the most dangerous course, the irretrievably wrong decision.


Above all, their system forces the Japanese to make big decisions.

It is much too cumbersome to be put to work on minor matters.

It takes far too many people far too long to be wasted on anything but truly important matters leading to real changes in policies and behavior.

Small decisions, even when obviously needed, are very often not being made at all in Japan for that reason.


With us it is the small decisions which are easy to make—decisions about things that do not greatly matter.

Anyone who knows Western businesses, government agencies, or educational institutions knows that their managers make far too many small decisions as a rule.

And nothing causes as much trouble in an organization as a lot of small decisions.

Whether the decision concerns moving the water cooler from one end of the hail to the other or the phasing out of one’s oldest business makes little emotional difference.

One decision takes as much time and generates as much heat as the other.

… snip, snip …

What are the essentials of the Japanese method of decision-making?

First the focus is on deciding what the decision is all about.

The Japanese do not focus on giving an answer; they focus on defining the question.


The Japanese, second, bring out dissenting opinions; because there is no discussion of the answer till there is consensus, a wide variety of opinions and approaches is being explored.


Third, the focus is on alternatives rather than on the “right solution.”

The process further brings out at what level and by whom a certain decision should be made.

And finally, it eliminates selling a decision.

It builds effective execution into the decision-making process.


The specific Japanese system is, indeed, sui generis.

It could not be used elsewhere but presupposes the unique social organization of Japan and of Japanese institutions.

But the principles which the Japanese put to work in their decision-making process are generally applicable.

They are the essentials of effective decision-making.

 

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From The Effective Executive by Peter Drucker

Effective executives make effective decisions as a systematic process with clearly defined elements and in a distinct sequence of steps.

They do not make a great many decisions.

They concentrate on the important ones.

They are not overly impressed by speed in decision-making.

They want to know what the decision is all about and what the underlying realities are which it has to satisfy.

They want impact rather than technique; they want to be sound rather than clever.

They are not content with doctoring the symptom alone.

They know when a decision has to be based on principle and when it should be made on the merits of the case and pragmatically.

They know that the trickiest decision is that between the right and the wrong compromises and have learned how to tell one from the other.

They know that the most time-consuming step in the process is not making the decision but putting it into effect

 

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Other Drucker Books containing chapters on Effective Decisions:

bbx Background awarenessKnowledge and TechnologyHistory of the World in Two Hours 7 minute audio clipProto-truth → The MEMO they don’t want you to see

bbx The Practice of ManagementPDF

bbx Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, PracticesPDF

bbx Managing the Non-Profit OrganizationPDF

bbx The Effective ExecutivePDF

bbx The Effective Executive in Action

bbx The Daily Drucker

bbx Management, Revised EditionPDF

bbx The Definitive DruckerPDF

You might want to harvest and calendarize the key points and steps from several of the above.

This will provide a useful work guide.

Also you might want to employ TEC-PISCO, or TO/LOPOSO/GO during the decision thinking process.

 

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Areas in which decisions may be required are explored below … ↓

 

Peter Drucker: Conceptual Resources

The Über Mentor

A political / social ecologist
a different way of seeing and thinking about
the big picture
— lead to his top-of-the-food-chain reputation

drucker business week

about Management (a shock to the system)

 

“I am not a ‘theoretician’; through my consulting practice I am in daily touch with the concrete opportunities and problems of a fairly large number of institutions, foremost among them businesses but also hospitals, government agencies and public-service institutions such as museums and universities.

And I am working with such institutions on several continents: North America, including Canada and Mexico; Latin America; Europe; Japan and South East Asia.” — PFD

 

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List of his books

 

Large combined outline of Drucker’s books — useful for topic searching.

 

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High tech is living in the nineteenth century,
the pre-management world.
They believe that people pay for technology.
They have a romance with technology.
But people don't pay for technology:
they pay for what they get out of technology.” —
The Frontiers of Management

 

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Edward de Bono thinking books by category and book


Note the distinction between Edward de Bono’s take on decisions and the approaches in Peter Drucker’s writing



Life specific



INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION THINKING ::: INTELLIGENCE ::: The Intelligence Trap ::: Pieces of the Puzzle ::: Intelligence as Potential ::: Develop Potential ::: INFORMATION ::: Search Not Think ::: School and Information ::: Necessary but not Enough ::: THINKING ::: By and large, however, most schools do not teach thinking explicitly ::: 1. Thinking is not necessary ::: 2. Information is enough ::: 3. We already teach thinking ::: 4. Thinking cannot be taught ::: Our Software for Thinking ::: They were not interested in ::: Creative thinking ::: Constructive thinking ::: Operational thinking ::: Perceptual Thinking ::: Critical Thinking ::: Attitudes and Tools ::: Creativity ::: Argument ::: Parallel Thinking ::: Range ::: Love It pdf



Happiness Purpose ::: The proposed religion ::: Introduction ::: Nature ::: Religion and Change ::: Meta-Systems ::: Meta-System definition ::: Examples ::: Suicides (lack of a meta-system) ::: A device for reacting ::: Gödel's theorem ::: The use of meta-systems ::: Explanation ::: Origin and destiny ::: Purpose ::: Value ::: Decision ::: Judgement ::: Action ::: Achievement ::: Simplicity ::: The hump effect ::: The community as a meta-system ::: Internalized meta-systems ::: Astrology ::: Ping-pong ball ::: Elements of a New Meta-System ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Positive aspects of man's nature ::: Life-enhancing ::: Involvement in the world ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Self-enhancing ::: Humour ::: Balance ::: A god of man's mind ::: New thinking system ::: Truth ::: Respect ::: Activity and achievement ::: Structure ::: System cheats ::: Organization ::: New words ::: Details in following sections ::: Only a framework ::: God, Belief and Meta-Systems ::: God as creator ::: Self-organizing systems ::: God and self-organizing systems ::: Belief and the new meta-system ::: Truth ::: The need for absolute truth ::: Types of absolute truth ::: Mathematical truth ::: Logical truth ::: Scientific truth ::: Mystic truth ::: Revealed truth ::: Dogmatic truth ::: The process of truth ::: Proof and truth ::: The #consequences of absolute truth ::: Proto-truth ::: Proto-truths and absolute truths ::: Practical varieties of truth ::: Absolute truth ::: Proto-truth ::: Hypothesis ::: Pragmatic truth ::: Proto-truth and hypothesis ::: Proto-truth and pragmatism ::: The #consequences of proto-truth ::: Defence ::: Persecution and intolerance ::: Man's mind ::: The practical use of proto-truths ::: The Mind of Man as God ::: Perception as a self-organizing system ::: Towel and gelatine systems ::: The towel model ::: The gelatine model is different ::: The gelatine model and the brain ::: The importance of patterns ::: Alternative patterns ::: Changing patterns ::: Influencing patterns ::: Thinking ::: Purpose of thinking ::: Misconceptions about thinking ::: Ignorance and information ::: Beauty and feeling ::: Mistakes ::: The ego and thinking ::: Unsolved problems ::: Wisdom and cleverness ::: Exlectics ::: Exlectics and dialectics ::: The process of exlectics ::: Exploration stage ::: Extract a key-point from the situation ::: 'Re-clothing' of the key-point ::: Modification and development of the new idea to make it workable ::: The lump effect ::: Changing ideas ::: Humour ::: Humour and perception ::: Negative aspect of humour ::: The Biodic Symbol (Biodos) ::: What the biodic symbol means ::: Sequence of experience ::: Humour and the biodic symbol ::: Possibility of perceptual change ::: Hope ::: Different ways of looking at things ::: Moving away ::: Going back ::: The lump effect ::: The edge effect ::: The hump effect ::: Functional symbol ::: Stable patterns ::: Use of the biodic symbol ::: Self ::: Christianity and self ::: Buddhism and self ::: Marxism and self ::: The abdication of self ::: The deep self ::: Burden or joy ::: Life-Space and Self-Space ::: Life-space ::: Self-space ::: The gap ::: Pressure and opportunity ::: Self-improvement ::: Different life-spaces ::: Dignity and happiness ::: Happiness ::: Deliberate happiness ::: Types of happiness ::: Pleasure ::: Excitement ::: Enthusiasm ::: Joy ::: Interest ::: Relief ::: Peace ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Balance ::: Action ::: Ups and downs ::: Limitations ::: Activity and Achievement ::: Apathy and activity ::: Boredom ::: Action activity ::: Awareness activity ::: Achievement ::: Achievement and life-space ::: Oasis of competence ::: Confidence ::: Ratio-effect ::: Direction ::: Helping other people ::: Hobbies and special interests ::: Work ::: Organization and community work ::: Inner-world activity ::: Reactive activity and projective activity ::: High-achievers and competition ::: World involvement ::: Dignity ::: The value of self-space ::: Plurality ::: Self-improvement ::: Increasing control ::: Detachment ::: Actual change ::: Perceptual change ::: Discipline ::: Oscillations ::: Dignity and happiness ::: Respect ::: The three respects ::: Positive respect ::: Ordinary interaction ::: Competition ::: Conflict ::: Bullying ::: Help ::: Responsibility ::: Size of respect ::: Mood ::: Holiday mood ::: Other beliefs ::: Positive ::: Constructive ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Self ::: Respect ::: Humour ::: Tolerance ::: Plurality ::: Gentle ::: Sensitivity ::: Effectiveness ::: Focus ::: Activity ::: Achievement ::: Involvement ::: System sins ::: Control ::: Practical and realistic ::: Opportunity ::: Day-to-day ::: Balance ::: Wisdom ::: Simplicity ::: Summary ::: Belief ::: Man's mind ::: Proto-truths ::: Biodic symbol ::: Self ::: Life-space ::: Self-space ::: Cope/demand ratio ::: Dignity ::: Respect ::: Happiness ::: Activity ::: Key elements ::: Application ::: Application ::: Avoid ::: Negativity ::: Criticism ::: Opposition ::: Put-downs ::: Sneer ::: Superiority ::: Pretension ::: Egotism ::: Bullying ::: What you can get away with ::: Violence ::: Cynicism ::: World-weariness ::: Boredom ::: Apathy ::: Drift ::: Self-pity ::: Props ::: Passivity ::: Applied Thinking ::: The purpose of thinking ::: Enjoyment ::: Problem-solving ::: Review ::: Perceptual change ::: Preceding overlap each other ::: Starting-point ::: Scan ::: Focus ::: Analysis ::: Framework ::: TEC-PISCO framework ::: TEC ::: PISCO ::: The above framework is only an example ::: Such a framework is not a restricting structure but a liberating one ::: Being wrong ::: Instant judgement ::: Inadequate scan ::: Magnitude effect ::: Point-to-point ::: Being right ::: Error-free ::: Emotional rightness ::: Unique rightness ::: Decision ::: Priorities ::: Review ::: Consequences ::: Alteration ::: Prepared to give up ::: Lateral thinking ::: The three basic processes of lateral thinking ::: Stepping-stone ::: Concept-challenge ::: Random juxtaposition ::: There are many other techniques and processes in lateral thinking ::: Exlectics ::: Practical problems with thinking ::: Life-Space Care ::: Content of the life-space ::: Expectations ::: Pressures ::: Tensions ::: Action processes ::: Ignore them ::: Discard them ::: Flee them ::: Change them ::: Tools ::: Focus ::: Thinking ::: Discipline ::: Cut-off ::: Convenience ::: Abilities and talents ::: Sources of unhappiness ::: Maps ::: Caution ::: Self-Space Care ::: Activity of awareness ::: The moment ::: Activity of action ::: Forms of action activity ::: Hobbies ::: Craft ::: Organizing ::: Involvement ::: Work ::: Helping others ::: Interest ::: Sport ::: Television ::: Achievement ::: Intensity ::: Plurality ::: Stone-cutters' religion ::: Happiness Profiles ::: Ingredients of happiness ::: In setting up a happiness profile it is useful to keep certain things in mind ::: Distraction ::: Counter-effective ::: Effort-expensive ::: Continuity ::: Green-field ::: Sensitization ::: Trade-off ::: Cut-off ::: Happiness audit ::: Happiness foundation ::: Balance ::: Types of balance ::: The spectrum type of balance ::: The mix type of balance ::: The alternation type of balance ::: Dealing with balance ::: Recognition and audit ::: Middle-place concepts ::: Personality ::: Counter-effective ::: Trade-off ::: Cut off ::: Sequence ::: Artificial proportions ::: Balance areas ::: Adjustment and change ::: Involvement and drop-out ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Ignore and react ::: Inner world and outer world ::: Awareness activity and action activity ::: Projective and reactive action ::: Excitement and peace ::: Stability and change ::: Prejudice and doubt ::: Lateral and logical thinking ::: Self and society ::: Structure and freedom ::: Perfect balance ::: Relationships ::: Respect ::: Positive respect ::: The three respects ::: Relationship between individuals ::: Non-intrusion ::: Relationship between individual and society ::: Regulation ::: Modification ::: Replacement ::: Positive respect and the soda! system ::: Priorities ::: Attention ::: Conflict ::: Action ::: Dialectic ::: Failure of respect ::: Action ::: Action Steps ::: 1 Mood and attitude ::: Positive and constructive ::: Anti-negative ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Self ::: Respect ::: Anti-passivity ::: Summary ::: 2 Review and audit ::: Life-space maps ::: Happiness-profile and audit ::: EPA ::: Recognize ::: Identify ::: 3 Focus and #objectives ::: Problems ::: Tasks ::: Activity ::: Balance ::: Priorities ::: Conflict ::: Summary ::: 4 Self-space examination ::: 5 Life-space examination ::: 6 Shrinking ::: 7 Expanding ::: Coping ::: Activity ::: 8 Practice and training ::: Being positive ::: The shrug ::: Awareness activity ::: Decision and problem-solving ::: Thinking ::: 9 Understanding ::: 10 Organization ::: Transition Steps ::: 1 The positive mood ::: 2 Improvement ::: 3 Dignity ::: 4 Space-care ::: 5 Role-playing ::: Summary ::: Network ::: Network ::: Purpose and nature of the Network ::: Structure ::: The importance of thinking ::: Group and individual ::: Thinking as a craft ::: Tone ::: Academy and gymnasium ::: Qualifications ::: Motivation ::: Involvement ::: Positive attitude ::: Tolerance ::: Plurality ::: Operating ::: Organizers ::: Information compilers ::: Detectives ::: Researchers ::: Idea generators ::: Synthesizers ::: Reactors ::: Explainers ::: Communicators ::: Salesmen ::: Group organizers ::: Diplomats ::: Leaders ::: Effectors ::: Thinking ::: Logic ::: Analysis ::: Criticism ::: Description ::: Assessment ::: Observation ::: Lateral thinking ::: System design ::: Problem-finding ::: Problem-solving ::: Evaluation ::: Decision ::: Coping ::: Initiative ::: Operation ::: Construction ::: Activity ::: Group and individual ::: Exploration of thinking ::: Thinking practice ::: Problem-solving ::: Task forces ::: Think-tank ::: Communication medium ::: Thinking strategies ::: Network operation and organization ::: Principles ::: Definite ::: Effective ::: Tolerance ::: Respect ::: Organization ::: Problems ::: Lack of consideration ::: Crispness ::: Flavours ::: Eccentrics ::: Involvement ::: Endorsement ::: Contribution ::: Spread ::: Organizing work ::: Funds ::: Thinking ::: Start ::: Symbol ::: Summary

Handbook for the positive revolution ::: Contents ::: Note on the Author ::: Author's Note ::: Introduction ::: The Positive Revolution ::: The Principles ::: Constructive ::: Design ::: Contribution ::: Circles of Concern ::: Special Talent and Positions ::: Selfishness ::: Effectiveness ::: The Joy of Effectiveness ::: Education ::: Self-improvement ::: Increasing the Positive ::: Reducing the Negative ::: Better at What You Are Doing ::: New Skills ::: Emotions ::: Respect ::: Human Dignity and Human Rights ::: Methods ::: Perception ::: Crude Perceptions ::: Humour ::: Information ::: Naming ::: People ::: Situations ::: Symbols ::: Organization ::: Members of the Positive Revolution ::: Groups ::: Education Groups ::: Spread ::: Enemies ::: Uniformity ::: Education ::: The New Education ::: Leadership and Effectiveness ::: Self-help ::: Thinking ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: Power ::: The Power of Positive and Constructive Attitudes ::: The Power of the Best People ::: The Power of Perception ::: The Power of Thinking and of Information ::: The Power of Co-ordination and Alignment ::: The Power of Support ::: The Power of Spreading ::: The Power of Water ::: Sectors of Society ::: Women ::: Older People ::: Younger People ::: Media ::: Business ::: Art ::: Labour Unions ::: Political Parties ::: Other Revolutionary Groups ::: Problems ::: Summary ::: Appendix: How To Run An E-Club

H+ ::: Is H+ a religion? ::: Belief ::: Compatible ::: Different ::: A Way Of Life ::: Positive And Negative ::: Human+ ::: Happiness+ ::: Adjust and change ::: Thinking and happiness ::: Habit ::: Humour+ ::: Attitude ::: Help+ ::: Hope+ ::: Health + ::: Cool ::: Warm form ::: Waffo ::: Waffo and H+ ::: 'Pons' ::: Agenda ::: Pontoon ::: Beggars ::: Charities and good works ::: H+ recruitment ::: Being asked for help ::: Thinking Up Pons ::: Boasting And Showing-Off ::: Failure, Fines And Achievement ::: Projects ::: Rituals ::: Signals ::: Organization ::: Energizers ::: Fines ::: Communication ::: Registration ::: Headquarters ::: Central headquarters ::: Operational headquarters ::: Summary ::: About The Author ::: The Edward de Bono Foundation

Sur/petition ::: Introduction ::: Sur/petition ::: Integrated values ::: Concepts and creativity ::: Valufacture ::: The age of contraction ::: Format of this book ::: A new perspective ::: Summary ::: What Is Wrong with the Fundamentals? ::: Efficiency ::: Problem Solving ::: Information Analysis ::: Competition ::: Recent Fashions in Business Thinking ::: Cost-cutting ::: Restructuring ::: Quality Management ::: People Care ::: Environmental Concerns ::: Complacency ::: Types of Complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Cozy complacency ::: Arrogant complacency ::: Lack-of-vision complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Evolution ::: Nominated Champions ::: Unused Potential ::: The Four Wheels of Human Thinking ::: Procedures and Routines ::: Information ::: Analysis and Logic ::: Creativity ::: Concepts and Information ::: Forming Concepts ::: Concept and Context ::: Sur/petition versus Competition ::: Value Monopolies ::: Protection or Plus ::: The Source of Sur/petition ::: Words, Traps, and Dangers ::: Competition ::: Lumpers and Splitters ::: The Same As ... ::: Integrated Values ::: Benefits of Focus ::: The Three Stages of Business ::: The Stage of Production ::: The Stage of Competition ::: The Stage of Integrated Values ::: Examples ::: The auto industry ::: Airlines ::: Computers ::: Banks ::: Food retailing ::: Integrated Values ::: The Limits of Competition ::: Double Integration ::: Sur/petition ::: Values and Valufacture ::: Opportunities ::: Value Drivers ::: Convenience ::: Quality of life ::: Self-importance ::: Distraction ::: Types of Value ::: Perceived value ::: Real value ::: Gateway value ::: Context value ::: Synergy value ::: Security value ::: Appeal value ::: Fashion value ::: Function value ::: Convenience value ::: Yellow and Green Hats ::: People and Values ::: Nature of the Values ::: Multiple values ::: Focused values ::: By-product values ::: Value Notation ::: Serious Creativity ::: The Use of Creativity in an Organization ::: Does It Work? ::: Motivation ::: Attitudes ::: Focus ::: Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Asymmetric Patterns ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Not Crazy ::: Concept Design ::: Level of Concept ::: Defined Needs ::: The Asset Base ::: Concept Extraction ::: Sur/petition ::: Improving Concepts ::: Concept R&D ::: Cataloging ::: Generating ::: Developing ::: Testing ::: Structure ::: The People ::: Summary (Key Points) ::: Housekeeping ::: Sur/petition ::: Integrated Values ::: Serious Creativity ::: The Importance of Concepts ::: Concept R&D ::: Index

Tactics (by Edward de Bono) ::: Contents ::: Introduction ::: Lucky ::: A Little Mad ::: Very Talented ::: Rapid Growth Field ::: Tactics ::: Alphabetical list of interviewees ::: Part I Success ::: Styles and characteristics of success ::: Creative Style ::: Management Style ::: Entrepreneurial Style ::: Characteristics of Typically Successful Styles ::: Energy, Drive and Direction ::: Ego ::: 'Can-do' ::: Confidence ::: Stamina and Hard Work ::: Efficiency ::: Ruthlessness ::: Ability to Cope with Failure ::: Tactics ::: What stimulates success ::: Negative Stimulants ::: Anxieties ::: Positive Stimulants Power and Money ::: Image Improvement ::: Status ::: Making Things Happen ::: Doing Something Worthwhile ::: Tactics ::: How far is success within our control? ::: Early Environment ::: Born to Succeed ::: Key Factors ::: Expectation ::: Can You Copy a Style and Become a Success? ::: Learning by Copying ::: What Can We Learn from Images? ::: Role-playing to Success ::: Role-living and Success ::: Spot the Phony ::: When is Artificial Phony? ::: Does Luck Leave Success Outside our Control? ::: Is There Such a Thing as Luck? ::: Good Luck or Good Judgment? ::: Looking for Opportunity in Time and Place ::: Tactics ::: Part II Prepare For Success ::: Focus I ::: Self-knowledge ::: Strengths/Weaknesses ::: Self-awareness and Self-correction ::: Tactics ::: Focus II ::: Choice of Field ::: How They Chose What to Do ::: Does the Perfect Job Exist? ::: Be Ready to Change Targets ::: Tactics ::: Part III Make It A Success ::: Thinking and doing ::: How to Generate Ideas ::: Create New Ideas ::: The Creativity of Innocence ::: The Creativity of Escape ::: Tactics ::: Strategy ::: Design a Strategy ::: General Strategy ::: Detailed Strategy ::: How Rigid Should a Strategy Be? ::: Why Strategy Is More Than a Plan ::: How Strategy can Create the Culture of an Organization ::: Tactics ::: Decision-making ::: How to Make a Decision ::: Category Thinkers ::: Intuition Magic of the Muse? ::: Tactics ::: Opportunity ::: No Standing Still ::: Types of Opportunity ::: Opportunity Building ::: Opportunity Seeking ::: Assessing Opportunity. ::: Is Technical Advancement Always an Opportunity? ::: New Technology as Opportunity, A High-risk Area? ::: Opportunism ::: The 'Me-too' Philosophy ::: Niche Strategy ::: Play Your Own Game ::: Tactics ::: Risk ::: Are Successful People Risk-takers? ::: Gambler's Risk ::: The Risk of Innovation ::: Courage to Be at Risk ::: The Difference between Risk and Adventure ::: Risk Reduction ::: Work to Make a Decision Work ::: Learn to Wriggle ::: Tactics ::: Strategy for people as resources ::: How to Choose the Best People ::: How to Construct a Balanced Team ::: Team Motivation ::: Use People Wisely ::: Create a Sense of Involvement ::: Display a Sense of Involvement ::: You Don't Have to be Liked ::: Communicate Goals ::: How to Communicate ::: Getting Rid of People ::: Tactics ::: Tactical play ::: Tactics, Communication and Negotiation ::: How Far Should You Go? ::: The Game's the Thing ::: Image ::: Illusion and Bluff in Negotiation ::: Thinking on Your Feet ::: The Merit of Surprise ::: Gamesmanship ::: Psyching Your Opponent ::: The Proper Place of Tactics? ::: Tactics ::: Epilogue ::: The Lessons ::: New Horizons ::: Index

Textbook of wisdom ::: Authors note ::: # 1 Preventing someone from getting from Point A to B ::: # 2 Provide an easy path to C ::: # 3 Deciding which path to pursue ::: # 4 Wisdom is much concerned with the richness of ‘possibility’ ::: Introduction ::: Perception ::: Now and then the 'edge effect' ::: Truth, certainty and arrogance ::: The power of possibility ::: Values ::: Contrary and Contradiction ::: Hostage, Slave, Prisoner and Puppet ::: I, We and Identity ::: Contribute ::: The beach and the road ::: Wise about wisdom ::: # 165 A wisdom learning curve ::: The richer and more complex the world in which you ::: # 166 Traditionally, wise people have lived very simple lives ::: # 167 Far better to think of wisdom as a ‘pair of super-spectacles’ ::: A fear that conscience like a nagging aunt is forever ::: # 168 Working with this book ::: Go through this book picking out the points that make ::: You are supposed to integrate what you read here with ::: # 169 About things to avoid and things to seek out ::: # 170 Awareness ::: Wisdom is about awareness and possibilities: awareness ::: # 171 Perception ::: Perception is a matter of picking out the patterns ::: #172 Broad ::: Wisdom is about breadth of perception. There are three ::: # 173 Logic Bubble ::: A logic bubble is that bubble of perceptions and values ::: # 174 Possibly ::: Possibility is the key to wisdom. Possibility is the ::: # 175 Alternatives ::: Richness of perception and design are based on alternatives ::: # 176 Plurality ::: Wisdom encourages different thoughts and different ::: # 177 Parallel Thinking ::: Parallel thinking is the opposite of traditional adversarial ::: # 178 Choice ::: Because wisdom encourages alternatives and possibilities ::: # 179 Values ::: If we determine our values then those values can determine ::: # 180 Emotions and Feelings ::: If our emotions come first then they determine our ::: #181 Judgement ::: We need judgement to find our way through life. The ::: # 182 Design ::: # 183 A New Super-pattern → What would Merlin do? ::: Design is a matter of putting things together to achieve ::: Wisdom comes with growth

General thinking



Teach Your Child How to Think ::: Part One ::: This Book is Not For You If … ::: Introduction: Why We Need New Thinking About Thinking ::: Information and Thinking ::: Intelligence and Thinking ::: Cleverness and Wisdom ::: Does Thinking Have to Be Difficult? ::: How to Be an Intellectual ::: Reactive and Pro-Active Thinking ::: The New Word 'Operacy' ::: Critical Thinking ::: The Adversarial System ::: Challenge And Protest ::: The Need To Be Right ::: Analysis and Design ::: Creative Thinking ::: Logic and Perception ::: Emotions, Feelings and Intuition ::: Summary ::: Note About the Author ::: Education ::: Business ::: Public Affairs ::: International ::: Publications ::: Think About Thinking ::: Experience ::: Summary ::: How to Use This Book ::: Age ::: Teaching From the Book ::: Motivation ::: Hobby or Sport ::: Teaching Style ::: Discipline ::: Necklace Structure of the Book ::: Sequence ::: Formal Practice ::: Informal Practice ::: Exercises ::: There are four types of practice items ::: 1. Fun Items ::: 2. Remote Items ::: 3. Backyard Items ::: 4. Heavy Items ::: There should always be a mix of items ::: If I had to give a percentage of the mix of items, this would be as follows ::: Stage of building up thinking skills ::: Stage of application of skills already acquired ::: Performance ::: Demonstration ::: Joint ::: Request ::: Parallel ::: Group ::: Written ::: Nature of This Book ::: Age and Ability ::: Simplify ::: Groups ::: Young Group ::: Middle Group ::: Older Group ::: Further Use and Repeat Use ::: Thinking Behaviour ::: You WANT TO THINK ::: You HAVE TO THINK ::: Routine and Non-Routine ::: Focus, Situation and Task ::: Changing Gears ::: Practical Thinking ::: Casual ::: Discussion ::: Applied ::: Automatic and Deliberate (de Bono's Thinking Course) ::: Summary ::: The Nature of Thinking ::: The Nature of Mind (I Am Right — You Are Wrong (From this to the New Renaissance: from Rock Logic to Water Logic) ::: Self-Organizing ::: What Can We Do? ::: Attention-Directing Tools ::: Training ::: Summary ::: Part Two ::: Carpenters and Thinkers ::: Basic Operations ::: Tools ::: Structures ::: Attitudes ::: Principles ::: Habits ::: Summary ::: Attitudes ::: Bad Attitudes ::: Good Attitudes ::: First of all there are attitudes towards the skill of thinking itself ::: Now we can consider some attitudes about the nature of your thinking ::: Exercises for Attitudes ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The six thinking hats is a method for doing one sort of thinking at a time ::: Why Hats? ::: Role-Playing ::: Use of the Hats ::: 1. Yourself ::: 2. Someone Else ::: 3. Group ::: The Six Thinking Hats in Use ::: Attention Directing ::: Exercises on the Six Thinking Hats ::: White-Hat Thinking and Red-Hat Thinking ::: White Hat ::: Missing Information ::: Getting the Information We Need ::: Information and Feeling ::: Challenge ::: Red Hat ::: Justification ::: At This Moment ::: Mixed Feelings ::: Summary ::: Exercises on White-Hat and Red-Hat Thinking ::: Black-Hat Thinking and Yellow-Hat Thinking ::: Black Hat ::: Is It True? ::: Does It Fit? ::: Will It Work? Will the idea work? ::: What are the weaknesses in the idea? ::: Over-Use ::: Yellow Hat ::: What Are the Benefits? ::: Why Should It Work? ::: Over-use ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Black-Hat and Yellow-Hat Thinking ::: Green-Hat Thinking and Blue-Hat Thinking ::: Green Hat ::: Exploration ::: Proposals and Suggestions ::: Alternatives ::: New Ideas ::: Provocations ::: Action and Energy ::: Blue Hat ::: Where are We Now? ::: What is the Next Step? ::: Program for Thinking ::: Summary ::: Observation and Comment ::: Over-use ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Green-Hat and Blue-Hat Thinking ::: Six Thinking Hats in Sequence ::: Occasional Use ::: Systematic Use ::: Sequence Use ::: Seeking an Idea ::: Reacting to a Presented Idea ::: Short Sequences ::: Summary ::: Exercises on the Sequence Use of the Six Hats ::: Outcome and Conclusion ::: Three types of outcomes ::: Better Map ::: Pin-Pointing Needs ::: Specific Answer ::: Summary ::: The Five-Minute Thinking Format ::: One Minute (Purpose, Focus, Outcome, Situation) ::: Next Two Minutes (Explore) ::: Next One Minute (Choosing or Deciding) ::: Final One Minute (Outcome) ::: Output ::: Exercises on the Five-Minute Thinking Format ::: Forward or Parallel ::: LOGIC AND PERCEPTION ::: CAF: Consider All Factors ::: Exercises on CAF ::: APC: Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices ::: Exercises On APC ::: Values ::: Exercises on Values ::: OPV: Other People's Views ::: Two Sides in an Argument ::: Exercises on OPV ::: C&S: Consequence and Sequel ::: Time Scale ::: Immediate ::: Short-Term ::: Medium-Term ::: Long-Term ::: Risk ::: Certainty ::: Exercises on C&S ::: PMI: Plus, Minus and Interesting ::: Interesting ::: Scan ::: Exercises on PMI ::: Focus and Purpose ::: Key Questions ::: Setting the Focus ::: Type of Thinking ::: Exploring ::: Seeking ::: Choosing ::: Organizing ::: Checking ::: Type of thinking as a part of focus & purpose ::: Exercises on Focus and Purpose ::: AGO: Aims, Goals and #Objectives ::: Alternative Definitions of the Objective ::: Sub-Objectives ::: Exercises On AGO ::: FIP: First Important Priorities ::: Include and Avoid ::: How Many Priorities? ::: Exercises on FIP ::: First Review Section ::: Tools and Habits ::: The Thinking Habits ::: Focus and Purpose ::: Forward and Parallel ::: Perception and Logic ::: Values ::: Outcome and Conclusions ::: Summary ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Thinking Tools ::: AGO: Aims, Goals and Objectives ::: CAF: Consider All Factors ::: OPV: Other People's Views ::: APC: Alternatives, Possibilities and Choices ::: FIP: First Important Priorities ::: C&S: Consequence and Sequel ::: PMI: Plus, Minus and Interesting ::: Use of the Tools ::: Habits and Tools ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Part Three ::: Broad and Detail ::: Generating Alternatives ::: Extracting the Broad Idea ::: Concept and Function ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Broad and Detail ::: Basic Thinking Operations ::: Carpenter Model ::: The Cutting Operation ::: Focus ::: Extract a Feature ::: Analysis ::: Expansion ::: The Sticking Operation ::: Connections ::: Recognition ::: Synthesis ::: Construction ::: Design ::: The Shaping Operation ::: Judgement ::: Matching ::: Hypothesis ::: Comparison ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Basic Thinking Operations ::: Truth, Logic and Critical Thinking ::: Game Truth ::: Reality Truth ::: 1. Checkable truth ::: 2. Personal experience ::: 3. Second-hand experience ::: 4. Generally accepted ::: 5. Authority ::: Consider the following statements about cows ::: Thinking Habit ::: Logic ::: Logic, Information and Creativity ::: Critical Thinking ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Truth, Logic and Critical Thinking ::: Under What Circumstances? ::: Thinking Habit ::: Exercises on Circumstances ::: Hypothesis, Speculation and Provocation (Serious Creativity) ::: Jump Ahead ::: Levels of Speculation ::: Certain ::: Reasonably Sure ::: Good Guess ::: Possible ::: Tentative ::: Provocation ::: Action and Change ::: Creative Attitude ::: Scientific Thinking ::: Business Thinking ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Hypothesis, Speculation and Provocation ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Is creativity a mysterious talent possessed by a few people? ::: Creating ::: Art ::: Genius ::: Changing Ideas and Perceptions ::: Origin ::: Use of Lateral Thinking ::: Definition ::: General and Specific ::: Patterns ::: Humour ::: Hindsight ::: Provocation and Po ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: Received Provocations ::: Reversal ::: Escape ::: Wishful Thinking ::: Outrageous ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Provocation and Po ::: Movement ::: Introduction ::: Ways of Getting Movement ::: Attitude ::: Moment-to-Moment ::: Extract a Principle ::: Focus on the Difference ::: Search for Value ::: Interesting ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Movement ::: The Random Word ::: Introduction ::: Getting the Random Word ::: List of Random Words ::: Why It Works ::: Use of the Technique ::: Summary ::: Exercises on the Random Word ::: Second Review Section ::: The first review covered many specific thinking tools plus attention-directing ::: This second review section is concerned with some of the fundamental thinking operations ::: Truth and Creativity ::: Critical Thinking ::: Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Basic Operations ::: Cutting ::: Sticking ::: Shaping ::: Further Thinking Habits ::: Circumstances ::: Broad and Detail ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Principles for Thinking ::: 1. Always be constructive ::: 2. Think slowly and try to make things as simple as possible ::: 3. Detach your ego from your thinking and be able to stand back to look at your thinking ::: 4. At this moment, what am I trying to do? What is the focus and purpose of my thinking? ::: 5. Be able to 'switch gears' in your thinking ::: 6. What is the outcome of my thinking--why do I believe that it will work? ::: 7. Feelings and emotions are important parts of thinking but their place is after exploration ::: 8. Always try to look for alternatives, for new perceptions and for new ideas ::: 9. Be able to move back and forth between broad-level thinking and detail-level thinking ::: 10. Is this a matter of 'maybe' or a matter of 'must be'? ::: 11. Differing views may all be soundly based on differing perceptions ::: 12. All actions have #consequences and an impact on values, people and the world around ::: Summary ::: Part Four ::: Structures and Situations ::: Structures ::: Situations ::: Summary ::: TO/LOPOSO/GO (Teach Yourself To Think) ::: TO ::: LO ::: PO ::: SO ::: GO ::: Visual Structure ::: Interaction ::: Summary ::: Exercises On TO/LOPOSO/GO ::: Arguments and Disagreements ::: Emotions and Feelings ::: Use of the Red Hat ::: Words ::: Perceptions ::: Values ::: Logic ::: Specific Structure ::: Declaration ::: Comparison ::: Design ::: Trading ::: Power Disputes ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Arguments and Disagreements ::: Problems and Tasks ::: Tasks ::: Guessing and Estimating ::: The Problink Method ::: 'Link' ::: Route ::: Detail ::: Selection of Alternatives ::: Objective ::: Feasibility ::: Priorities ::: Values ::: General Assessment ::: Action ::: New Problems or Tasks ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Problems and Tasks ::: Decisions and Choices ::: Emotions ::: Greed ::: Fear ::: Laziness ::: Emotional contribution check ::: Minor Decisions and Choices ::: The Six-Hats Structures ::: Attention-directing Tools ::: Major Decisions and Choices ::: Objective and Priorities ::: Benefits ::: Feasibility ::: Difficulties and Dangers ::: Impact ::: Consequences ::: Cost ::: Risk ::: Short-Fall ::: Harm and Danger ::: Cost-Overrun ::: Circumstance Change ::: Fall-Back Position ::: Risk awareness and minimization ::: Trial and Testing ::: Selection ::: Four Choices ::: The Ideal Choice ::: The Emotional Choice ::: The Practical Choice ::: The Minimal Choice ::: Making the Choice ::: Design ::: Analysis Paralysis ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Decisions and Choices ::: Third Review Section ::: General-Purpose Structure ::: Argument and Disagreement ::: Problems and Tasks ::: Decisions and Choices ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Part Five ::: Newspaper Exercises ::: 1. The Tower ::: 2. The Adjectives ::: 3. The Bridge ::: 4. Headline Story ::: 5. the Chain ::: 6. Picture and Story ::: The Ten-Minute Thinking Game ::: The Drawing Method ::: Words and Pictures ::: Operacy ::: Discussion ::: Summary ::: Exercises With Drawing ::: Final Word ::: Appendix: Thinking Clubs ::: Purpose of the Thinking Clubs ::: Activities of the Thinking Clubs ::: Principles ::: Practical Matters ::: Discipline ::: Duration of Meetings ::: Frequency of Meeting ::: Organizer ::: Place of Meetings ::: Number of People ::: Log Book ::: Activities During a Meeting of a Thinking Club ::: 1. Formal matters ::: 2. Thinking task catalogue ::: Practice Items ::: Personal Items ::: Local Items ::: Project Items ::: World Affairs ::: 3. Skills learning and practice ::: 4. Comment upon thinking skill ::: 5. Application to personal matters ::: 6. Application to local matters ::: 7. Project report and thinking ::: 8. World affairs ::: 9. Final matters ::: Total Timing ::: Material ::: Training ::: Register of Thinking Clubs ::: Summary

de Bono’s Thinking Course ::: Note on Author ::: The leading authority in the world on the direct teaching of thinking as a skill ::: “Thinking about thinking” ::: Lessons widely used in ::: Education ::: Leading corporations ::: Governments ::: Background ::: Rhodes Scholar ::: Medicine ::: Psychology ::: Invented lateral thinking ::: Author’s note ::: Most people think their thinking is pretty good ::: Improving thinking skill ::: Wisdom vs. cleverness ::: Thinking is the ultimate human resource ::: The quality of our future will depend entirely on the quality of our thinking ::: Applies on a personal level, a community level and on the world level ::: Summary ::: On the whole our thinking is rather … ::: poor ::: short-sighted ::: egocentric ::: We have come to believe that judgement and argument are sufficient ::: In a rapidly changing world we are finding that our thinking is adequate to meet the demands put upon it ::: Thinking as a skill ::: Introduction ::: Thinking is a matter of intelligence vs. a skill that can be improved ::: Intelligence and genes ::: We can do a great deal more about the operating skill with which intelligence is used—the skill of thinking ::: Intelligence and education ::: Assumptions ::: Thinking is the operating skill with which intelligence acts upon experience (for a purpose) ::: Not interested in measuring intelligence or thinking skills ::: More interested in designing thinking tools and training methods ::: The intelligence trap ::: Many people who consider themselves to be highly intelligent are not necessarily good thinkers. They get caught in the intelligence trap ::: Aspects ::: Take a view of a subject and then use intelligence to defend that view ::: Don’t seek alternative ::: Don’t listen to anyone else ::: Satisfaction factor ::: Prove someone else wrong ::: Critical ::: Destructive ::: Being constructive is much less rewarding ::: Takes years to show that a new idea works ::: Depend on the listener liking your idea ::: Practice ::: Surely all the “practice” is thinking should make people better thinkers? ::: Two finger typists ::: If you practice poor thinking for years you will become an extremely skilled poor thinker ::: Education ::: Doesn’t teach thinking ::: Certain fundamental processes that cut across all fields ::: Assessing priorities ::: Seeking alternatives ::: Forming hypotheses ::: Generating new ideas ::: As little as 7 hours can have a powerful effect ::: Critical thinking ::: Inadequate on its own ::: Gang of three ::: Analysis ::: Judgement ::: Argument ::: World problems ::: because traditional education ::: Our success in science and technology ::: Not from critical thinking ::: From the “possibility” system ::: Moves ahead of our information to create hypothesis and visions ::: A framework through which to look at things ::: Also something to work towards ::: Critical thinking’s part ::: If you know your hypothesis is going to be criticized ::: Then you seek to make it stronger ::: But critical destruction of one hypothesis has never produced a better one ::: It is creativity that produces the better hypothesis (???) ::: Perception ::: Outside highly technical matters, perception is by far the most important part of thinking ::: Perception is … ::: how we look at the world ::: what things we take into account ::: how we structure the world ::: In real life logical errors are quite rare ::: Garbage In Garbage Out ::: If your perception is limited then flawless logic will give you an incorrect answer ::: Bad logic makes for bad thinking. But the opposite is not true at all ::: This is a book about perception ::: It now seems very likely that perception works as a “self-organizing information system” ::: See ::: The Mechanism of Mind ::: I Am Right You Are Wrong ::: The tool method ::: Know which tool to use at any point in order to get the desired effect ::: Tools are really “attention-directing tools” ::: We can now direct attention at will ::: Without attention-directing tools attention follows the patterns laid down by experience and we remain trapped ::: Sales job on the method ::: CoRT Thinking Lessons ::: Perfection Learning ::: 10520 New York Avenue ::: Des Moines, Iowa 50322 ::: 515 278-0133 ::: Deleted headlines ::: Learning thinking and teaching thinking ::: The thinker ::: Self-image ::: Think slowly ::: The PMI ::: Scan ::: Interesting ::: Use of the PMI ::: Two steps ::: Practice ::: Alternatives ::: Introduction ::: A deliberate search for alternatives counteracts the natural tendency of mind ::: certainty, security, and arrogance ::: arise from the pattern-making and pattern-using system ::: The tool is the APC ::: About alternatives ::: Easy alternatives ::: Because there are few constraints (as to practicality, cost, mess) ::: More difficult alternatives ::: The “L-Game” ::: The real difficulty ::: is to set out to look for alternatives in the first place ::: Beyond the adequate ::: Contentment with an “adequate” solution or approach is the biggest block there is to any search for a better alternative ::: Change the idiom (see page # 28) ::: The APC ::: Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices ::: Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at that particular point ::: Situations in which we may want to “do an APC” ::: Explanation (alternative explanations) ::: Hypothesis ::: Perception ::: Problems ::: Review ::: Design ::: Decision ::: Courses of action ::: Forecasting ::: Practicality ::: Alternatives and creativity ::: Exercises for APC ::: Perception and patterns ::: Perception ::: Crossing the road ::: Pattern making ::: How patterns are formed ::: The use of patterns ::: Recognition ::: Getting it wrong ::: Abstraction ::: Grouping ::: Analysis ::: Awareness ::: Art ::: Exercise ::: Lateral thinking ::: Progress ::: Pattern changing ::: Humor ::: Hindsight and insight ::: Creativity and lateral thinking ::: Lateral thinking as process ::: Judgement and provocation ::: The word “po” ::: The steppingstone method ::: The escape method ::: The random stimulation method ::: General use of lateral thinking ::: The logic of lateral thinking ::: Information and thinking ::: Operacy ::: Experience scan ::: CAF ::: C & S ::: Dense reading and dense listening ::: Logic ::: Getting more information ::: Questions ::: Experiments ::: Selecting information ::: FI-FO ::: Two uses ::: Other people ::: Most thinking has to do with other people ::: The problem of the clash system ::: Need to outline so I can name the game ::: You can criticize anything at all by choosing a frame different from what you see ::: We need to make a great effort to develop … ::: Design thinking ::: Constructive thinking ::: Creative thinking ::: Exlectics ::: The constructive part. The alternative to the clash system ::: Has to do with … ::: Map reading ::: Creative design ::: Seek to “lead out” or “pull out” of the situation what is of value ::: No matter on which side it is to be found ::: Much more that compromise or consensus ::: Compromise is still within the clash system ::: Consensus means staying with that part of a proposal on which everyone is agreed ::: It is passive ::: A lowest common denominator type approach ::: More like the “osmosis” method used by the Japanese ::: No opposing or varying ideas to begin with ::: There is joint listening and joint exploration ::: Later the ideas begin to emerge ::: “Views” begin to gel after many meetings ::: A matter of dealing with the “terrain” ::: Not a matter of dealing with “views” ::: The sort of difference that was to be found between the intelligence trap and the PMI ::: The CoRT tools that are used for exlectics are … tools ::: exploratory ::: mapping ::: EBS (Examine Both Sides) ::: “What really is the other point of view…” ::: Not just as it is expressed in argument form but the “terrain” behind it? ::: This exploration is neutral ::: EBS does not preclude the holding of … But this comes after the exploration not, before it ::: a point of view ::: a value system ::: a preference ::: An attention-directing tool ::: More difficult to do that it seems ::: Similar to doing a thorough reconnaisance of the enemy’s territory during wartime ::: Except you are examining the territory for a constructive purpose ::: Not easy to sustain this difference of attitude ::: Need the detachment of the committed mapmaker ::: ADI (Agreement, Disagreement, Irrelevance) ::: The EBS mapping exercise leads almost directly into the ADI ::: The two maps are compared (from examination of both sides) ::: The areas of agreement are noted ::: The areas of disagreement are noted ::: Finally the areas of irrelevance ::: Often shows that the areas of disagreement might be quite small ::: But appear very much larger in the argument situation because neither side dare concede a point for fear that this will be used ::: At the end of an effective ADI both parties should be able to point directly at the area of disagreement ::: What we are really in disagreement about is this point here ::: Usually be quite a lot on which there is agreement ::: This can be used as a base for trying to design a way around the disagreement ::: In any case there is a stronger negotiating base ::: Isolating the area of disagreement also means that it can be further examined in order to find out how basic the disagreement may be ::: ADI can be done … ::: separately by both parties ::: or it can be done as a cooperative undertaking (the best) ::: Logic-bubbles ::: Someone does not agree with you or does not do what you think he ought to do ::: He is … ::: stupid ::: cantankerous ::: obstinate ::: or He is … ::: highly intelligent ::: and acting intelligently within his own logic-bubble ::: His logic bubble happens to be different from yours ::: The logic bubble is that bubble of perception within which a person is acting ::: The bubble included perception of … ::: circumstance ::: structure ::: context ::: relationships ::: Too often we put intelligent people into certain situations and then complain when they act intelligently ::: Innovation example ::: Strike example ::: It is probably quite far from the truth that everyone is acting very logically within his or her logic-bubble ::: As a practical way of looking at things ::: Direct attention to the circumstances in which the behavior is quite logical ::: The logic bubble includes … ::: The actual circumstances surrounding a person ::: His perception of the situation ::: It is useful to map out the logic bubbles of the other people involved ::: This is especially important in the area of motivation ::: Management always regards motivation as vital ::: Motivation depends on the logic-bubbles of those who are to be motivated, not on the logic bubble of management. ::: OPV ::: Another of the CoRT tools ::: Overlaps with EBS and the logic bubble ::: Stands for other people’s views ::: Tries to put himself in the other person’s shoes in order to look at the world from that position ::: Identify the other people who are really part of the situation ::: Getting into the shoes of all these other people ::: See format on page 96 ::: Doing an OPV ::: Doesn’t mean … ::: Putting into the mouths of all parties sane and rational arguments of the sort one might hold oneself ::: Putting into their mouths complaints and irrationality in order to condemn their point of view ::: It means ::: Objectively trying to look at the world from that point of view ::: and perhaps adding what is thought to be the actual point of view ::: It is a blend between “position” point of view and the “actual” point of view ::: Constructive Design ::: The mapping techniques mentioned in this section (EBS, ADI, logic-bubble, and OPV) are intended to give a broader and clearer view of the situation: a better map ::: Maybe they don’t want to resolve the dispute ::: Maybe the dispute is of value to them ::: Allow the dispute to continue on a ritual or cosmetic level ::: While the real issues are resolved in a constructive manner ::: Where necessary, the second part of the exlectic process might be the constructive design of an outcome or course of action ::: Maybe a solution ::: Maybe just a way of living or a way of getting on with things ::: Design questions ::: What are the ingredients? ::: What is to be achieved? ::: What are the constraints? ::: Design process may go through … ::: Several stages ::: Several alternative approaches ::: Several rejections ::: A design is judged satisfactory when it is judged to be satisfactory by those who are to use it ::: Negotiation ::: In it’s true sense — a specialized form of constructive design ::: Involves … ::: Thorough mapping of the areas as suggested in this section ::: And then a stage of constructive design ::: In its “pressure bargaining” sense it is a form of the clash system ::: “Variable value” ::: An important part of negotiation ::: Value can differ much according to the person and the situation ::: What one party wants very much may cost the other party little ::: There is a trading in values ::: There is also a trade-off ::: In order to achieve one thing there ma have to be acceptance of another ::: All this is very much helped by thorough mapping and the attitude of constructive design ::: Values—and especially perceived values—are the most important ingredient in the design ::: Communication ::: Useful communication must always be in the language of the receiver ::: The mapping methods listed in this section should be used to map out the terrain in terms of … ::: position ::: history ::: mood ::: value ::: concepts available ::: The logic-bubble of the listener includes the concepts and perceptions available to him or her ::: Simple concepts may be very complicated and subtle ::: Such as those held by children ::: Complex concepts are often broken down into subconcepts ::: Whereas simple concepts have to embrace a great deal with one concept ::: Adults always tend to think that children have simple adult concepts: but children have complicated child concepts ::: Emotions and values ::: Gut feeling and thinking ::: Emotions at three points ::: Changing feelings ::: Values ::: HV and LV ::: Value-laden words ::: Awareness ::: Making decisions ::: Introduction ::: Size of a decision … ::: is always proportional to the inadequacy of the reason for making it ::: If information is sufficient to make the decision for us ::: then we, as humans, are superfluous ::: We are only called in to make decisions when ::: an analysis of information is insufficient ::: when we have to ::: speculate or guess ::: or apply human values and emotions ::: In the end all decision are emotional ::: This chapter deals with quite ordinary decisions ::: Not the type that requires running various factors through an econometric model ::: The L-game ::: The value of the decision can be checked ::: In almost all decision situations the difficulty is that the value of the decision can only be checked in the future—after the decision has been made ::: The number of alternatives is only limited by our imaginations ::: Decision preframe ::: This is the setting for the decision ::: Context ::: What is the context? ::: What is the situation in which the decision is to be made? ::: calm, panic, conflict, competitive pressure, or what? ::: Need ::: Why is there a need to make a decision at all? ::: Why is there a need to make it now? ::: If the decision is put off will the matter resolve itself or will an opportunity be lost? ::: Is there pressure to make the decision? ::: Is this pressure self-imposed, imposed by others or imposed by the advice of friends? ::: Time frame ::: What is the time frame of the decision? ::: To making of the decision ::: Today, this month, this year, within the next decade ::: To the effects ::: When will the effects of the decision become apparent? ::: Next week ::: In 20 years’ time ::: Type ::: The “type” of decision ::: Is it an adjustment or change in direction ::: Or is it a major switch? ::: Is it a decision to stop doing something or to start doing something? ::: Is it the sort of decision that depends very much on other people for its implementation ::: Or is it one that can be make directly by the deciders? ::: Is it irrevocable or can it be reversed if it does not work out? ::: Is it one among many decisions or one which sets the course for all that follows? ::: Is it a decision that the people making the decision are capable of making? ::: Generation of alternatives ::: Obvious alternatives ::: (Some) alternatives that have to be discovered ::: Should be a practical cutoff when a decision has to be made ::: To hope for the ultimate alternative is unrealistic ::: When a decision is difficult to make … ::: It is always worth going back to try to generate further alternatives ::: Values and priorities ::: These can be spelled out in advance ::: Priorities may sometimes … ::: appear as values ::: and sometimes as subobjectives ::: Values and priorities are interwoven in the ten decision methods which follow ::: Decision methods ::: The dice method ::: List the alternatives and just throw a die to decide which one is to be followed ::: Is it more important to make the right decision or to be happy with the decision ::: People tend to get to like and justify decisions after they have been made ::: Make the decision ::: Get to like ::: In some situations making a decision work is even more important that choosing the right decision ::: The easy way out method ::: Decisions not only have to be made, they have to be acted upon ::: Some alternatives are much easier to choose and to act upon than others ::: What is the easiest alternative to choose? ::: Then the effort is made to build up and justify this decision ::: this is a conscious positive effort ::: If at the end of this effort the choice seems an acceptable one it can be made ::: The spell-out method ::: Imagine having chosen each alternative in turn ::: Describe to a friend why he has made that decision ::: Put forward all the reasons ::: Why it is a good choice ::: Why it suits him ::: Write down the reasons ::: Read through in their own right ::: Which one sounds best? ::: Which one makes the most sense? ::: Sometimes the best stand out very clearly ::: At other times some of the justifications are so feeble that those alternatives disappear from the list ::: The spell out is an extension of the “easy way out” method ::: Balaam’s ass method ::: When the alternatives are equally attractive ::: The difficulty lies in bringing ourselves to give up an attractive alternative ::: Do the very best you can to “knock” or make unattractive each alternative in turn ::: If you succeed then there is no pain in giving them up and the best decision emerges ::: The ideal solution method ::: The alternatives are listed—and then ignored ::: An “ideal solution” is fashioned for the situation ::: The general “shape” of this solution is considered ::: It should not be detailed but the characteristics should be noted ::: The list of alternatives should be uncovered and examined to see which of them approached the nearest to the ideal solution ::: The best home method ::: The best “home” for an idea is that … in which the idea would thrive ::: situation ::: context ::: For each alternative we find the best home ::: For what type of person in what type of circumstances would that choice of alternative be the best? ::: You then compare that “home” to actuality ::: The “what if …?” method ::: Different “what if …?” type changes are made in the circumstances to see at what point an alternative suddenly stops being attractive ::: When you hit on a “what if” that makes the choice unattractive then you have isolated the real reason behind making that particular choice ::: The process is really a focusing one ::: The simple matrix method ::: Grid ::: List the alternatives along the side ::: List the qualities you are looking for along the top ::: In the boxes you indicate how a particular alternative relates to that particular quality ::: Attempt to pick out the few crucial qualities that would be required for any decision ::: A way of screening out those alternatives which are totally unsuitable ::: The remaining alternatives can be treated with another decision method, or else a further “crucial” quality can be tested ::: This can go on with the application of further qualities until only one alternative survives ::: What alternative survives the crucial demands? ::: The full matrix method ::: The laziness method ::: Decision postframe ::: Personal style and self-image is vary important factor here ::: Is it the sort of decision that one can see oneself making? ::: If the decision is a ruthless one ::: Can the person making it see themselves carrying it through? ::: Decisions need to be objective but the personal style of the decider is part of that objectivity ::: The people involved need a lot of consideration ::: They may have to agree to the decision ::: They may have to carry it through ::: They may be affected by it ::: At this point such techniques as the OPV or logic-bubble need to be applied ::: The #consequences of the decision have to be examined in the different time frames by doing a C&S ::: Immediate ::: Short-term ::: Medium-term ::: Long-term ::: Then there is the implementation of the decision ::: Who is going to implement it? ::: How is it going to be implemented? ::: Are the channels available or must they be set up? ::: What are the stages of implementation? ::: What are the likely problems and sticking points? ::: What are the risks and dangers? ::: All these points apply to any course of action ::: What is the terrain? ::: This is a “map” of the circumstances or environment in which the decision is going to be carried out ::: Competitors ::: Rivals ::: The state of the world (both on a large scale and a small scale) ::: The “fall-back” position ::: What if the decision proves to be wrong? ::: What if it cannot be implemented? ::: What if circumstances change? ::: Can the decision be resersed? ::: Is rescue possible? ::: Can there be a switch to a reserve position? ::: It sometimes feels as though the decision of a fall-back position weakens the confidence with which a decision is made ::: If you are sure it is the right decision why design an escape route? ::: But all decisions are speculative—otherwise they would not be decisions ::: There is a difference between being unwilling to take risks and making provision for things not turning out as hoped ::: Emphasis on fit ::: In many of the methods suggested the emphasis is not directly on the value of the alternatives but on how they fit the actual circumstances ::: We need to change difficult decisions into easy decisions first ::: In the end all decision must be emotional, but the clearer the picture the more suitable the application ::: The future ::: Thinking and doing ::: Operacy ::: Three ways of doing things ::: Setting #objectives ::: AGO ::: Targets ::: Strategy and tactics ::: Course of action ::: If-box method ::: Planning ::: The terrain ::: People ::: Risks ::: Constraints ::: Resources ::: Future ::: Business and daily life ::: Deliberate thinking ::: What can one do about developing thinking as a usable skill? Make it … ::: Deliberate ::: Turn on thinking at will ::: Direct thinking to any subject or any aspect of a subject ::: There are general aspects of thinking which apply at all times ::: Focused ::: The thinking tools are a means for being focused in thinking ::: You can set out to do a PMI or OPV ::: The first step is to determine to do it ::: The second step is to do it ::: It is like giving a definite instruction to oneself ::: The focus can be as tight as you wish ::: Confident ::: Thinking should be confident ::: Not arrogant ::: To be sure that you are right ::: To be sure that your thinking is better than anyone else’s ::: To be sure that there can be no alternatives ::: Arrogance is a major sin in thinking ::: Not necessarily brilliant ::: Has nothing to do with value ::: It is the way something is done ::: Knows the limits of his skills ::: Exercises it with confidence ::: A confident thinker … ::: Does not have to prove himself right ::: and the other person wrong ::: He or she see the thinking as an operating skill ::: not an ego-achievement ::: Is willing to listen to others ::: Is willing to improve his thinking by acquiring … ::: a new idea ::: or a new way of thinking ::: Is willing to set out to think about something ::: Is able to acknowledge that an answer has not been found ::: Is able to make mistakes and to learn from them ::: Enjoyable ::: If you only do it when there is a problem, it won’t be enjoyable ::: Not talking about puzzles, games, and brainteasers ::: It is more a matter of being able to think about different things ::: Having ideas ::: Working things out ::: Engaging in “thinking” type discussion ::: Boring type ::: Each party is trying to put across a particular point of view ::: Enjoyable type ::: Each is exploring the subject ::: Self-image ::: The most important point of all ::: “I am a thinker” ::: I can try to think about things ::: I enjoy thinking about things ::: I am interested in developing more skill at thinking ::: The techniques, understanding, and methods are of secondary importance to this ::: Time discipline (two to four minutes for thinking about an item) ::: Strict time discipline enhances not only the effectiveness of thinking but also the enjoyment ::: Should be very short ::: 30 seconds ::: One minute ::: Five minutes ::: Reasons ::: More deliberate and more focused ::: Switch on thinking and operates it ::: Focuses directly on the task ::: Freedom ::: Takes burden and stress out ::: Can stop at the end of the time ::: Don’t have to solve the problem or gotten a wonderful answer ::: Just have to think for two minutes ::: For the alloted time they should have been using their thinking—whatever the result ::: Harvesting ::: Another very important point ::: “Harvesting” is the other side of the coin to “time-discipline” ::: It is a matter of making oneself aware of what has been achieved, even in a very brief thinking session ::: Perhaps some point has become more clear? ::: Perhaps there is an actual suggestion? ::: Perhaps some alternatives have been spelled out? ::: Perhaps some point has been identified as problem area that needs further thinking attention? ::: Sensitive harvesting means being acutely aware of just what has been achieved ::: There will always be something that has been achieved ::: It is a matter of being aware of it ::: “I just keep going round in circles” is a considerable achievement: as an identification of a “locked-in” situation ::: Exercises ::: Later he discusses “setting thinking tasks” ::: Thinking about thinking ::: A skilled thinker can do two things ::: Think about the subject (performing the thinking task) ::: Think about the thinking used in performing the thinking task ::: Not a common habit ::: Look … ::: back at the thinking he used in performing a thinking task ::: at the thinking he is using at the moment ::: at the thinking he feels he is going to use ::: at the thinking used by other people ::: Not doing so with the aim of criticizing it or attacking it ::: The intention is to watch what thinking is being applied ::: Just as bird watchers watch birds ::: The better one gets at it, the more the fascination grows ::: In looking at thinking ::: Areas of observation ::: Blockages ::: The recurrence of certain ideas ::: Emotional points ::: Possible difficulties in generating more alternatives ::: Blank spots ::: Other ways of looking at things ::: The likelihood of a conclusion ::: The identification of any sticking points ::: Difficulties in getting going ::: Finding a starting point ::: Exercise ::: Write down a repertoire of these observations ::: Stocking your mind with such concepts ::: Becomes possible to “observe” thinking ::: The concept of “value-laden” words ::: Allow your to search for ::: Pick out ::: Aware of the various uses. Stand out more obviously ::: Look at the thinking used “in general about a particular subject” ::: Thinking structures ::: A simple structure ::: The TEC framework ::: A very simple structure for … ::: focusing thinking ::: and making of it a deliberate task ::: It will be incorporated in the “five-minute think” ::: For the time being it will be treated in a more general sense ::: T stands for “Target” and “Task” ::: The “target” is the precise focus of the thinking ::: May be as tight or general as you wish ::: The “task” is the thinking task that is to be performed ::: Review ::: Look at the way something is being done with an eye to improvement ::: Fault finding and fault correction ::: Problem solving ::: Problem finding ::: A creative exercise ::: Any of the thinking tools mentioned in this book (or in the CoRT lessons) ::: Doing a C & S or AGO ::: Both should be defined precisely ::: E stands for “Expand” and “Explore” ::: This is the opening-up phase ::: We could … ::: use lateral thinking techniques ::: do a CAF ::: and consider all factors ::: scan our experience ::: analyze the situation ::: try to abstract familiar patterns ::: We are … ::: opening up the field ::: filling in the map ::: exploring the territory ::: A certain amount of wandering is permissible ::: Write all you know about … ::: The expansion is positive and free-flowing ::: Not trying to exercise judgement of find the best ideas at this stage ::: We are pulling in information and concepts ::: “Richness” is all important ::: C stands for “Contract” and “Conclude” ::: This is the narrowing down phase ::: We are trying to make sense of what we have ::: We are trying to come to a definite conclusion ::: This may be … ::: A solution ::: A creative idea ::: An additional alternative or an opinion ::: We can now use design, shaping and judgement ::: The conclusion is the outcome of our thinking, not just a summary of it. ::: What does it boil down to? ::: What does it add up to? ::: What is the outcome? ::: What is the result? ::: Three levels at which the conclusion can be set ::: A specific answer, idea, or opinion ::: A full harvesting of all that has been achieved, including for example a listing of ideas considered ::: An objective look at the “thinking” that has been used ::: Even in the absence of anything at level 1 there should be an output at levels 2 and 3 ::: TEC can be applied at any point ::: Focus ::: Set task ::: Open up ::: Narrow down ::: Conclude ::: The 5-minute think (also see Teach your child how to think) ::: The time allocation ::: 1 minute for Target and Task ::: 2 minutes for Expand and Explore ::: 2 minutes for Contract and conclude ::: Strict adherence to the time allocation. No rushing ahead ::: A sample 5 minute think ::: There should be no sense of rush ::: If there is, then the target has been pitched too widely ::: It is also possible to repeat a 5 minute think with the same target ::: There is a temptation to turn a 5 minute think into a 30 minute think through a succession of sessions on the same subject ::: This destroys the whole point of the exercise ::: Symbolic TEC (see drawing) ::: Could be placed in the margin of a report ::: A fuller structure ::: PISCO ::: A rather fuller framework is provided by PISCO ::: Both TEC and PISCO are more fully described in section VI of the CoRT Thinking Program ::: P stands for Purpose ::: What is the purpose of the thinking? ::: What is expected as the end product? ::: Why is the thinking being done? ::: Similar to the T of TEC ::: More emphasis on why the thinking is being done at all ::: I stands for Input ::: This is the input information, experience and all the ingredients that need to go into the thinking ::: Tools such as … can be used to develop a rich map ::: CAF ::: C & S ::: OPV ::: This is somewhat similar to the E part of TEC ::: S stands for Solutions ::: These are alternative solutions, ideas, or approaches to the matter ::: In this sense the S is a narrowing down not unlike the C of TEC ::: C stands for Choice ::: This is the choice between the alternatives that have been offered at the previous stage ::: A decision and an evaluation is made at the end of which there is but one surviving alternative ::: The section on decision making could be of help here ::: O stands for Operation ::: This is the action stage ::: What are the steps to be taken? ::: How is the matter to be staged” ::: The implementation of the idea is focused upon at this point ::: Symbolic PISCO (see drawing) ::: TEC-PISCO ::: The two frameworks can be combined ::: TEC is the more general framework ::: PISCO ::: spreads out the stages ::: can be more useful if there is an actual problem or matter that has to be thought about ::: there is not particular time limit on the stages ::: just a consciousness of whichever stage is being used ::: At any point in the PISCO process an area that needs more thinking can be identified and the TEC frame can then be applied directly at that spot ::: For … the TEC framework is sufficient and there is not need to go for the more elaborate PISCO ::: general purpose ::: the exercise of thinking skill ::: Deliberate practice of thinking ::: Thinking clubs ::: General thinking skills ::: These are the second nature skills ::: Need both deliberate and general thinking (second nature) ::: The general thinking skills as second nature ::: The ability to focus formally upon a matter ::: The formal stage is essential before the second nature stage develops ::: General thinking skills ::: An understanding of the importance of perception and the nature of perception as a pattern-making and pattern-using system ::: An instinctive tendency to search for alternatives not only when there is a clear need for this, but also when there is not alternative in sight ::: A dislike of arrogance in thinking ::: A dislike of negative thinking and a preference for exlectics over dialectics. A disdain for negative thinking as one of the easier and cheaper forms of thinking ::: A willingness to listen to the ideas of others. The habit of doing an OPV and examining logic-bubbles ::: In an argument situation, the habit of doing both an EBS and an ADI. The ability to clarify values in such situations ::: An overall view of the importance of emotions, feelings and values in thinking, but an effort to do some perceptual thinking before finally applying the emotions ::: A broad scan of situations before coming to a conclusion ::: This might include things like a PMI, CAF, and C & S ::: The ability to make decisions ::: The ability to set up objectives and subobjectives and to design courses of action ::: The ability to use ideas for the “movement value” and also to set up and use deliverate provocation ::: An understanding of lateral thinking and the willingness to change perceptions ::: even if this is not successful ::: the courage to use such techniques as the random word stimulation when ideas are needed ::: The ability to switch into formal, focused thinking ::: A liking for effectiveness. An appreciation of “operacy” ::: A clear appreciation of thinking as a skill and a self-image as a “thinker” ::: Formal and informal ::: Summary ::: Matters of understanding, appreciation, putting things in perspective, undoing misconceptions and attempting to trigger insights into thinking ::: We need … ::: To remove certain misconceptions and undo certain habits ::: To think of thinking as a skill ::: An awareness of the intelligence trap ::: To encourage the self-image of “I am a thinker” ::: To appreciate the domination of Western thinking habits by the negative idiom ::: Clash ::: Criticism ::: Dialectics ::: To put negative thinking in its proper place as a part of thinking ::: To put creative, constructive and design thinking before negative thinking ::: To change our conceptions about thinking and action ::: A concept such as operacy ::: Give status to the thinking involved in doing ::: To appreciate effectiveness and not just intellectual games ::: To understand the major role of perception in thinking ::: How perception works as a self-organizing patterning system with all that follows ::: Lateral thinking then follows directly and logically ::: To place emotions, feelings, and values in the proper perspective ::: In the end they are the most important part of thinking ::: But only if used in the end rather than at the beginning ::: To understand the practical value of being formal and deliberate about thinking instead of just waffling about ::: ::: The biggest enemy of thinking is the feeling that our thinking is pretty good anyway and we do not need to do anything about it. ::: Creation of new words ::: Descriptive phrases ::: Specific tools ::: Practice ::: Reference ::: How to set up a thinking club

Practical thinking ::: Introduction ::: Knowing What to Do ::: Three basic know-all processes ::: Instinct ::: Learning ::: First-hand learning ::: Second-hand learning ::: Understanding ::: Thinking in practice ::: Why bother? ::: Basic thinking process ::: Understanding is thinking ::: The Black Cylinder Experiment ::: Experimental subjects ::: Relevance ::: Process not content ::: Raw thinking ::: Results ::: The Five Ways to Understand ::: L-1 Simple description ::: Impossible to say nothing ::: Pass it on ::: A Valid First-Level Explanation of What Happened ::: L-2 Porridge words ::: Very useful meaningless words ::: L-3 Give it a name ::: Magic and magnets ::: Modern magic ::: Minor magic ::: Names mean a lot ::: L-4 The way it works ::: Cause and effect ::: Name or process ::: Follows on ::: L-5 Full details ::: How full are full details? ::: Combination of third and fourth levels ::: Summary of levels of understanding ::: Levels used everywhere ::: The Use of Understanding ::: How much detail ::: Scientific analysis ::: Everyday thinking ::: Doing something ::: Need and use ::: Detail danger ::: Usefulness is what matters ::: Black boxes ::: Press the right button ::: Spells and special gods ::: More primitive but more advanced ::: Automation age ::: Ignorance tools ::: Leap-frog ::: To use a black box one has first to recognize it in order to know which is the right button to press ::: Named-ideas and bundle-ideas ::: Contents ::: Movement ::: Requirements ::: Requiron ::: Modification ::: Named-ideas and action ::: Trapped ::: Stock ::: 1. Precise named-ideas ::: 2. Vague named-ideas (porridge words) ::: 3. Interaction named-ideas ::: The vague ideas and the interaction ideas are the ones used to make up bundle-ideas ::: Third and fourth level of understanding ::: Bundle-ideas tend to correspond to the fourth level ::: Named-ideas on the other hand correspond to the third level ::: Precise principles and vague general ideas ::: Ignorance or knowledge ::: Summary ::: The Basic Thinking Processes ::: Carry-on ::: Connect-up ::: Movement ::: Problems and questions ::: Jump ahead ::: Known and unknown destinations ::: Porridge words ::: Man is stupider than animals ::: The short-sighted hen ::: The dog with a cold ::: Cabbages and kings ::: Cross-links ::: Tortoises win races ::: Summary of porridge words ::: The Five Ways to be Wrong ::: M-1 The monorail mistake ::: Lean against it ::: Weight to one side ::: Top-heavy ::: Top-heavy and to one side ::: Shift in centre of gravity ::: Monorail mistake is easy to make ::: M-2 The magnitude mistake ::: Abstract ideas ::: Measurement ::: Names not measurement ::: M-3 The misfit mistake ::: Goodness of fit ::: Easy to make ::: M-4 The must-be mistake ::: Stops evolution ::: Shuts out alternatives ::: Culture and personality ::: M-5 The miss-out mistake ::: The whole picture ::: Selection ::: Attention area ::: Summary ::: Correcting mistakes ::: Mistakes arise directly from the way the mind handles information ::: The Four Ways to be Right ::: The need to be right ::: Understanding the unknown ::: Education and being right ::: Being right is a feeling ::: Four ways of being right ::: R-1 Emotional rightness (currant cake) ::: Gut feeling ::: Limitations ::: The time-scale is likely to be the shortest possible one ::: The ideas it supports may clash with the interests of others ::: Summary ::: R-2 Logical rightness (jig-saw puzzle) ::: Funny-shaped pieces ::: Choose your own pieces ::: Make the pieces fit ::: Using the wrong pieces ::: Which bowl is more contaminated … ::: Increasing the ratio of boys to girls ::: Reaching the wrong conclusions ::: Limitations ::: 1. Incorrect basic ideas are … properly fitted into a logical structure ::: 2. Conclusions can never be more valid than the ideas one starts with ::: 3. A clever person can prove just about anything by skillfully fitting together … ::: 4. Incorrect basic ideas at the bottom … ::: 5. Arrogance and a belief in the absolute rightness ::: 6. Being right at each step is the essence of logical rightness ::: Main limitations of logical rightness can be summed up as the arrogance … ::: R-3 Unique rightness (the village Venus) ::: de Bono's 2nd law ::: Soft sciences ::: Outside science ::: Limitations ::: 1. Can quickly become dogmatic certainty ::: 2. Uniqueness achieved not by lack of imagination but by demolition of alternatives ::: 3. Refusal to accept alternative explanations ::: R-4 Recognition rightness (measles) ::: Immediate recognition ::: Worked-up recognition ::: Enough ::: Limitations ::: 1. The feeling of certainty is almost inversely related to the accuracy of the recognition ::: 2. You can never be sure … ::: 3. Different people see different features ::: 4. The diagnosis names or patterns have to have been established beforehand ::: 5. Diagnosis name you use has the same meaning for other people ::: 6. You have to exclude other diagnoses which are fairly close ::: 7. Recognition rightness does not in any way prove that the basic picture is itself right ::: Recognition rightness summary points ::: The YES / NO System ::: Limitations ::: 1. Adequate is good enough ::: 2. Permanent labels ::: 3. Sharp polarization ::: 4. Arrogance of righteousness ::: The arrogance of being right ::: Ideas first ::: Intellectual tradition based on arrogant righteousness ::: Types of arrogance ::: Arrogance, effectiveness and fanaticism ::: Arrogance and stupidity ::: Justified arrogance ::: Arrogant righteousness and the thinking process ::: The arrogance mistake ::: Doubt ::: Retardant doubt ::: Propellant doubt ::: Anti-arrogance ::: Summary ::: Humour, Insight and PO ::: Humorous explanations for cylinder falling over ::: Escape from the YES/NO system ::: Half right ::: Push ahead ::: Intermediate impossible ::: Right at each step ::: Insight ::: Problem ::: de Bono's 1st law ::: Discontinuity ::: 'PO' the new word ::: Two uses of PO ::: First use: liberation ::: Second use: provocation ::: Change and new ideas ::: Summary ::: Imagination ::: Aspects of imagination ::: 1. Picture vividness ::: 2. Number of alternatives ::: 3. Different ways of looking at something ::: 4. Creative imagination ::: Imagination in the black cylinder experiment ::: Timing devices ::: Raising weight to the top ::: Impact on side wall ::: Alterations to base ::: Reverse approach ::: Unstable to start with ::: Bent to start with ::: Turning a process off ::: The use of imagination ::: Imagination and unique rightness ::: Imagination and basic thinking processes ::: Imagination and creativity ::: Summary ::: Creativity ::: Black cylinder experiment: lack of multiple possible explanations and reasons ::: 1. No time ::: 2. Satisfied ::: 3. Thrown out ::: 4. Too detailed ::: 5. Too general ::: 6. No knowledge ::: 7. No ideas ::: Lateral thinking (the process); Creativity (the result) ::: Purpose of creativity ::: Escape old ideas ::: Generation of new ideas ::: Satisfaction and creativity ::: Change ::: Knowledge and creativity ::: Being wrong and creativity ::: Techniques and time in creativity ::: Summary ::: Attention and Clues ::: Area of attention ::: Carving out areas of attention ::: Different attention areas ::: Clues ::: Generating clues ::: Purpose of clues ::: 1. To suggest ideas ::: 2. To confirm ideas ::: 3. To exclude ideas ::: Shuttle ::: Danger ::: Science tries to be wrong ::: Practical man has to be right ::: Bandwidth analysis ::: Distortion ::: Think-2 ::: Starting place ::: Disagreement ::: Summary ::: Conclusion ::: The most important rules of everyday thinking ::: Summary Notes ::: Back cover

Edward de Bono’s Effective Thinking Course ::: Part 1: Basic Thinking Tools ::: 1. Are you a thinker? This section looks at your self image as a thinker and at thinking skills ::: 2. P.M.I. ::: Analysis of Plus, Minus and Interesting points. ::: This is a powerful tool for considering new ideas ::: 3. A.G.O. ::: The examination of Aims, Goals and Objectives. ::: A.G.O. is used to clarify thinking , for example, when considering new initiatives ::: 4. CAF ::: CAF involves a structured process to the Consideration of All Factors. ::: It is often used when considering situations prior to developing ideas. ::: CAF helps ensure that no possibilities have been overlooked. ::: 5. O.P.V. ::: O.P.V. is an extension of CAF that gets you to consider Other People’s Views. ::: Almost any thinking activity involves other people, at least indirectly: choices, decisions, plans, and so forth. ::: O.P.V. tries to get the thinker inside the heads of those involved. ::: 6. FIP ::: FIP is a basic tool like the others. ::: It provides a deliberate instruction to you (or to others) to focus directly on priorities (in general or at a particular moment). ::: FIP stands for First Important Priorities. ::: 7. A.P.C. ::: A.P.C. is another of the convenience tools that we can use with ourselves or with others in order to direct our minds to carry out some task. ::: A.P.C. involves looking for the Alternatives, Possibilities or Choices (whichever is appropriate) in that situation. ::: 8. C.&S. ::: " C" stands for #Consequences, ::: " S" stands for Sequel. ::: Doing a " C&S" means focusing upon and spelling out the #consequences that might arise from a decision, course of action or change of any sort. ::: Part 2: Thinking Situations ::: 1. Plan and action: ::: Getting things done, making something happen, implementation, carrying something out. ::: Thinking is involved not only in arriving at a decision but also in carrying it out. ::: Planning is usually an essential part of getting something done. ::: 2. Decision and evaluation: ::: Judging the value of an option. ::: Is this worth doing? etails ::: Making decisions and making choices. ::: Why decision making can be so difficult. ::: Decision-making as necessity and opportunity. ::: 3. Problem-solving and design: ::: Finding solutions to problems, and designing solutions to problems. ::: In a sense any design task is also a problem-solving task because there is something to be achieved and no obvious way of achieving it ::: 4. Coping and organising: ::: Coping with confusion and mess. ::: Creating order out of chaos. ::: Organising different elements so that the whole works- a common enough real-life situation. ::: 5. Negotiation and conflict: ::: Two party situations. ::: Each side trying to get what it wants. ::: This extends from win/win or mutual benefit negotiation to argument and conflict. ::: 6. Communication and persuasion: ::: The transfer of information. ::: The transfer of perceptions. ::: Getting other people to see what you want them to see. ::: Clarity of communication. ::: Opening up perceptions in persuasion. ::: 7. Exploration and discussion: ::: Making a map of the situation. ::: Getting as much information as possible. ::: Investigation, hypothesis and hypothesis testing. ::: Explanation: what is going on? ::: Discussion with the purpose of exploring a situation: different information and different views. ::: 8. Opportunity and initiative: ::: "Greenfield" thinking. ::: Much of our thinking is reactive: we are forced to think about something. ::: In this Section we look at initiatives: we set out to think about something because we want to. ::: Looking for opportunities. ::: Part 3: Creativity and Lateral Thinking ::: 1. The need for lateral thinking: ::: Realising the need to improve the quality of our thinking. ::: Application of thinking to different areas. ::: 2. Basic level creativity: ::: The cure for arrogance and the deliberate search for alternatives: concepts and explorations. ::: The mechanics of new routes. ::: 3. Judgement and movement: ::: The difference between perception and processing. ::: Patterning systems, and the concept of idiom, humour, logic and lateral thinking. ::: 4. Escape: ::: The first technique of lateral thinking. ::: 5. Stepping stone: ::: The second technique. ::: 6. Random juxtaposition: ::: The third technique. ::: 7. The treatment of ideas: ::: Constraints, shaping, using and harvesting. ::: 8. Focus: ::: How to define the creative thrust. ::: The creation of idea sensitive areas for the generation of creative thinking.

The Five-Day Course in Thinking ::: Insight Thinking ::: Sequential Thinking ::: Strategic Thinking

Serious Creativity ::: Introduction ::: The Need for Creative Thinking ::: Take-Away Value ::: The Theoretical Need for Creativity ::: The Practical Need for Creativity ::: Information and Creativity ::: Misperceptions About Creativity ::: Sources of Creativity ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Perception and Processing ::: Design and Analysis ::: The Uses of Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking Tools And Techniques ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Creative Pause ::: Focus ::: Challenge ::: Alternatives ::: The Concept Fan ::: Concepts ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: The Random Input ::: Sensitizing Techniques ::: Application of the Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Harvesting ::: The Treatment of Ideas ::: Formal Output ::: Group or Individual ::: The Application of Creative Thinking ::: Application ::: Everyday Creativity/Specific ::: Creativity ::: The Creative Hit List ::: Introduction of Creativity ::: Responsibility ::: Structures and Programs ::: Training ::: Formats ::: Evaluation ::: Summary ::: Appendixes ::: The Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Notes on the Use of the Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Harvesting Checklist ::: Treatment of Ideas Checklist

Teach Yourself To Think pdf ::: Why ... Because ... What about feelings and values ::: Foreword ::: This book offers a simple approach ::: Who will read this book? ::: Non interested in improving thinking ::: Introduction ::: This section is only for a few readers ::: A frame for the rest of the book ::: Perception provides the ingredients for thinking ::: Over-reliance on logic ::: Foresight and hindsight ::: The Gang of Three ::: Socrates ::: Plato ::: Aristotle ::: Limitations of the traditional thinking system ::: What about the progress in science and technology? ::: Argument vs. Parallel Thinking ::: Inadequacies of the traditional thinking system summary ::: Illustrations ::: The Five Stages of Thinking ::: TO symbol ::: LO symbol ::: PO symbol ::: SO symbol ::: GO symbol ::: The symbols used in conjunction with the words ::: Later sections in the book ::: Thinking situations differ greatly ::: Some Basic Processes in Thinking ::: Broad/Specific, General/Detail ::: Projection ::: Attention Directing ::: Recognition and Fit ::: Movement and Alternatives ::: Frameworks ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The White Hat ::: The Red Hat ::: The Black Hat ::: The Yellow Hat ::: The Green Hat ::: The Blue Hat ::: Use Of The Hats ::: Single or occasional usage ::: Sequential usage ::: The CoRT Thinking Programme ::: CoRT 1 ::: The tools are used explicitly and directly ::: TO Where Do I Want to Go To? ::: Thinking Action ::: Define ::: Redefine ::: Alternative Definitions ::: Smaller Definition ::: Larger Definition ::: Breaking It Down ::: Change ::: The 'right' definition ::: The Concept Fan ::: Working Forwards ::: The Dog-leg Approach ::: Constraints and Qualifiers ::: Problems ::: Different Thinking Situations ::: Problem ::: Task ::: Achieve A Dream ::: Invention ::: Design ::: Improve In A Defined Direction ::: Negotiation ::: Get This Information ::: Carry Out A Task ::: Plan ::: Organize ::: Choice ::: Decision ::: Judge ::: Communicate ::: Explore ::: General Improvement ::: Opportunity ::: Change (think about it) ::: Peace, Excitement Or Happiness ::: Cope With Change ::: Formulate A Dream ::: Initiative ::: Outcome, Review And Summary ::: Neutral-area Focus ::: Blank-sheet Creativity ::: Explanation ::: Looking Into The Future ::: Crisis ::: Strategy ::: Creative Thinking ::: General Summary ::: Area Focus ::: Purpose Focus ::: Summary of the TO Stage ::: LO The Information Stage ::: Is Information Enough? ::: Sources of Information ::: Questions ::: Fishing Questions ::: Shooting Questions ::: Quality of Information ::: Perception ::: Feelings ::: Analysis ::: The Search for Information ::: Making the Most of the Information ::: Information Is Not Enough ::: Summary of the LO Stage ::: PO What are the Possibilities? ::: PO and Possibility ::: Three Levels of Possibility ::: Making the Connection ::: The Four Basic Approaches ::: 1. The Search for the Routine ::: Analysis ::: Similarity ::: Transform the Problem ::: Three Thinking Situations ::: Situation A The Car Park ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: 2. The 'General' Approach ::: Working Backwards ::: Three thinking situations ::: The Concept Fan ::: Three thinking situations ::: The 'Something' Approach -- Magic Words ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A The Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The new restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the General Approach ::: 3. The Creative Approach ::: The Challenge Process ::: There are three basic questions ::: Outer World ::: Inner World ::: The Use of 'Challenge' ::: The three thinking situations ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: The three thinking situations ::: Random-entry Provocation ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the Creative Approach ::: 4. The Design and Assembly Approach ::: List The Needs ::: Lead With Priorities ::: Concept First ::: Parallel Input ::: Everyday Design ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A The Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the PO Stage ::: SO What Is the Outcome? ::: Sequence ::: Development of Possibilities ::: Shaping Ideas ::: Tailoring ::: Strengthen The Idea ::: Fault Correction ::: Practicality ::: Acceptance ::: Cost ::: Simpler ::: Take The Concept ::: Evaluation and Assessment ::: Values And Benefits ::: Difficulties And Dangers ::: Feasibility ::: Choice ::: Stronger And Weaker ::: In And Out ::: Priorities ::: Direct Comparison ::: Greed, Fear And Laziness ::: Final Evaluation ::: Decision ::: Decision Frame ::: Decision Need ::: Decision Pressure ::: Scenario ::: Risk ::: Outcome ::: Looking Back: the Reasons ::: Summary of the SO Stage ::: GO Putting the Thinking to Work ::: Operacy ::: Simple Output ::: Routine Channels ::: The Design of Action ::: Stages ::: Objectives And Sub-objectives ::: Flexibility And Routine ::: Checks And Monitoring ::: Fall-back Positions ::: People ::: Acceptance ::: Motivation ::: Obstacles ::: Incentives And Expectations ::: Effectiveness ::: Task Forces And Groups ::: Experts ::: Energy ::: Amplification ::: Planning ::: Summary of the GO Stage of Thinking ::: Situation Coding ::: The Coding ::: Should Be ::: Summary ::: Summary ::: The Five Stages of Thinking ::: TO 'Where am I going to? ::: LO 'Lo and behold.' ::: PO 'Let's generate some possibilities.' ::: SO 'So what Is the outcome?' ::: GO 'Go to It!' ::: Simpler ::: Backwards and Forwards ::: Enjoy Your Thinking Skill

Atlas of Management



More specific thinking



Conflicts ::: Contents ::: Prologue ::: Introduction ::: PART I The way the mind works and modes of thinking ::: Why We Need to Know How the Mind Works ::: What Is Wrong With Argument ::: Map-Making, Thinking and Think ::: Fight, Negotiate, Problem-Solve or Design? ::: PART II Why Do People Disagree? ::: Why do people disagree? Because they see things differently ::: Why do people disagree? Because they want different things ::: Why do people disagree? Because their thinking style encourages them to ::: Why do people disagree? Because they are supposed to ::: PART III Creativity, design and the third party role ::: Design ::: Why disputants are in the worst position to solve their dispute ::: Continuity ::: Objectives, benefits and values ::: Creativity ::: The third party role in conflict thinking ::: PART IV Conflict ::: Conflict models ::: Conflict factors ::: Conflict factors: fear ::: Conflict factors: force ::: Conflict factors: fair ::: Conflict factors: funds ::: Conflict attitudes ::: PART V Structures For Conflict Resolution ::: Why existing structures are inadequate for conflict resolution ::: S.I.T.O. ::: Epilogue ::: Index ::: Prologue

Creativity Workout ::: CONTENTS ::: Introduction ::: How to Use this Book ::: How to Use Random Words Exercises ::: Tables of Random Words ::: Number Maps ::: Tables of Random Numbers ::: Pre-set Table ::: About the Author ::: INTRODUCTION ::: Everyone wants to be creative. ::: Everyone should want to be creative. ::: Creativity makes life more fun, more interesting and more full of achievement. ::: Research shows that 94 percent of youngsters rate “achievement” as the most important thing in their lives. ::: Creativity is the key skill needed for achievement. ::: Without creativity there is only repetition and routine. ::: These are highly valuable and provide the bulk of our behavior-but creativity is needed for change, improvement and new directions. ::: In business, creativity has become essential. ::: This is because everything else has become a commodity available to everyone. ::: If your only hope of survival is that your organization will continue to be more competent than your competitors, that is a weak position. ::: There is nothing you can do to prevent your competitors also becoming competent. ::: Information has become a commodity available to everyone. ::: Current technology has become a commodity, with a few exceptions-where a 16-year patent life offers some protection. ::: Imagine a cooking competition with several chefs at a long table. ::: Each chef has the same ingredients and the same cooking facility. ::: Who wins that competition? ::: At a lower level the chef with the highest quality wins. ::: But at the higher level all chefs have excellent quality. ::: So who wins? ::: The chef who can turn the same ingredients into superior quality. ::: In business, competing with India and China on a price basis is impossible. ::: That leaves creating new value as the basis for competition. ::: And that needs a more serious commitment to creativity than is the case at the moment. ::: CREATIVITY AS TALENT ::: Too many people believe that creativity is a talent with which some people are born and the rest can only envy. ::: This is a negative attitude that is completely mistaken. ::: Creativity is a skill that can be learned, developed and applied. ::: I have been teaching creative thinking for over 30 years to a wide variety of people: ::: … from four-year-olds to 90-year-olds from Down’s syndrome children to Nobel laureates … from illiterate miners in Africa to top executives ::: Using just one of the techniques of “lateral thinking,” a group of workshops generated 21,000 ideas for a steel company in one afternoon. ::: UNINHIBITED ::: An ordinary man is walking down the road. ::: A group of people seize him and tie him up with a rope. ::: Then a violin is produced. ::: Obviously, the man tied up with the rope cannot play the violin. ::: So what do we say? ::: We claim that if the rope was cut the man would play the violin. ::: This is clearly nonsense. ::: Cutting the rope does not make the man a violinist. ::: Unfortunately we have the same attitude towards creativity. ::: If you are inhibited it is difficult to be creative. ::: Therefore if we make you uninhibited you will be creative! ::: This is the basis of “brainstorming” and other popular techniques. ::: There is some merit in these systems but the approach is a very weak one. ::: The formal and deliberate “tools” of lateral thinking are much more powerful. ::: The brain is designed to be “non-creative.” ::: If the brain were creative, life would be impossible. ::: With 11 pieces of clothing to put on in the morning there are 39,916,800 ways of getting dressed. ::: If you tried one way every minute you would need to live to be 76 years old, using your entire waking life trying ways of getting dressed. ::: Fortunately for us, the brain is designed to form stable patterns for dealing with a stable universe. ::: That is the excellence of the brain and for that we should be very grateful. ::: So removing inhibition is of value, but only a weak way of developing creativity. ::: CREATIVITY AS SKILL ::: Creativity is a skill that everyone can learn, practice and use. ::: It is as much a skill as skiing, playing tennis, cooking or learning mathematics. ::: Everyone can learn such skills. ::: In the end not everyone is going to be equally good at these skills. ::: Some people cook better than others. ::: Some people play tennis better than others. ::: But everyone can learn the skill. ::: And everyone can seek to get better through practice. ::: CREATIVITY IS NOT A MYSTERY ::: For the first time in history we can now look at creativity as the “logical” behavior of a certain type of information system. ::: The mystery and mystique can be removed from creativity. ::: 1. We need to look at the human brain as a “self-organizing information system.”. ::: 2. Self-organizing information systems form patterns. ::: 3. All pattern-making systems are “asymmetric.” ::: 4. This is the basis of humor and of creativity. ::: Humor is by far the most significant behavior of the human brain ::: because it indicates the nature of the underlying ::: system. ::: Reason tells us very little because any “sorting system” run backwards is a reasoning system. ::: Humor ::: indicates asymmetric patterns. ::: This means that the ::: route from A to B is not the same as the route from B to A. ::: “Lateral thinking” is the creativity concerned with changing ::: ideas, perceptions and concepts. ::: Instead of working harder with the same ideas, perceptions and concepts, we seek to change them. ::: This “idea creativity” is not the same as “artistic creativity,” which is why a new term was needed. ::: All these things are explained in my books on lateral thinking; an understanding of such systems is the logical basis for the practical tools of lateral thinking. ::: THE WORD “CREATIVE” ::: In the English language, the word “create” means to bring into being something that was not there before. ::: So someone can “create a mess.” ::: That means bringing into existence a mess that did not exist before. ::: Is that person “creative”? ::: We hasten to add that what has been brought into existence must have “value.” ::: So creativity is bringing into existence something that has value. ::: There is, of course, the element of “newness” because repetition-no matter how valuable-is not seen as creative. ::: The word “creative” has largely been taken over by the arts, because in the arts all the work is new and has value. ::: It is true that the value is not always recognized at first. ::: For example, the Impressionist painters were not fully appreciated in their time. ::: In the English language there does not exist a separate word to distinguish the creativity of new ideas from the creativity of art. ::: So when I claim that “creativity” can indeed be taught, I am ::: asked if Beethoven could be produced in this way. ::: The answer is “no,” but “idea creativity” can be taught, learned and developed in a formal way. ::: The purpose of the exercises in this book is to help develop creative habits of mind. ::: The “creativity” of the art world includes a large element of “aesthetic judgement.” ::: The artist judges that something is “right.” ::: This is quite different from the ability to produce new ideas. ::: While artists may be excellent in their field, they are not especially good at changing ideas and creating new ideas. ::: This language problem has two very serious #consequences. ::: The first consequence is that education authorities believe that they are “teaching creativity” by encouraging dancing and music-playing. ::: This is totally wrong. ::: These activities are of value in themselves but they are not teaching creativity. ::: The second consequence is that people say that if you cannot produce a Beethoven to order, then creativity cannot really be taught. ::: This is also garbage. ::: Idea creativity can be taught. ::: As a matter of interest, my work is used quite widely in the arts world, particularly in music. ::: Because music does not represent existing sounds, there is a great need for creativity rather than just expression. ::: HABITS OF MIND ::: There is no sharp distinction between a mental skill and a mental habit. ::: The two overlap and blend into each other. ::: The purpose of this book is to provide opportunity for practising the mental skill of creativity and developing the habits of mind that make creativity happen. ::: Suppose you developed the habit of mind of trying to find alternative meanings for well-known acronyms. ::: So when you looked at NASA, you did not only think of the North American Space Agency, but of other possibilities: ::: Not Always Same Astronaut Not Always Same Ascent Not Always Same Ambition ::: Or: ::: New Adventures Splendid Achievements New Ambitions Serious Attainments ::: As with a joke, the new explanation is more powerful if it links in with existing knowledge, or even prejudice, about the organization. ::: POSSIBILITY ::: Educational establishments totally underestimate the importance of “possibility.” ::: Two thousand years ago, China was far ahead of the West in science and technology. ::: They had rockets and gunpowder. ::: Had China continued at the same rate of progress, then today China would easily have been the dominant power in the world. ::: What happened? ::: What brought progress to a halt? ::: The Chinese scholars started to believe you could move from “fact to fact.” ::: So they never developed the messy business of possibility (hypothesis, etc.). ::: As a result, progress came to a dead end. ::: Exactly the same sort of thing is happening in the world today. ::: Because of the excellence of computers, people are starting to believe that all you need to do is to collect data and analyze it. ::: This will give you your decisions, your policies and your strategies. ::: It is an extremely dangerous situation, which will bring progress to a halt. ::: There is a huge need for creativity to interpret data in different ways; to combine data to design value delivery; to know where to look for data; to form hypotheses and speculations, etc., etc. ::: I have held academic positions at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Harvard. ::: I have to say that at each of these wonderful institutions the amount of time spent on the fundamental importance of possibility was zero. ::: Our culture and habits of thinking insist that we always move towards certainty. ::: We need to pay equal attention to possibility. ::: Peptic ulcer (stomach or duodenal ulcer) is a serious condition that affects many people. ::: Sufferers used to be on antacids for 20 years or more. ::: There were major operations to remove part or all of the stomach. ::: A large number of beds were occupied by patients under treatment or diagnosis of the condition. ::: Hundreds of people were researching this serious condition. ::: Then a young doctor, Barry j. ::: Marshall, in Perth, Western Australia, suggested that peptic ulcer might be an infection. ::: Everyone laughed, because the hydrochloric acid in the stomach would surely kill any bacteria. ::: No one took the possibility seriously. ::: Many, many years later it turned out that he was right. ::: Instead of antacids for 20 years and losing some or all of your stomach, you simply take antibiotics for one week! ::: Possibility is very important. ::: And possibility is the key to creativity. ::: HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ::: There is no way you can learn a skill if you do not practice the skill. ::: There is no short cut. ::: There is no other way to develop skill. ::: This holds for the skill of creativity. ::: There is no magic fountain that you can drink from in order to become creative. ::: The nearest equivalent would be to read this book! ::: The use of creativity and the practice of creativity are the best ways to develop the mental skills and the mental habits of creative thinking. ::: If you want to become good at golf, you had better practice hitting the ball. ::: If you want to develop the skill of cooking, you had better get into the kitchen. ::: If you really want to develop the skill of creative thinking, you had better treat this book seriously and work through it diligently and systematically. ::: It is not much use reading the book for knowledge or to find out how the story ends. ::: That’s like going to the gym to watch other people exercise. ::: The more you practice, the better you will get-as with golf or cooking. ::: The book is designed to be simple, practical and usable. ::: The ::: subject of creativity could be made very complicated, but then the book would have no value except to academics. ::: The book is, however, designed for everyone who wants to become more creative and who is willing to enjoy the process. ::: The book is designed around a series of exercises. ::: You can do the exercises on your own. ::: You can do the exercises with other people. ::: You can use the exercises to practice a little bit of creativity every day. ::: EXERCISES/GAMES ::: The purpose of the exercises in this book is to provide training in creative thinking. ::: The attitudes, habits and skills of creative thinking will be developed as you go through the exercises systematically and in a disciplined way. ::: There are those who believe that any disciplined or systematic approach is the opposite of creativity. ::: This view is complete garbage and shows a lack of understanding of the fundamental nature of creative thinking as the behavior of a self-organizing informational system that makes asymmetric patterns. ::: At the same time, the exercises are enjoyable and so can be regarded as “games.” ::: Generally you would play these games on your own (as with a crossword) and get a sense of achievement when you succeed. ::: It is also possible, occasionally, to play with others and to compare your results. ::: So, they are enjoyable exercises that could be called either “exercises” or “games.” ::: The intention is to train your creative mind. ::: The book is a playground. ::: If there were a playground with a ball ::: in it, you would certainly kick the ball around. ::: That is the way you should treat this book. ::: Have fun. ::: But it is serious fun. ::: Creativity is a very serious skill. ::: Unlike many other skills, you can have fun while you develop this serious skill. ::: From this point onward, it is up to you. ::: What you get out of the book will be directly proportional to the effort you put into using the book. ::: There are 62 exercises in the book. ::: That means 52 + 10. ::: That suggests that you could, if you wished, practice one exercise one week and the next exercise the following week. ::: The 10 extra exercises are in case you feel extra energetic and want to do more than one exercise that week. ::: PROBLEMS AND SITUATIONS ::: Use the given problems and situations even if you find them difficult. ::: You may also insert problems and situations of your own. ::: Only do this after you have attempted to use the given problems. ::: Otherwise you will tend only to work on easy problems you have chosen. ::: TIME LIMITS ::: The exercises may be done without any time limit at all. ::: You can also set a time limit. ::: To begin with, this could be four to five minutes per exercise. ::: As you get better, the time limit can be reduced to two to three minutes. ::: RIGHT ANSWERS ::: With creativity, there is no one “right answer.” ::: For the exercises there is no one right answer. ::: Any answer that fits the stated requirements of the exercise is equally right. ::: Players will, however, learn to recognize that some answers are indeed better than others-because they are more practical, more unusual, or offer a higher value. ::: NOTE: The fact that there are no right answers does NOT mean that any answer will do. ::: The answer must satisfy the requirements of the exercise. ::: If you were asked to suggest “food for breakfast,” there is no one right answer. ::: But if you were to suggest “the transmission of a car,” that would indeed be a wrong answer. ::: If you are asked for “alternative modes of transport” and you suggested “a frying pan,” that would indeed be a wrong answer. ::: In the course of the book you will practice both perceptual creativity and constructive creativity. ::: Perceptual creativity involves looking at things in different ways. ::: It involves extracting concepts. ::: It involves extracting values. ::: It involves opening up connections and associations. ::: Constructive creativity means putting things together to deliver ::: value. ::: This is “design thinking.” ::: While education focuses a great deal on analysis, there is practically no attention at all to design thinking. ::: Yet life and human progress depend on design thinking. ::: Analysis is important, just as the rear left wheel of a car is important-but it is not enough. ::: Readers of this book will develop creative habits of mind and a fluency in dealing with ideas, concepts, perceptions and values. ::: The emphasis is on the creativity of “what can be” rather than the usual education emphasis on “what is.” ::: ONE A DAY ::: Many people do some physical exercises every day. ::: Some people go to the gym every day. ::: I would suggest that you make a habit of doing at least one of the exercises every day. ::: You should be able to go back to the book again and again to repeat exercises (using different problems, etc.). ::: The book is like a gym for creative thinking habits and skills. ::: And, as with physical exercise, the important thing is to be disciplined about it. ::: 1. Choose an exercise. ::: 2. Set a time limit. ::: 3. Do the exercise. ::: HOW TO USE RANDOM WORDS ::: The whole book is based on Random Words. ::: So it is important to understand how to use these. ::: A Random Word is there for no reason at all-it is random. ::: The words are all nouns because these are easier to use. ::: The Tables of Random Words are given on pages 153-165. ::: You can get your Random Word in a number of different ways: ::: 1. You can throw a single die four times. ::: … the first throw indicates which of the six tables you are going to use the second throw indicates which column you are going to use … the third throw indicates which section you are going to use in the column the fourth throw indicates which word you are going to use in the section ::: You can also throw four dice all at once and then arrange them in a sequence. ::: You can use colored dice with a given sequence of colors. ::: 2. You can use the Number Maps given on pages 167-169. ::: With your eyes closed, stab with a pencil, matchstick or toothpick at the map. ::: Take the number you have hit. ::: If you are on a dividing line or miss a number, simply try again. ::: Do this four times to obtain the four numbers (table number, column number, group number and word number). ::: 3. Use the Tables of Random Numbers given on pages 171-173. ::: Take the numbers in order and tick off the ones you have used. ::: Alternatively, take a sequence from the Tables of Random Numbers and just change one number in the given sequence. ::: You can also create your own Table of Random Numbers in advance so that you can use it whenever you want. ::: 4. Simply invent a sequence of numbers. ::: Each number must be between 1 and 6. ::: Use these numbers as if thrown with a die. ::: 5. In the Pre-set Table (pages 174-175) the sequences of ::: numbers are already given. ::: You can insert your own number (1 to 6) in the gap to give the new sequence. ::: VERY IMPORTANT: Do not keep trying different Random Words until you get one you like. ::: This destroys the whole point of the exercises. ::: You must seek to use the first word you obtain. ::: If, however, you do not understand the meaning of a Random Word, ignore that word and try again, or else take the next word down. ::: POWERFUL TOOL ::: The Random Word process on which the book is built is just one of the powerful tools of lateral thinking which is a process I invented in 1967. ::: The process is now widely used and the phrase has an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. ::: There are other powerful tools of lateral thinking such as: challenge; concept extraction; concept fan; provocation and movement, etc. ::: Lateral thinking is serious and systematic creativity. ::: It is not being different for the sake of being different. ::: It is not based on sitting on a river bank and playing Baroque music. ::: It is not a matter of messing around in a brainstorming session. ::: There are formal tools and processes that can be used deliberately and with discipline. ::: These tools are based on the understanding of self-organizing information systems, as described in my book The Mechanism of Mind (1969). ::: For the first time in human history we can treat creativity as a mental skill, not just a matter of talent or inspiration. ::: PROVOCATION ::: In a way the Random Word process is an example of provocation. ::: In normal thinking there needs to be a reason for saying something before it is said. ::: Otherwise the result is nonsense. ::: With provocation, there may not be a reason for saying something until after it is said. ::: Develop your creative thinking skills. ::: It’s up to you!

de Bono's Code Book ::: Something of the sort is going to happen sooner or later ::: Language has been the biggest help in human progress ::: Language is now by far the biggest barrier to human progress ::: The barrier ::: Description is not perception ::: Grotesque and bizarre ::: To create the new concepts and perceptions we use numbers ::: Shock, Horror and Outrage ::: Benefits ::: Benefit 1: International ::: Benefit 2: Perception ::: Benefit 3: Complex Concepts ::: Benefit 4: New Concepts ::: Benefit 5: Precision ::: Benefit 6: Expectations ::: Benefit 7: Avoiding Awkwardness ::: Benefit 8: Saving Time ::: Benefit 9: Information Management ::: Benefit 10: Uniformity ::: Benefit 11: Calm ::: Benefit 12: Locus ::: This book contains two codes ::: Pronunciation Usage ::: Part 1 De Bono Code B ::: Overview of the Codes From De Bono Code B That Are Included in This Book ::: Code 1: Pre-Code ::: Code 2: Attention Directing ::: Code 3: Action Code ::: Code 4: Difficult Situations ::: Code 5: Response Code ::: Code 6: Interaction (Frantic) Code ::: Code 7: Information Code ::: Code 8: Youth Code ::: Code 9: Meetings ::: Code 10: Mood Code ::: Code 11: Distance Code ::: Code 12: Relationships Start ::: Code 13: Relationships Continue ::: Code 14: Relationships End ::: Code 15: Negotiation ::: Code 16: Assessment ::: Code 17: Project Status ::: Code 18: Travel Code ::: Code Details ::: Pre-Code Code 1 ::: 1/1 This is a friendly greeting. There is no request attached to it ::: 1/2 This is a request for information on the matters indicated ::: 1/3 I need very specific and very detailed information on the matter indicated ::: 1/4 This is a request for your response and your reaction to what is indicated here ::: 1/5 Please expand on this ::: 1/6 I simply do not understand the following matter ::: 1/7 I want to draw your attention to the following matter ::: 1/8 This is a request that you lay out your action plans for the matter specified ::: 1/9 This is a request that you carry out the action specified here ::: 1/10 I am putting forward a proposal or suggestion for your consideration ::: 1/11 I want to register a complaint. I want to bring this to your attention because ::: 1/12 This is a direct response to your request (specified) ::: 1/13 I wish to register a disagreement ::: 1/14 This is the information which you requested ::: 1/15 Here is some information. This communication contains information ::: 1/16 This is a schedule, plan, timetable, action sequenceetc. This is information you need ::: Attention Directing Code 2 ::: 2/1 Direct your attention to the PMI points. Tell me what you see ::: 2/2 Direct your attention to the future ::: 2/3 What are the factors involved here? ::: 2/4 What is the objective? What are we really trying to do? ::: 2/5 What are the views of the other people involved? ::: 2/6 What are the alternatives? ::: 2/7 What are the priorities? ::: 2/8 Direct your attention to the key values involved ::: 2/9 Direct your attention to the matters on which we agree/disagree/irrelevant ::: 2/10 Can you recognize this as a standard situation? ::: Action Code Code 3 ::: 3/1 I want in. I want to take part in this ::: 3/2 I am very interested ::: 3/3 Thank you, but no thank you. I am not interested ::: 3/4 I want out. I want to get out of this ::: 3/5 Let's move right forward to action ::: 3/6 What is the problem? What is the hold-up? ::: 3/7 We need to design a way forward ::: 3/8 We need some creative thinking here ::: 3/9 There are no problems but nothing seems to be happening ::: 3/10 What is the immediate next step? ::: 3/11 We need to think about this ::: 3/12 what has been happening? What is the feedback? Where is the action report? ::: Difficult Situations Code 4 ::: 4/1 Lack of the necessary resources ::: 4/2 Lack of management at all levels or at some levels ::: 4/3 Low morale. Low motivation. A workforce uninterested in what they are doing ::: 4/4 Lack of leadership ::: 4/5 An organization that is rigid and old-fashioned ::: 4/6 Lack of Vision. Lack of mission. Survival is enough ::: 4/7 4/7 The world outside is tough. Everything takes time and a great deal of effort ::: 4/8 Situations which are 'locked' in ::: 4/9 Fights, factions, disputes and far too much internal politics ::: 4/10 Too much corruption, cheating, nepotism, etc. An organization with rather low morals ::: 4/11 Coasting. A once-successful organization, group or even country coasts on its reputation ::: Response Code Code 5 ::: 5/1 I am sorry, this matter is not of interest to me ::: 5/2 Here is the information that you wanted ::: 5/3 This is some of the information that you requested. I am not able to supply the rest of it ::: 5/4 I am not able to provide you with the information that you requested ::: 5/5 You are asking for far too much information ::: 5/6 I could be interested in what you have suggested but I would need much more information ::: 5/7 I am going to have to think about this matter and will then get back to you ::: 5/8 Thank you for your proposal. Here are my reactions to your proposal ::: 5/9 With regard to your suggestion of a meeting I would like to have in writing ::: 5/10 Thank you very much for your comments ::: 5/11 I accept your invitation and will be happy to be there ::: 5/12 I regret that I am unable to accept your invitation owing to a prior engagement ::: 5/13 I am sure you are entitled to your opinion no matter how you arrived at it ::: Interaction (Frantic) Code 6 ::: 6/1 What exactly is the matter? Spell out the problem directly and simply ::: 6/2 You give me what you think my point of view might be and I shall give you ::: 6/3 There are things we do need to discuss here. Let us find time to discuss them ::: 6/4 Give me space. Don't crowd me. Don't pressure me ::: 6/5 Calm down. There is no need to be frantic or aggressive ::: 6/6 Don't take yourself so seriously. Don't overreact ::: 6/7 Cut the crap, what do you want? Never mind the preamble and background ::: 6/8 Things are becoming too emotional. I suggest we take a break ::: Information Code Code 7 ::: 7/1 This information is purely factual. It is comprehensive and not selective ::: 7/2 These are administrative details ::: 7/3 Instructions, operating procedures, laws, regulations, etc ::: 7/4 This information is intended to be an honest, objective description of or comment on some matter ::: 7/5 This is a subjective category, description or review ::: 7/6 This is a dishonest review or commentary ::: 7/7 This is advocacy or case-making ::: 718 This indicates material that is of an advertising and selling nature ::: 7/9 This is also 'selling' information but the information is put forward in a neutral way ::: 7/10 This indicates chat or conversation ::: 7/11 This is the fine print. These are the 'footnotes'. ::: 7/12 Proposals, propositions, suggestions, offerings, etc. ::: 7/13 This indicates hate, bigotry and a strong emotional outpouring ::: 7/14 This indicates advice, help, motivation, self-help, training, etc ::: 7/15 This indicates 'forms to fill in. Forms of any sort come into this category ::: Youth Code Code 8 ::: 8/1 I am in trouble and I need your help. I do not want a lecture ::: 8/2 I am having difficulty making a decision ::: 8/3 I am confused. I am in a muddle. I need clarification ::: 8/4 There is something that I need to talk about ::: 8/5 I would like an honest and direct answer to the question that I am going to ask you ::: 8/6 This thing is really very important to me. You may not think so ::: 8/7 This is something I really, really want to do ::: 8/8 Sure, let's talk. Let's discuss things. I am willing to listen without judging ::: 8/9 What is troubling you? What is the matter? Tell me the problem ::: 8/10 What do you really think and feel about this? ::: 8/11 What are your intentions? What are you plans? What are you going to do? ::: 8/12 You are behaving like a spoiled brat. You are being very selfish ::: 8/13 Show some manners and respect. Don't behave in that boorish and oafish manner ::: 8/14 For some reason you are in a difficult and cranky mood. Could you snap out of it? ::: 8/15 Don't sulk. It won't get you anywhere ::: 8/16 Clean up the mess. Tidy Up. Put things away ::: 8/17 Be nice to your brothers and sisters ::: 8/18 It would be nice if you could help. It would be nice if you could contribute ::: 8/19 Let's have some peace and quiet. Stop that racket or go somewhere else ::: 8/20 Don't be unreasonable ::: 8/21 I need attention. Don't ignore me ::: 8/22 Thank you. Thank you very much. I appreciate what you are doing or have done ::: 8/23 That is fine. That is just right. That is perfect. I like that very much ::: Meetings Code 9 ::: 9/1 I am confused. I am lost. I cannot follow you. Please repeat. Please clarify ::: 9/2 Do not assume that we know the current situation. Please spell it out ::: 9/3 Get to the point. What do you propose? What do you want to see happen? ::: 9/4 Could you summarize what you have been saying? Could you repeat the main points? ::: 9/5 More information is needed at this point. I need more information. ::: 9/6 What are the benefits? Why is this worth doing? Why is this a good idea? ::: 9/7 What is the downside? What are the risks? What are the drawbacks? ::: 9/8 This is a weak case. I am doubtful. I am not convinced. I do not agree with the argument ::: 9/9 I fully agree. I am convinced. I have followed your line of reasoning and I agree with you ::: 9/10 This stuff is irrelevant. This stuff has nothing to do with the main point or ::: Mood Code Code 10 ::: 10/1 Would you like to tell me what your mood is today? What is your mood right now? ::: 10/2 I am happy. I am in a happy mood. Things are going well ::: 10/3 The mood is neutral and normal ::: 10/4 This is the broad, generic 'unhappy' response ::: 10/5 I am overworked. I am very busy. There is far too much to do ::: 10/6 I am under pressure. I am being hassled. There are many demands to be met ::: 10/7 I am tense. For some reason I feel tension. It may be a combination of factors ::: 10/8 I am just very tired. I have been doing a lot lately ::: 10/9 I am depressed. I am going through a phase of depression. This is no one's fault ::: 10/10 I am unwell. i am not feeling well. I think I may be il ::: 10111 I am worried about something. I am anxious about something ::: 10/12 I am preoccupied. I am thinking about something ::: 10/13 I am in the best of moods. I am at the top of my form. I am full of energy ::: 10/14 I am annoyed and upset about a particular individual or action ::: 10/15 I am upset and not pleased in a general sense ::: 10/16 I am furious. I am very angry ::: 10/17 I am becoming increasingly unhappy about the way this project is going ::: 10/18 I am disappointed. I expected better ::: 10/19 I am stressed out at the moment. There are a lot of things going on ::: 10/20 I congratulate you. I applaud your success. What you have done is wonderful ::: 10/21 Thank you. Thank you very much. I appreciate what you have done for me ::: 10/22 I feel frustrated. I feel thwarted. I feel blocked ::: 10/23 I am feeling full of energy. I feel able to do anything ::: 10/24 I am in a creative mood. I feel creative. I feel inspired ::: Distance Code Code 11 ::: Code 11 Distance Code ::: 11/1 Do you know how to use this code? Do you use this code? ::: 11/2 I like the look of you and I would like to meet you. Is this a good idea? ::: 11/3 Fine. Let's meet. Let's meet halfway ::: 11/4 Yes, we can meet. I do want to meet. But not right now ::: 11/5 The answer is 'no'. I am not interested. Don't pester me. Keep away ::: Relationship Codes Code 12,13 and 14 ::: Code 12 Relationships Start ::: 12/1 I am looking forward to the development of this relationship ::: 12/2 I have no hidden agenda or dark intentions. I like you and want to know you better ::: 12/3 Let's try it out and see how we get on ::: 12/4 Where do we go from here? What is the next step? ::: 12/5 There is no hurry. Let things evolve on their own ::: 12/6 This seems to be getting a bit one-sided. I seem to be doing all the running ::: 12/7 You are getting too intense. You are crowding me. Give me space or I shall back off ::: 12/8 I am not going to ask you any questions and I do not want you to ask me any questions ::: 12/9 I want you to e very honest with me about your status, commitments, baggage arid encumbrances ::: 12/10 You seem to be becoming too possessive. I need space. I want to let you know how I feel ::: 12/11 You are becoming very demanding. I find this difficult. I feel I ought to tell you this ::: 12/12 I am in this as a romance, as an adventure, as a fling ::: 12/13 I am looking for a long-term relationship or commitment ::: 12/14 I like you very much and I want to be friends. Nothing more heavy than that ::: 12/15 I just want a small place somewhere in your life ::: 12/16 I love you for ever - or until next Monday ::: Code 13 Relationships Continue ::: 13/1 This relationship does not seem to be going anywhere ::: 13/2 This relationship has stagnated. It is getting boring ::: 13/3 Things are going very well. Things are getting better and better ::: 13/4 we have become complacent. We seem to take each other for granted ::: 13/5 Things seem to have changed. I have noticed a change in your behaviour ::: 13/6 There are some important things that we need to talk about ::: 13/7 What is the problem? What has gone wrong? What are you upset about? ::: 13/8 This is just a temporary hiccup. This is a very minor problem ::: 13/9 I am completely prepared to admit my fault over this matter. I am sorry ::: 13/10 There you go again. Insisting on having your own way ::: 13/11 I feel we are making real progress and moving forward to overcome the difficulties ::: 13/12 You know I do not like that. It annoys and irritates me ::: 13/13 Don't overplay the victim. Don't overplay the martyr role ::: Code 14 Relationships End ::: 14/1 it is no one's fault but I do not think we are compatible after all ::: 14/2 This relationship has been dying for some time ::: 14/3 People change. I may have changed or you may have changed ::: 14/4 This relationship has been dead for a long time ::: 14/5 This is a good relationship but I do not see any long-term future in it ::: 14/6 You want commitment without commitment ::: 14/7 I have come to the conclusion that I can't give you what you want from life ::: 14/8 The present level of involvement is over ::: 14/9 The plain truth is that I have met someone else ::: 14/10 This has happened. I am mad at you. I am disappointed ::: 14/11 The relationship has run its course ::: 14/12 You are simply not the person I thought you were ::: 14/13 We could both try harder to salvage the relationship ::: 14/14 If there were an elegant and painless way to end a relationship ::: Negotiation Code 15 ::: 15/1 Is this a genuine negotiation? ::: 15/2 Could you please lay out your position? ::: 15/3 You are asked to lay out what you think our position might be ::: 15/4 What can we agree upon? What do we disagree upon? ::: 15/5 What are the benefits that you are offering? ::: 15/6 As it is, your offer is not attractive ::: 15/7 These fears are real and do need to be addressed ::: 15/8 What is your proposal (or counter-proposal)? Please spell it out again ::: 15/9 What do you see as the alternatives and options at this point? ::: 15/10 We have gone over the old ground again and again ::: 15/11 How do you see the future unfolding? How do you see alternative futures? ::: 15/12 More information is needed on the following matters … ::: 15/13 At the moment I see this as rather one-sided ::: 15/14 Are we treating this as an adversarial confrontation or are we seeking, together ::: 15/15 What are the contingency arid fall-back positions? ::: 15/16 Who are the people who really matter in this situation? ::: 15/17 We are moving towards an outcome ::: 15/18 Is this outcome going to be acceptable? ::: 15/19 This is a stalemate ::: 15/20 Are there matters which have seen left out? ::: 15/21 Can we review what we have discussed and what seems to have been agreed? ::: 15/22 Who is going to take responsibility for what? Who is going to do what, and when? ::: 15/23 What is the next step? Where do we go from here? ::: 15/24 That was constructive. That was good. I think we made a lot of progress ::: Assessment Code 16 ::: 16/1 This is highly competent. I cannot find fault with it ::: 16/2 This is more than competent. This is excellent ::: 16/3 This is both competent and highly creative ::: 16/4 This is great on creativity but not so good on competence ::: 16/5 This is very patchy. Some parts are good and other parts are not good enough ::: 16/6 Barely adequate. This is the bottom rung ::: 16/7 This is a mediocre performance. It is not bad and it is certainly not good ::: 16/8 This is a disappointing performance. You are capable of a much better performance ::: 16/9 There is a great deal of room for improvement. This performance is not good enough ::: 16/10 Good but full of careless errors. May carelessness or lack of concentration ::: 16/11 Good performance but locking in sensitivity and people skills ::: 16/12 This is not a good performance at all. Perhaps there are reasons for this? ::: 16/13 This is simply a poor performance. It is not acceptable in any way ::: 16/14 This is a truly shocking performance ::: 16/15 You may well have misunderstood what you were supposed to do ::: Project Status Code 17 ::: 17/1 What is the time status of the project? Is it on time or what? ::: 17/2 The project is behind schedule because of a number of … which could have been foreseen ::: 17/3 There are major problems and obstacles which are holding things up ::: 17/4 We need help in solving the following problem or problems ::: 17/5 This project is resource-starved as indicated here ::: 17/6 There is some doubt about the quality of management on this project ::: 17/7 This project has been poorly planned. We need to replan the whole project ::: 17/8 The project is in crisis. We need to see how we can rescue it ::: 17/9 What is the way forward? ::: 17/10 How do you see the future scenarios? ::: 17/11 The project seems to be running low on energy ::: 17/12 What can I do to help? What sort of help would be most useful? ::: Travel Code Code 18 ::: 18/1 I am feeling very ill. I need to see a doctor or get to a hospital. Can you help me? ::: 18/2 I have been robbed or am otherwise in trouble. I need to call the police. Can you help me? ::: 18/3 I am in difficulties and I need help. I need to get in touch with my embassy or consulate ::: 18/4 Can you take me to … ? The place is indicated by one of the following additional numbers ::: 18/5 Can you tell me how I can get to the following place, as indicated by the number given ::: 18/6 I need to find accommodation. I want you to recommend a place or to take me to such a place ::: 18/7 I need to find a bank or a place where I can change money. Can you help me? ::: 18/8 I need to make a telephone call. Where Carl I find a telephone? ::: 18/9 I need to make an international phone call. Where can I do that? ::: 18/10 I need to connect up with my e-mail or the Internet. How can I do that? ::: 18/11 I need to send a letter or postcard to the following country. ::: 18/12 Where can I find a toilet? Where is the nearest toilet? ::: 18/13 Would you like to join me for a coffee, a drink, a meal or a walk? ::: 18/14 I need to get a ticket to this destination. What do I need to do? ::: 18/15 I have this ticket, or this address, or this situation (pointing to something). What do I do? ::: 18/16 Do you speck English (or other specified language)? Does anyone here speak English? ::: Part 2 De Bono Code A ::: De Bono Code A ::: The Meaning of the Numbers ::: Change (Input, Change, Output) ::: System Values (Positive/Negative values) ::: The People Factor ::: The Time Factor ::: Existence and Presence ::: Absence, Not Present ::: The Grid ::: The Use of De Bono Code A ::: Prefix ::: Pronunciation ::: Overlap and Addition ::: Familiarity, Reference and Use ::: Code meanings ::: 7: Present / This ::: Make Happen ::: 5: Absent / Missing ::: 1: Situation / Input/ Starting Position ::: 2: the Change Process ::: 6: Output / Outcome / Result ::: 8: System Positive ::: 4: Negative / Harmful / Unfavourable / Bad ::: 3: the People Factor ::: 9: the Time Factor ::: Codes A and B: Duplicate and Parallel ::: International Numbers ::: Large Numbers ::: Summary ::: Standardization ::: Licensing ::: De Bono Code B summary ::: Code 1 // Pre-Code ::: Code 2// Attention Directing ::: Code 3// Action Code ::: Code 4// Difficult Situations ::: Code 5 // Response Code ::: Code 6 // Interaction (Frantic) Code ::: Code 7// Information Code ::: Code 8 // Youth Code ::: Code 9 // Meetings ::: Code 10 // Mood code ::: Code 11 // Distance Code ::: Code 12 // Relationships Start ::: Code 13 // Relationships Continue ::: Code 14 // Relationships End ::: Code 15 // Negotiation ::: Code 16 // Assessment ::: Code 17 // Project Status ::: Code 18 // Travel Code ::: Overview of the Codes From De Bono Code B That Are Included in This Book

How to be More Interesting ::: Contents ::: Author's Note ::: Frames of Interest ::: Special-interest Groups ::: Very Ordinary ::: Facts and Figures ::: Opening Up ::: Levels — certain to fantasy ::: Speculation ::: Mental Habits ::: The Fixed Point ::: Formal and Informal ::: Concept Differences ::: Concept Level ::: Joint Exploration ::: Associations and Triggers ::: Functional Links ::: Keep Going ::: Use of Provocations ::: Interest Sensitivity ::: Sensitization ::: The Pause ::: The Dance of Attention ::: Choice of Avenue or Alley ::: Alleys ::: Themes ::: Complex Situations ::: Lists ::: Summaries ::: The Red Hat ::: Examination of Feelings ::: Views, Opinions and Feelings ::: Other People’s Shoes ::: Remote Relevance ::: Show Relevance ::: Mixed Emotions ::: Surprise ::: Expectation ::: Curiosity ::: Stories ::: Attention Directing ::: Questions ::: Speculations and Provocations ::: Alternatives and Choices ::: Opinions ::: Develop and Build Upon ::: Partial Agreement ::: Parallel Thinking ::: Arrogance ::: Adjectives ::: Clarify and Map ::: The Six Hats ::: Jumps ::: Interrupt ::: Diversions ::: SUMMARY

How to have a beautiful mind (by Edward de Bono) ::: Introduction: what is a beautiful mind? ::: How to agree ::: The need to be right ::: The logic bubble ::: Special circumstances ::: Special values ::: Special experience ::: Sweeping generalisations ::: Summary ::: How to disagree ::: Politeness ::: Errors of logic ::: Interpretation ::: Selective perception ::: Emotions ::: Different experience ::: Sweeping generalisations ::: Extrapolations ::: Possible and certain ::: Differ or disagree ::: Summary ::: How to differ ::: Two sorts of difference ::: Sources of difference ::: Spell out the difference ::: Spell out the reasons for the ::: difference ::: Accept the difference ::: Summary ::: How to be interesting ::: Information ::: What if? ::: Possibilities and alternatives ::: Speculation ::: Connections ::: Creativity and new ideas ::: A most useful habit ::: Exercises ::: Summary ::: How to respond ::: Clarification ::: Support ::: Examples and stories ::: Build upon ::: Extend ::: Carry forward ::: Modify ::: Summary ::: How to listen ::: Impatience ::: Getting value ::: Notice ::: Repeat back ::: Questions ::: More details ::: Two focuses ::: Summary ::: Questions ::: Fishing questions and shooting questions ::: Source and validity ::: More detail ::: Explanation ::: Alternatives and possibilities ::: Modification ::: Multiple choice questions ::: Values ::: The basis for your thinking? ::: Summary ::: Parallel thinking - the six hats ::: Co-operative exploration ::: The six thinking hats ::: The white hat ::: The red hat ::: The black hat ::: The yellow hat ::: The green hat ::: The blue hat ::: Use of the hats ::: Benefits ::: Summary ::: Concepts ::: Why bother with concepts? ::: Pick out the concept ::: Vagueness ::: Levels of concept ::: Types of concept ::: Exercise ::: Completeness ::: Compare and contrast ::: Summary ::: Alternatives ::: Better ::: Perception ::: Alternative values ::: Generating alternatives ::: Possible ::: Summary ::: Emotions and feelings ::: Selective perception ::: Choice ::: Adjectives ::: First reaction ::: Positioning ::: Summary ::: Values ::: Circumstance ::: Different parties ::: Personal values ::: Organisation values ::: Quality values ::: Innovation values ::: Ecology (impact) values ::: Perceptual values ::: Negative values ::: Summary ::: Diversions and off-course ::: Purpose ::: Boring ::: Conventional ::: Humour ::: Enjoyment ::: Summary ::: Information and knowledge ::: How much? ::: The Zulu principle ::: The mirror strategy ::: Knowledge input ::: Making do ::: Summary ::: Opinion ::: Why have opinions? ::: Provoking opinions ::: Exercise ::: Point of view ::: Changing opinions ::: New information ::: Less complete ::: Value change ::: Comparison and difference ::: Summary ::: Interruption ::: My turn ::: Ego interruptions ::: Amplifying interruptions ::: Challenge interruptions ::: Immediate or later ::: Doubts ::: Summary ::: Attitude ::: The battle attitude ::: The ego power game ::: The learner attitude ::: The explorer attitude ::: The constructive attitude ::: The fun attitude ::: The 'who cares? attitude ::: Summary ::: Starting and topics ::: Current topics ::: On-going topics ::: What do you do? ::: False starts ::: New leads ::: Shaping ::: Anger and emotion ::: Bored ::: Summary ::: Conclusion ::: Enjoyment ::: Skill ::: The conversation club ::: Numbers ::: Regularity ::: The organiser ::: Format ::: Agenda and topics ::: Achievement ::: Cross visits ::: Range of activites

Opportunities ::: Title ::: About Edward de Bono ::: Title page ::: Contents ::: Introduction ::: Hindsight ::: The opportunity search ::: Objective ::: Form of the book ::: Lateral thinking and opportunity search ::: Information and ideas ::: The need for ideas ::: Part I: People attitudes and opportunities ::: The distinction between what is urgent and what is important ::: Minding the store ::: Problem-solving and problem-finding ::: Three types of problem ::: Block type ::: Run out of road type ::: Problem of no Problem ::: Opportunity could have been opened before ::: Doctors starting own insurance company ::: Example 2 ::: Example 3 ::: Example 4 ::: Constructing What if problems ::: Résumé example ::: Databank Example ::: Executive styles ::: About executive styles ::: The train-driver ::: The doctor ::: The farmer ::: The fisherman ::: The opportunity-negative structure ::: No one is to blame ::: Obstacles to opportunity search ::: Organizational ::: Urgent matters always have priority ::: No time to think ::: The style of management ::: Communication is always downward from senior executives to lower levels ::: Opportunity search is always delegated to too great a distance ::: Availability of resources ::: Shortage of expertise in implementing opportunities ::: Shortage of imaginative thinkers ::: Difficulty in obtaining information ::: Risk-taking related to small resources ::: Short-term profit problem ::: Environmental ::: Union involvement and restrictions ::: Legal, government and quasi-government regulations ::: Bureaucratic constraints ::: Tax and price controls ::: Ecological pressures ::: The size of the domestic market ::: Lack of risk capital ::: Personal ::: A tendency to follow trends elsewhere and to borrow ideas ::: A protectionist atmosphere breeds managers who are not competitive ::: Love of a quiet life ::: Preference for reacting to situations rather than thinking about them in advance ::: Preference for action rather than thinking ::: The preferred outcomes encouraged by management training ::: The difficulty of evaluating opportunities once they have been generated ::: Traditional blinkers ::: Lack of encouragement ::: Lack of financial motivation ::: Lack of confidence ::: Lack of focus ::: Lack of technique ::: Comment ::: Cultural attitude towards opportunity ::: Corporate attitude towards opportunity ::: Ride the cycle ::: Survive the pressures ::: Something will turn up ::: Complacency ::: Technology-push fears ::: Fear of an opportunity war ::: Plain caution ::: Disinclination to expand ::: Comment ::: Executive attitude towards opportunity ::: Indifferent ::: Reiuctant ::: Complacent ::: Blocked ::: What is an opportunity? ::: Alternative Views of What Constitutes an Opportunity ::: Why us? ::: Opportunities for expanding and opportunities for contracting ::: Direction, destination and means ::: The thinking involved ::: Levels of opportunity ::: Corporate level ::: Management level ::: Job level ::: Personal level ::: Benefits and motivation ::: Escape benefits and achievement benefits ::: Time course of search for benefits ::: Break-off point ::: The opportunity dilemma ::: The solution ::: Part II: The Opportunity Audit and the Opportunity Team ::: Status of the opportunity search exercise ::: Skill area ::: Coping with an all ::: Channel for upwards communication ::: Problems and opportunities ::: Surveillance ::: Value ::: Elements of the opportunity search exercise ::: Opportunity Audit ::: Opportunity Manager ::: Opportunity Team ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Purpose ::: The Opportunity Audit ::: Focus ::: Start of the exercise ::: Timing of the exercise ::: Executives involved in the exercise ::: The output required in the exercise ::: Opportunity space ::: General opportunities ::: Specific opportunity objective ::: Opportunities elsewhere ::: The thinking required in the exercise ::: Opportunity space ::: Definition of opportunity space ::: Examination of opportunity space ::: Areas of activity ::: Types of operation ::: Reaction patterns ::: Example of opportunity space ::: Description of opportunity space ::: Purpose of opportunity space description ::: Job description and opportunity space ::: Idea-sensitive areas and general opportunities ::: Idea-sensitive areas (i.s.a.) ::: High-cost area (h.c.a.) ::: Specific-problem area (s.p.a.) ::: Further-development area (f.d.a.) ::: Emotional-target area (e.t.a.) ::: General opportunities ::: Separate ideas ::: Opportunity space ::: The specific opportunity objective ::: Summary of the opportunity ::: Benefits ::: Where from? ::: How? ::: Scale? ::: Depending on what? ::: Dangers? ::: Fall short? ::: Problems? ::: Assumptions? ::: Description of the opportunity ::: Plan of action ::: Resources ::: Sticking-points ::: Time course ::: Progress reports ::: Four-monthly intervals ::: Content of the progress report ::: Opportunities in other areas ::: Other departments ::: Corporate opportunities ::: The Opportunity Manager ::: Some of the tasks of the Opportunity Manager ::: 1. To organize the mechanics of the opportunity search exercise ::: 2. To act in a general liaison capacity with regard to opportunities ::: 3. To provide a communication by-pass ::: 4. To give help and advice ::: 5. To provide a listening post and to be an ombudsman ::: 6. To provide a 'fixit' service ::: 7. To set up and run the Opportunity Team ::: 8. To organize and coordinate the Opportunity Task Forces ::: 9. To bring together people to discuss opportunities ::: 10. To focus attention upon specific problems ::: 11. To act as a liaison officer with outside consultants ::: 12. To report on and represent the opportunity function ::: Difficulties ::: The Opportunity Team ::: The mechanics of the Opportunity Team ::: Input to the Opportunity Team ::: Evaluation ::: Reaction of the Opportunity Team to opportunity suggestions ::: Coordination of opportunity search and development ::: Taking the initiative ::: Review and report ::: Budget ::: Difficulty ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Members of the task force ::: Briefing of the task force ::: Authority of the task force ::: Projects ::: Report back ::: Part III Thinking for opportunities ::: Contents ::: Review of fundamental thinking processes ::: Focus ::: Analysis ::: Abstraction ::: Alternatives (lateral thinking) ::: Synthesis ::: Search, judgement and matching ::: Modification ::: Provocation ::: Repertoire of operations ::: 'Moving-in' and 'moving-out' as modes of thinking ::: Starting point check-list ::: Intrinsic assets ::: Operating assets ::: Situation assets ::: 'Left behind' ::: Synergy ::: Variable value ::: Challenge ::: 'De-averaging' ::: Significant point ::: Disadvantage into advantage ::: 'Under what circumstances …' ::: 'What business are we in?' ::: Me-too ::: Brought in from abroad ::: Market size ::: Trends ::: Focus on areas of weakness and areas of strength ::: Idea-sensitive areas ::: Provocation ::: Transfer ::: The treatment of ideas ::: End-point check-list ::: Idea-sensitive areas ::: The 'something' method ::: Market gaps ::: Needs ::: #Objectives ::: Wishful thinking ::: Defects ::: Faults ::: Quality improvements ::: Problem-solving ::: Stock solutions ::: Constructed solutions ::: Working backwards ::: Re-definition of the problem ::: Provocation ::: Upstream problem avoidance ::: The treatment of ideas ::: The killer phrase ::: Function extraction ::: The PMI ::: Provocation and stepping stones ::: Tailoring an idea ::: Instruction symbols for thinking ::: No entry ::: Build upon ::: Make practical ::: Use as a stepping stone ::: Extract the function ::: Incorporate the function ::: Examine the basic assumptions ::: Focus ::: Challenge ::: Expand ::: Contract ::: Show evidence ::: The DPA rating ::: Spell it out ::: Information available and information required ::: Satisfy and define ::: If-box maps ::: Action-channels ::: If-boxes ::: Needed item ::: Problem solution ::: Search ::: Response ::: Circumstance ::: Protective ::: Constructing if-box maps ::: Action structure for opportunity ::: Channels of effort ::: Delegation ::: Fashions, trends and bandwagons ::: Tapping existing energy ::: Trigger ::: Amplification ::: Positive feedback ::: Contact channels ::: Dealing with risk and uncertainty ::: Sensitivity ::: Cycles ::: Self-fulfilling ::: Observation ::: Analysis ::: Recognition ::: Comparison ::: Hunch ::: Trends ::: Market research ::: Test runs ::: Extrapolation ::: Feasibility study ::: Spell it out ::: Wide targets, narrow targets and nearby targets ::: Degree of innovation ::: Cumulative effects ::: Risk and reward ::: Evaluation ::: Spell out the benefits ::: Approval and rejection ::: Benefits ::: What are the benefits? ::: How do the benefits arise? ::: How large are the benefits? ::: On what do the benefits depend? ::: In what way may the benefits fall short of expectation? ::: What are the assumptions? ::: What problems are likely to be met? ::: Example ::: The time profile ::: Goodness of fit ::: Does the opportunity fit the type of manager we have? ::: Does the opportunity fit our cash-flow situation? ::: Does the opportunity fit our market strengths? ::: Does the opportunity fit production and research facilities? ::: Does the opportunity fit our style of thinking? ::: Investment ::: Test-beds ::: Cut-offs ::: Target cut-off ::: Cost cut-off ::: Time cut-off ::: Test response cut-off ::: Disaster cut-off ::: Review cut-off ::: Difficulties ::: Scenario ::: Excellent ::: Moderate ::: Poor ::: Disaster ::: Comparison ::: Pre-definition ::: Individual assessment ::: Comparison ::: Value ::: Summary of Terms ::: Hindsight ::: Lateral thinking ::: Important and urgent ::: Technology-push innovation ::: Market-pull innovation ::: Minding the store ::: Reactive and projective thinking ::: Problem-solving and problem-finding ::: Blocked by openness ::: The problem of no problem ::: Train-driver-style executive ::: Doctor-style executive ::: The farmer-style executive ::: The fisherman-style executive ::: An opportunity-negative structure ::: Riding the cycle ::: Opportunity war ::: Escape benefits and achievement benefits ::: Break-off point ::: The opportunity dilemma ::: Idea-sensitive area (i.s.a.) ::: Sticking point ::: Provocation ::: Po ::: Moving-in and moving-out ::: Intrinsic assets ::: Operating assets ::: Situation assets ::: Left behind ::: Synergy ::: Variable value ::: 'De-averaging' ::: Me-too ::: The 'something' method ::: Upstream problem avoidance ::: 'The same as' ::: Function extraction ::: PMI ::: Stepping stone ::: Tailoring an idea ::: DPA rating ::: Spell it out ::: FI-FO ::: If-box map ::: Action channel ::: If-box ::: Wide targets, narrow targets and nearby targets ::: Time profile ::: Goodness of fit ::: Cut-off ::: Scenario ::: Best-case and worst-case ::: The opportunity search exercise (Opex) ::: Opportunity Audit ::: Opportunity Manager ::: Opportunity Team ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Opportunity space ::: General opportunities ::: Specific opportunity objective ::: Read More in Penguin

Questions (attention directing tools) ::: 78 Important Questions ::: Contents ::: Preface ::: How to Use This Book ::: A Warning ::: Acknowledgments ::: Introduction: Answers. You Want Answers ::: The Power and Problem of Why? ::: 1 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Themselves ::: 1. What does leadership mean? ::: 2. How do you feel about being a leader? ::: 3. What do you want to be remembered for? ::: 4. Are you happy ::: 5. What are you afraid of ::: 6. Are you sure you want to ask questions? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter One Worksheet ::: 2 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Customers ::: 7. Why do you do business with us? ::: 8. Why do you do business with our competition? ::: 9. How and when have we made it hard for you to do business with us? ::: 10. What will you need from us in the future? ::: 11. If you were me, what's one thing you'd change about my organization? ::: 12. How can we effectively tell you that we're grateful for your business? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Two Worksheet ::: 3 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Employees About the Business ::: 13. How do we make money? ::: 14. How does your work contribute to our success? ::: 15. How could we save money? ::: 16. How could you make your job more effective? ::: 17. What's the most important thing you know about our customers? ::: 18. What's something we could offer to our customers? ::: 19. Who do you see as our competition, and what do you know about them? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Three Worksheet ::: 4 Deeper Questions Leaders Need to Ask Employees ::: 20. What gets in the way of your doing your job? ::: 21. What does our leadership team do that gets in the way of your doing your job? ::: 22. What's a recent management decision you didn't understand? ::: 23. How could we communicate management decisions more effectively? ::: 24. If you could change one thing about our organization's collective behavior, what would it be? ::: 25. What's a potential benefit we could offer that would be helpful to you? ::: 26. What is it like to work on a team in our organization? ::: 27. How do you feel at the start of your workweek? ::: 28. How do you feel at the end of your workweek? ::: 29. What volunteer work do you do? ::: 30. What makes you proud of working as a part of our organization? ::: 31. What's something you've learned in the past week? ::: 32. What brings you joy in your work? ::: 33. What do you do just for the fun of it? ::: 34. What gives your life meaning? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Four Worksheet ::: 5 Questions to Ask in Special Situations ::: Questions for New Employees ::: 35. Why did you decide to join our firm really? ::: 36. If you had to describe our organization in one word, what would that word be? ::: 37. What's a great question I could ask someone who's new to our organization? ::: 38. What questions can I answer for you? ::: Questions for Coaching and Mentoring Sessions .... ::: 39. What are the strengths you bring to the workplace?. ::: 40. What skills do you need to learn? ::: 41. What skills do you need to practice? ::: 42. Who in our organization do you need to know? .. ::: 43. What work would you like to be doing in five years? ::: Questions for Newly Promoted Leaders ::: 44. Why do you think we made you a leader? ::: 45. What did the best leader you ever had do? ::: 46. What do you need to learn to be a great leader? . . ::: 47. How can we support you as you grow into this leadership position? ::: Questions During a Crisis ::: 48. Are you all right? ::: 49. What do you need to know? ::: 50.What do you need? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Five Worksheet ::: 6 Questions Leaders Need to Answer ::: 51. What do you see happening in our organization over the next twelve months? ::: 52. What is the future of our industry? ::: 53. What gets you excited about the future? ::: 54. How do you learn about our customers? ::: 55. How do you know what I do in my job? ::: 56. How can I advance in our organization? ::: 57. How do you make decisions? ::: 58. How do you take time to think? ::: 59. What makes you angry in the workplace? ::: 60. How do you measure success? ::: 61. What are you learning? ::: 62. How do you stay positive? ::: 63. How do you re-ignite your enthusiasm for your job? ::: 64. What do you love about your job? ::: 65. What do you do just for fun? ::: 66. What gives your life meaning? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Six Worksheet ::: 7 Answers for Special Situations ::: During a Business Crisis ::: 67. What's happening? ::: 68. What's going to happen next? ::: 69. What's going to happen to me? ::: 70. Am I going to have a job next month? ::: 71. What's the long-term impact of this crisis ::: During a Merger or Acquisition ::: 72-73. What's going to change? What's going to happen to my job? ::: 74. Who will be my leader? ::: 75. Will our values last? ::: During the Personal Crisis of an Employee ::: 76-78. What will the organization do to support me? What are my benefits? What will this mean for my career? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Seven Worksheet ::: 8 Delivering Tough Answers ::: Answering when the answer is I don't know ::: Answering when the answer is No ::: Answering when there isn't an answer ::: Answering when you can't answer ::: Answering when no one wants to hear the answer ::: Answering a question that's just too personal ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Eight Worksheet ::: Conclusion: Some Final Questions ::: Appendix: Good Questions From Other Leaders ::: What's the risk of doing nothing? ::: Does what you are doing make you and the organization grow? ::: What ideas do you have? ::: What if none of this works? What next? ::: How do we WOW this customer? ::: What difference will you make for the organization today? ::: How do you face disappointment with grace? ::: How will we know when it is enough? ::: How can you ensure that this plan will be effective? ::: How can we make a change for the better of the business? ::: If you owned the company, would you do it the way you are proposing? ::: What do you think? ::: Do you honestly have the time to put this new task on your calendar? ::: What should I do to make sure you've got no worries on this project? ::: What support do you need from me to make that happen? ::: Do you think the culture of an organization can be changed by one individual? Why or why not? ::: How are you doing today? ::: What is it that we want to accomplish in the long run? ::: I know it can be done... but should it be done? ::: What's the new learning here? ::: Suppose you owned the situation, what steps would you take? ::: How did you get into this profession? ::: Why have we always done it this way? ::: How can I be part of the solution, not part of the problem? ::: What can I do to make myself more valuable to the company? ::: Can you give me specific feedback on how I can be a better leader for our organization? ::: If you could make one decision that would put this organization on a more positive course, what would it be? ::: What is your true passion? ::: What are the greatest needs and challenges facing your customers? ::: What are you taking time to do these days? ::: Is there a better way to do this? ::: How can I make a difference to the team? ::: What have you done today to develop your leadership skills? ::: Does this meet the highest standards of quality? ::: Do we all have the same sense of purpose and understanding of the desired outcomes? ::: What about your job inspires you to help a customer? ::: What went wrong? ::: What questions should we be asking our customers? ::: Why? ::: Suggested Reading List ::: Index

Simplicity ::: The Ten Rules of Simplicity ::: To get simplicity you have to want to get it ::: Rule 1. You need to put a very high value on simplicity ::: Rule 2. You must be determined to seek simplicity ::: Simplicity has to be designed ::: Rule 3. You need to understand the matter very well ::: Rule 4. You need to design alternatives and possibilities ::: Rule 5. You need to challenge and discard existing elements ::: Modify if you can — start afresh if you cannot ::: Rule 6. You need to be prepared to start over again ::: Rule 7. You need to use concepts ::: Rule 8. You may need to break things down into smaller units ::: If simplicity is a real value then you must be prepared to trade off other real values in order to gain simplicity ::: Rule 9. You need to be prepared to trade off other values for simplicity ::: Rule 10. You need to know for whose sake the simplicity is being designed ::: Complexity harms everyone ::: In an increasingly complex world ‘simplicity’ is becoming one of the four key values ::: Almost everyone sees a value in simplicity ::: 1 Simplicity: What Use, Value, Need. Why better ::: Simplicity is not natural ::: 2 Simplicity: The challenge, search, effort, urge. Investing in ::: If simplicity has such a high value ::: 3 Simplicity: Love, hate, upset. Simplistic. Over-simplification. Why You Have to Know Your Subject Very Well ::: Why shouldn’t language be living and changing all the time? ::: 4 Simplifying Simplify and Simplification ::: New Suggestion ::: 5 How to: Make things simpler, Simplifym 'Simp' ::: Overview of Methods, Techniques and Approaches ::: A metaphor provides a physical model ::: 6 Tree metaphor ::: A Way of Looking at Things ::: Cooking is made up of ways of cooking. ::: 7 Three methods of simping ::: A mountain top can be reached by various routes ::: 8 Three More Ways to Work towards Simplicity ::: A carpenter can use all the tools of carpentry but at any one moment uses the tool that seems appropriate for the situation ::: 9 More Approaches: Restructuring, Start Afresh, Modules and Smaller Units ::: With a ‘provocation’ there may not be a reason for saying something until after it has been said ::: 10 Further Approaches: Provocative Amputation ::: Wishful Thinking ::: Shift Energies ::: It is possible to work with detail or to work with a very broad approach ::: 11 The Last Two Approaches: Ladder and Flavor ::: Electricity is generally useful but may be dangerous ::: 12 The Dangers of Simplicity ::: 13 Simple Notes on Everyday Simplicity ::: 14 The Simple Life ::: Some rules do not have to be obeyed — but it is useful to keep them in mind ::: 15 The Ten Rules of Simplicity ::: Complexity harms everyone

Six Thinking Hats ::: Title page ::: Info page ::: Table of contents ::: Preface ::: Impact ::: Widespread Use Around the World ::: The Six Hats Method ::: Special Note on the Black Hat ::: Notes on the New Edition ::: Introduction ::: Argument versus Parallel Thinking ::: A Changing World ::: What Is Parallel Thinking? ::: Directions and Hats ::: Directions Not Descriptions ::: Not Categories of People ::: Note on Using the Thinking Hats ::: Showing Off ::: Playing the Game ::: Results ::: Power ::: Time Saving ::: Removal of Ego ::: One Thing at a Time ::: Six Hats, Six Colors ::: White Hat ::: Red Hat ::: Black Hat ::: Yellow Hat ::: Green Hat ::: Blue Hat ::: Three pairs of hats ::: In practice refer to color, not function ::: For those who haven't read the book ::: Using the Hats ::: Single Use ::: Sequence Use ::: Discipline ::: Timing ::: Guidelines ::: Group and Individual ::: Individuals in Groups ::: The White Hat ::: Facts and Figures ::: Whose Fact Is It? ::: Japanese-Style Input ::: Thinking Facts, Truth and Philosophers ::: Who Puts on the Hat? ::: Summary ::: The Red Hat ::: Emotions and Feelings ::: The Place of Emotions in Thinking ::: Intuition and Hunches ::: Moment to Moment ::: The Use of Emotions ::: The Language of Emotions ::: Summary ::: The Black Hat ::: Cautious and Careful ::: Content and Process ::: The Past and the Future ::: The Problem of Overuse ::: Summary ::: The Yellow Hat ::: Speculative-Positive ::: The Positive Spectrum ::: Reasons and Logical Support ::: Constructive Thinking ::: Speculation ::: Relation to Creativity ::: Summary ::: The Green Hat ::: Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Movement Instead of Judgement ::: The Need for Provocation ::: Alternatives ::: Personality and Skill ::: What Happens to the Ideas? ::: Summary ::: The Blue Hat ::: Control of Thinking ::: Focus ::: Program Design ::: Summaries and Conclusions ::: Control and Monitoring ::: Summary ::: Benefits of the Six Hats Method ::: Special Techniques ::: Not Surprising ::: Conclusion

Six Action Shoes ::: A brilliant new way to take control of any business or life situation ::: Author’s note: Thinking and Action ::: Think and then take action ::: Supermarket ::: Think about something to buy ::: Then you buy it ::: Company ::: Plan a new strategy ::: Implement the strategy ::: Often we assume that action is easy and obvious ::: That thinking lays out the roads and decides which road is to be taken ::: That action is simple as walking along the correct road ::: It’s not that easy ::: The direct teaching of thinking ::: Education is too often about description and analysis ::: The real world involves action as well as knowledge ::: Operacy is just as important as literacy and numeracy ::: Has to do with operations ::: Six action shoes helps ::: In the training of action skills ::: In the use of those skills at the moment of action ::: Specific guidance about the action that needs to be taken ::: Choose your action style to fit the needs of the occasion ::: Introduction ::: About the six HAT method ::: The six hat method has been widely accepted because it is simple, it is practical, and it works. ::: Attributes ::: Simple ::: Practical ::: Works ::: It actually changes how thinking takes place in meetings and elsewhere: ::: instead of the usual to and fro arguments it makes it possible for people to have constructive discussions ::: All people at a meeting can use a hat of a particular color for a few moments at a time ::: Changes how thinking takes place in meeting and elsewhere ::: Constructive discussion ::: The hats involve participants in a type of mental role playing ::: White hat: An objective look at data and information ::: Red hat: Legitimizes feelings, hunches, and intuition ::: Black hat: Logical negative, judgment, and caution ::: Yellow hat: Logical positive, feasibility, and benefits ::: Green hat: New ideas and creative thinking ::: Blue hat: Control of the thinking process ::: It works because it sets the rules of the game, and people then can be asked to play the game ::: People feel foolish if they don't seem to be able to follow the rules ::: Here are some of the benefits of the method ::: Is simple to learn and use and has an immediate appeal. The visualization of the hats and the colors helps ::: Makes time available for deliberate creative effort. You can ask for "three minutes of green hat thinking." ::: Allows the legitimate expression of feelings and intuition in a meeting-without apology or justification: "This is my feeling." ::: Allows an "unbinding" of thinking so that each mode gets full attention. It avoids the confusion of trying to do everything at once ::: Provides a simple and direct way of switching thinking without causing offense: "What about some yellow hat thinking here?" ::: Requires all thinkers to be able to use each of the hats instead of sticking to only one type of thinking. ::: Separates ego from performance in thinking. Frees able minds to examine a subject more fully. ::: Provides a practical method for using the different aspects of thinking in the best possible sequence ::: Gets away from to and fro arguments and allows parties to collaborate on constructive exploration ::: Makes for much more productive meetings ::: Exploring the subject ::: The hats are most effective in occasional use ::: using one hat at a time ::: in order to obtain a certain type of thinking ::: When there is need to explore a subject fully and effectively ::: a sequence of hats may be put together ::: and then each hat used in turn ::: Advantages ::: Simple ::: Easy to learn ::: It does work ::: The six pair of action shoes follows directly from the six hat frame work ::: Six pairs of action shoes ::: Introduction ::: Occasionally, thinking is an end in itself ::: Usually the purpose of thinking is to choose or design a course of action ::: Sometimes there is a distinct thinking phase and then an action phase ::: At other times thinking and action are intertwined ::: Shoes imply action ::: Shoes, like action, are for reaching a destination ::: Situations require different styles of action ::: The perfect person ::: Knowing how to act appropriately in any type of situation ::: There seem to be two traditional approaches to this problem ::: Method 1: Establish rigid codes of behavior and expect people to learn these codes and follow them without deviation ::: Method 2: Establish general guiding principles, and then allow people to design their own actions around these principles ::: Six styles of action ::: Introduction ::: Ask what type of action is required here? ::: Put on the appropriate action shoes, and behave in that style ::: The feel of a situation ::: The feel of a situation is all important ::: Based on experience ::: Also on perception ::: The mind ::: Sees what it is prepared to see ::: Notices what it is ready to notice ::: Works as a self-organizing system ::: Information arranges itself into patterns ::: Once the patters are there then we see the world through these patterns ::: Six action shoes provide a framework ::: Become familiar with different types of situations ::: Then use this familiarity to react suitably in similar situations ::: Two shoes in a pair ::: Have to respond to a particular situation without pretending that it is something that we would like it to be ::: Situations are rarely pure ::: Often require a combination of 2 types of shoes ::: 15 possible combinations ::: Color for the shoes ::: Must differ from the hats. To avoid confusion ::: Must suggest the nature of the mode ::: Physical nature of the shoes ::: Visualizing the action shoes, in color and shape, is an important part of the learning process ::: The shoes ::: Overview ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Routines and formal procedures ::: Grey sneakers ::: Exploration, investigation, and collection of evidence ::: Purpose of the action is to get information ::: Brown brogues ::: Involves practically and pragmatism ::: Do what is sensible and what is practical ::: Figure it out as you go using initiative, practical behavior, and flexibility ::: Almost the opposite of the formality navy formal shoes ::: Orange gumboots ::: Danger and emergency ::: Emergency action is required ::: Safety is a prime concern ::: Pink slippers ::: Suggest care, compassion, and attention to human feelings and sensitivities ::: Purple riding boots ::: Suggest authority ::: Playing out the role give by virtue of a position or authority ::: There is an element of leadership and command ::: The person is not acting in his or her own capacity but in an official role. ::: Once the framework has been learned and visualized, then there is not need to repeat the whole description of the action mode each time: ::: The shoes in detail ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Introduction ::: Sometimes routines help us to avoid making dangerous mistakes ::: It is easier to use a routine checklist that to figure everything out each time ::: Examples ::: Airlines ::: Doctors ::: Hotel check-in ::: Arrest ::: The need for rules, laws, procedures, and routines ::: Otherwise chaos and confusion ::: A stifling bureaucracy sometimes seems to exist solely to keep itself in existence ::: The overuse of routines may be a bad thing ::: Freedom of routines ::: In some ways routines provide freedom ::: If we had to think about every action we take ::: Then life would be very slow and very complicated ::: About the brain ::: The nature of perception ::: Occasionally we need to challenge these perceptions ::: That is what we call creativity ::: But most of the time having these routine perceptions makes life possible ::: Some people feel all routines and structures are restricting ::: Want to be free of structures ::: Want to use their own initiative ::: Even … are restrictive ::: The framework of the six hats and six action shoes ::: The deliberate technique of lateral thinking ::: The don’t realize the difference between restrictive structures and liberating structures ::: Examples ::: We need to keep a balanced view of structures and routines ::: We should not overlook their value ::: just because abuses of routine can be restrictive ::: Source of routines ::: May gradually evolve and accumulate over time ::: Examples ::: Weddings ::: Good manners ::: Those associated with a craft ::: Sometimes tempted to keep routines only for tradition’s sake ::: Some routines are set up by organizations just like laws are set up by society ::: Help avoid errors ::: Allow interaction between people ::: Represent crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: Such routine can be improved or even dropped ::: But at time we want and need to use them ::: Routines that individuals set up for themselves ::: They can have high use if they simplify life ::: Instead of working things out each time, just switch into the routine — navy formal shoes ::: What should routines be like? ::: Criteria ::: Should cover many situations ::: Should be easy to recognize when a particular routine needs to be used ::: Applying a routine should be straightforward ::: The steps should be clear ::: The steps should follow one another ::: The routine should be robust ::: The purpose of the routine is achieved even if the steps are not carried out exactly as prescribed ::: Routines should be flexible enough to cope with special circumstances ::: Routines should be easy to learn and remember ::: Routines should make sense of those who use them. Their logic and value should be apparent ::: Routines must avoid doubt and confusion ::: Designing routines takes skill ::: A routine should always be a little bit artificial ::: For example, because if it is too natural, then it is easy to forget that it is a routine ::: The use of routines ::: Some basic questions ::: Which routine should be used here? ::: What are the steps of this routine? ::: Is it necessary to combine routines ::: Is some flexibility necessary? ::: Where can the flexibility be used? ::: Can this routine be improved? ::: Can I check the application of this routine? ::: What output or result do I expect? ::: The better the routine is known, the less trouble there is in using that routine ::: Navy shoe action mode and exercises ::: Quotations ::: Navy formal shoes requires the carrying through of established routines ::: The action focus in on … ::: choosing the appropriate routine ::: then carrying it through meticulously ::: Focus on the step that is being taken ::: And think of the following step ::: Keep checking that the routine is being done properly ::: The navy shoe action mode can also include establishing formal routines where these would have a value ::: Exercises ::: Nave shoe action style ::: Precisely using formal routines ::: Adhering to formality and procedure ::: Taking the laid down steps one after the other ::: Acknowledging that the routine has a value and purpose ::: Instead of going through the routine mindlessly just because you have to ::: There is a sense that the routine is the best action plan of the moment ::: And that this action plan is being followed ::: You may ask a person to switch into the navy shoe action mode ::: People may decide for themselves that the situation demands the navy shoe action mode ::: In the framework of the six styles of action the navy shoe action mode has its rightful place ::: Quite often the best action is routine action ::: Sometimes routine action is absolutely necessary ::: Just as you would wish to carry out a dance routine effectively or to sing in tune, so you might desire to carry out a routine perfectly ::: Summary of navy formal shoes ::: Emphasizes formality and routines ::: Such as drills and routines of the navy ::: At times routines are essential to ensure safety and avoid error ::: Routines can represent a crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: Using routines can free up our thinking so that we can tackle other matters ::: But their overuse can stifle initiative and restrict flexibility ::: This does not make routines a bad thing ::: But cautions against excessive use of what is a good thing ::: A routine is an action pattern ::: that has been laid down in advance ::: Once the appropriate routine has been selected, then action consists in fully carrying through this routine ::: Grey Sneakers ::: Introduction ::: We need to know why there has been this increase in absenteeism. ::: Before we take any other type of action we need some grey sneaker action. ::: Let's get more information." ::: "We are investigating it. ::: We are still in grey action mode. ::: We'll let you know as soon as we have anything." ::: "Just find out all you can. ::: Limit yourself to grey sneaker mode. ::: Be as inconspicuous as possible. ::: Remember just the grey mode. ::: No heroics." ::: Sneakers are quiet, and you can pad around in them without being noticed. ::: In a sense, in grey shoe action mode the person is sneaking around, listening, and exploring. ::: The style is casual, relaxed, and quiet. ::: There is no desire to be noticed or even to affect other people. ::: In a grey mist and fog you cannot see clearly to find your way around. ::: All your energy is directed at getting information from the surroundings. ::: In the same way grey action mode implies removing the fog of ignorance. ::: We want to obtain as much information as possible. ::: Grey also suggests the grey matter of the brain, as in the colloquial, "Use your grey matter." ::: So the grey action mode includes both collecting information and also thinking. ::: When in the grey action mode, a person may use any aids to thinking that he or she wishes, such as the six thinking hats. ::: In the navy action mode you know exactly the next step that has to be taken because you are following a known routine. ::: In the grey action mode you are exploring, but you do not know what you are going to find. ::: What you find determines your next step. ::: If a clue turns up, then you follow that clue. ::: In the navy action mode you are reciting a poem you know by heart. ::: In the grey action mode you are conducting a conversation that may turn in any direction. ::: Note that the grey action mode includes all the activities that are necessary in order to obtain the information. ::: If the information is in a particular library, then tracking it down is part of the grey sneaker action mode. ::: It is not just a sit-and-think mode. ::: Scientists pursuing a theory, ::: investigating journalists, ::: detectives solving a crime, ::: market researchers trying to assess response to a new product, ::: pollsters, ::: investment bankers contemplating a takeover, and ::: tax inspectors are all using the grey action mode. ::: Perhaps the purest case of grey action mode would be the investigation of a computer fraud. ::: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, mainly involved himself in grey sneaker action. ::: In the end the criminal usually confessed, thereby removing the need for more vigorous action. ::: Today's television dramas allow less room for grey action mode and tend to emphasize orange and brown action modes. ::: The grey action mode can interplay with other action modes as information gathered reveals the need for other types of action. ::: Quite often there may be a pause in other types of action until you get the information that you need to go forward. ::: As with all the other action modes there is often an overlap of needs, and an action rarely consists of only one action mode. ::: The Use of Investigation ::: You need to investigate when you have no idea as to what is going on. ::: You're fishing. ::: You're looking for leads. ::: You want some basis on which to build a hypothesis. ::: A scientist, an archaeologist, a searcher for oil, and a detective are often in this sort of position. ::: There is a leak of sensitive information from a government department. ::: Where do you start looking? ::: When a patient first visits a doctor, the doctor has to search for clues. ::: The doctor may indeed use some fixed routine for eliciting information—a combination of navy and grey shoe action. ::: When a doctor forms an idea, then this hypothesis can be checked out by means of tests. ::: So the first use of investigation is to make a start. ::: The mind can see only what it is prepared to see. ::: That is why a hypothesis is so useful. ::: Using the framework of the hypothesis you can start to notice things you would not otherwise have noticed. ::: The hypothesis also provides a direction in which to look for further information. ::: The second use of information therefore is to confirm or reject hypotheses. ::: In theory scientists should seek to destroy an hypothesis, but they first need something to destroy, so they attempt to confirm the hypothesis as theory. ::: This second use of investigation is the checking-out phase. ::: Choices often have to be made. ::: You may need to choose between two possible hypotheses or two courses of action. ::: You need information to make choices of any sort. ::: A person buying a new stove wants to get as much information as possible, not only from the vendor but from existing users of that brand of stove. ::: You need information to build a case. ::: A prosecutor wants the detective to provide enough information to get a conviction. ::: The designer of a new product wants as much information as possible about how the product will be perceived by the designated market. ::: The information may not reach the level of certainty of proof, but the information must build a reasonable case. ::: You need information when looking into the future. ::: You need to see the #consequences of action—and also of inaction. ::: Today ecologists and green groups paint horrific scenarios about the greenhouse and other effects. ::: You need information to assess the seriousness of the danger. ::: Information about future possibilities gives a good basis for action. ::: Sometimes you need to know what you don't know. ::: You need to identify exactly what you don't know. ::: Thinking, Ideas, and Information ::: Thinking is involved in collecting information and making the maximum use of that information. ::: Information may trigger ideas, which may trigger an information search. ::: Information does not easily yield up all the ideas that are present in that information. ::: The mind has to put things together in different ways—to generate possibilities and even provocations. ::: Sometimes there is information which everyone has looked at in a particular way. ::: Then someone comes along and uses lateral thinking to look at information in a different way and reaches a new hypothesis about it. ::: It is a mistake to believe that collecting enough information will do all our thinking for us. ::: Information is not a substitute for ideas and thinking. ::: On the other hand, there is a real need for information. ::: The key is to sustain an active interplay between thinking and information collecting. ::: Thinking directs information collecting and also makes the best use of what has been collected. ::: At the same time information may suggest ideas, confirm some ideas, and lead to the rejection of others. ::: Use of the Grey Sneaker Action Mode ::: "Right now we are all in the grey sneaker action mode. We have to find out what our competitors are planning to do. That has to come first." ::: "Why are you trying to solve the problem in that way? Have you given it some grey action mode, or are you just doing the first thing that comes to mind?" ::: "We have only got half a story here. Get out there, put on your grey sneakers, and get the other half. Then we can publish it." ::: "How much is it all going to cost? Have you completed your grey actions on this?" ::: "He is always jumping to conclusions. He never checks things out. I don't think he likes the grey action mode. Perhaps it is too quiet for him. He prefers strong action." ::: "I congratulate you. That's very good grey sneaker action. That was a smart piece of investigation. It is going to save us a lot of time and money." ::: "How is it that those two scientists could show the effect but no one else has been able to?? What is going on? Did they cheat? Did they make an honest mistake? Did they just do things in a different way? There is a great need for some grey sneaker action." ::: Motivation for Grey Sneaker Action ::: What is the motivation for investigation and exploration? ::: Investigation may be a large part of your job as a scientist, detective, explorer, or spy. ::: Even so, some people satisfy the minimal requirements of such jobs, and some actually enjoy exploration. ::: Some people have a natural curiosity and a fascination with information. ::: They want to know things. ::: Other people may not have this curiosity but instead have an urgency to complete a task once the task has been started. ::: Such people may be slow to start grey sneaker action, but once started they are carried along by the momentum of what they are discovering. ::: Like the proverbial terrier, they cannot let go. ::: Other people want only certainties. ::: They are irritated by ambiguities and uncertainties. ::: They want everything to be neat and defined. ::: Such people are apt to switch into certainties and beliefs as soon as possible. ::: They quickly become dogmatic and move rapidly from possibility to certainty without any proper justification. ::: What is a belief? ::: A belief is an idea, a hypothesis, a theory, or a way of looking at the world which forces us to look at the world in a way that supports that belief. ::: The classic example is paranoia. ::: Paranoid people use complicated logic to show that all events are directed toward themselves. ::: Unlike some other types of mental illness in paranoia there is no lack of organization of information but a type of excess of organization. ::: Everything is fitted together into one master theory. ::: In an investigation this type of person rushes to generate an idea or hypothesis. ::: All further investigation is designed to fit that hypothesis, which soon becomes a belief—which must be true. ::: Anything that does not fit is ignored or changed so that it does fit. ::: Objective exploration ceases. ::: As a lawyer in court makes and argues a particular case, so does the investigator. ::: This is dangerous grey shoe action. ::: The best preventative for this premature closing of the mind is to insist that in grey shoe action at least two hypotheses are kept in mind and that the investigator should be able to make a reasonable case for both of them at any time. ::: The premature acceptance of a theory also causes trouble in science. ::: An early reasonable hypothesis causes scientists to look at the world in a particular way and then ignore evidence that does not fit the hypothesis. ::: All evidence is seen through this hypothesis. ::: It can take a long time for a breakthrough to break through even though the evidence was there all along. ::: What Should Investigation Be Like? ::: A formal collection of information can take the form of house-to-house inquiries in a murder hunt. ::: A scientist tests many possible variations of a chemical molecule. ::: A pollster defines a sample and steadily works through it. ::: This is navy type action used for grey purposes. ::: The data should be neutral and objective even though eventually they are looked at through the window of an idea. ::: Having more than one person involved in collecting the data reduces the personal bias of an individual. ::: This type of data collection is driven by a systematic method. ::: The other type of data collection is driven by a hunch or theory that hypothesizes what data to look for and where to find it. ::: It requires a conscious effort by the grey sneaker operator to make a clear distinction between a theory that helps data collection and data collection that simply supports the theory. ::: There may be a need for a second person to show that the same data can indeed be looked at in a different way. ::: There can also be the habit, suggested earlier, of always having at least two theories or hypotheses in mind. ::: There is no easy way around the dilemma that without a theory it may be difficult even to collect data but that the theory may so dominate the data collection that it is no longer neutral or comprehensive. ::: Instead of pretending that people can be objective it may be better to acknowledge that the mind cannot really be objective and then to take steps to address that lack of objectivity (like the habit of twin hypotheses). ::: Investigation Leads to Action ::: Navy shoe formality may be involved in collecting data, and that may lead to grey shoe activity. ::: This in turn may lead to brown shoe (or other) action. ::: Investigation itself is a form of action, but at some point grey shoe action gives way to other forms of action and activity. ::: A scientist moves from data to theory to experiment to data to publication of a paper. ::: A detective collects evidence to build a case, which is passed to the prosecutor, who then presents the case in court. ::: In between comes the arrest of the person to be charged. ::: A market researcher takes action to collect information, which is then passed to the client, who decides what action to take. ::: An interplay occurs between the collection of information and the action that is going to be taken as a result of that information. ::: The key question for the grey shoe operator to ask is, "At this moment what is the central purpose of my activity-to collect information?" ::: If the answer to that question is yes, then grey sneaker action is called for. ::: The movement from information collection to action depends on several factors: ::: What is the time pressure? ::: Is there a hurry? ::: Will delay have negative #consequences? ::: What are the dangers of precipitate action? ::: What are the benefits of quick action? ::: What is the trade-off between more thorough data collection and the need for action? ::: If a criminal suspect is preparing to flee the country, further collection of evidence may make a better case, but there would be no suspect to try. ::: In some cases spending twice as much money and time in collecting data produces a benefit that is only 10 percent better. ::: That may not be a worthwhile investment if the information is for a market survey. ::: In other fields the extra information might be vital: in medicine one additional test may make the difference between recommending and not recommending a procedure. ::: Some ways of collecting information are more effective than others. ::: One way may take a long time and cost a great deal of money; another way make be quicker and cheaper. ::: The collection of data is an activity like any other and can be improved through careful and creative thinking. ::: It is not often that data must be collected regardless of cost. ::: Information is a product like any other. ::: What is the best way of producing that product? ::: The careful design of data collection is as important as the use of the data. ::: Carrying Through Grey Sneaker Action and Exercises ::: The data collector must be absolutely clear that at the moment he or she is in grey sneaker mode. ::: Information collection requires full concentration and must take precedence over other matters. ::: The casual and incidental collection of information does have a high value, but with grey sneaker mode the purpose of the action is direct collection of information. ::: Collecting the information is an end in itself. ::: Grey sneaker action requires effort and discipline. ::: It is easy to slip into other action modes that offer a reaction to the situation and make use of existing action habits. ::: Grey sneaker action is quiet and unobtrusive. ::: If the data collector uses an authority role (purple boot action mode), then the data provider might tell the collector only what is expected. ::: The information collector should be almost invisible. ::: That is why the color grey is so appropriate—a grey cat is always difficult to see. ::: Persistence is probably the most important characteristic needed for the grey sneaker mode. ::: If you do have persistence, then a lot else will follow. ::: If you do not have persistence, then all other qualities will amount to nothing. ::: Grey Sneaker Action Style ::: Information collection as a priority. ::: Quiet, unobtrusive, and objective. ::: Collecting information as a basis for theories and then collecting information to test the theories. ::: Asking, looking, and listening. ::: Designing ways of collecting the information. ::: Collecting information most effectively. ::: Being conscious of the value of an hypothesis and also of the danger of an hypothesis, which can reduce objectivity. ::: Grey sneaker action style also includes thinking. ::: The formal application of thinking to a chosen target area. ::: The solution of problems. ::: Making the maximum use of available information and deciding what further information may be required. ::: In general, grey sneaker action mode is absorbing information and using it. ::: Action is required to collect information, and skill is involved in deciding how to collect the information, in collecting the information, and in making the best use of it. ::: Summary ::: The grey sneaker action mode is one of the six action modes. ::: It emphasizes the collection and use of information. ::: Think of grey as indicating the grey matter of the brain because it is brain rather than muscle that is important in grey sneaker mode. ::: Think also of a grey fog or mist because the purpose of grey sneaker action is to remove the fog to make things clear. ::: The sneaker type of shoe suggests something that is casual, quiet, and unobtrusive. ::: In the grey sneaker mode the #objectives are the collection and use of information. ::: They must take precedence over everything else. ::: Information may be collected systematically where this is possible, but other times a theory or hypothesis may be needed to suggest a direction. ::: Remember that the collection of information should be as comprehensive and neutral as possible. ::: It is only in the second phase that information collection may be directed at testing a hypothesis. ::: Information collecting is a valuable activity that is the basis for many other types of action. ::: Brown brogues ::: Source Part V: Brown Brogues ::: Introduction ::: "This is brown brogue stuff. ::: Get in there and see what you can do. ::: Be sensible, be practical. ::: Work it out as you go along." ::: "I'm operating in the brown brogue mode. ::: Each step is determined by the evolving situation. ::: I have a general sense of direction, but the choice of action at any moment is purely practical." ::: "There is no fixed price. ::: You just bargain. ::: It is a sort of brown brogue way of conducting business. ::: He sets the price flexibly, and you pay flexibly." ::: "You want to be told what to do. ::: Well, I'll tell you. ::: Use the brown brogue action mode. ::: Do what is sensible and practical at every moment." ::: Brown is a practical color. ::: The earth is brown, and mud is brown. ::: There is nothing exotic about the color brown, which is basic and indeed earthy Brown is an everyday color. ::: Brogues are stout shoes capable of hard wear; they are not smart shoes for formal occasions but day-to-day shoes for most occasions. ::: All these factors contribute to what is meant by the brown brogue action mode. ::: The emphasis in brown brogue action is on practicality, pragmatism, and good sense. ::: What can be done in this situation? ::: Navy shoe action is determined by a preset routine that has to be followed. ::: Brown brogue action is determined moment to moment by the actual situation. ::: Quite often the situation falls outside established routine or training. ::: Flexibility is a key aspect of brown brogue action. ::: You change your behavior as the situation changes. ::: If you cannot do what you set out to do, you modify your objective. ::: There is no rigidity about brown brogue action. ::: You do what can be done. ::: You do what you can do. ::: Brown brogue action is low key and unspectacular. ::: There is something to be done, and you do it. ::: Good sense, common sense, and a little wisdom are required. ::: General experience can be a help, but general experience may have set up bad habits of behavior that interfere with the true flexibility required for brown brogue action. ::: Experience can trap people in routines of perception and behavior and lead to navy shoe behavior. ::: But experience also can help to prevent overreaction and provide a sense of perspective. ::: Experience can provide a sort of calmness in coping. ::: Brown brogue action is not detached and advisory but is always involved: it is "get your hands dirty" action. ::: Without thinking there would only be mindless action, but the thinking is directed to what can be done in the moment. ::: What are sometimes called street smarts come under brown brogue action. ::: The general skills of doing-for which I invented the word operacy—are best illustrated by brown brogue action. ::: Schools teach about literacy and numeracy, but in the real world operacy is just as important. ::: Knowledge does not automatically lead to action. ::: Matters like assessing priorities and guessing well are important parts of life, of operacy, and of brown brogue action. ::: When I fly short distances, I ask for a window seat because I enjoy looking at the world outside. ::: When I fly long distances, I prefer an aisle seat because it makes it easier to reach the lavatory in the middle of the night. ::: That is a sort of brown brogue action although you could argue that the window person climbing over me might wake me up. ::: On balance, it seems to make sense to me. ::: I have often suggested that airport information desks should have simple overhead projectors providing instant information that could be updated as often as required. ::: Passengers then would know when and why delays occurred instead of crowding around desks to hear announcements. ::: I have been told that the idea is too simple and that the airlines are developing a complicated electronic screen-which probably will be out of order half the time. ::: Simplicity and practicality are key features of brown brogue action. ::: The small cartons of fruit juice have been a huge success. ::: The fruit juice is the same, but the handy size and the attached straw provide great convenience. ::: Brown brogue action is concerned with what is doable and what gives value. ::: This book is being written entirely on a flight from London to Auckland, New Zealand, where I have been invited to address the meeting of the Commonwealth Law Society. ::: Why? ::: Because writing a book is by far the best way to make the time pass quickly. ::: Because it is a period of total peace when I am not going to be interrupted by phone calls or other matters. ::: Because there is nothing else that I could, or should, be doing. ::: Because being 35,000 feet up does give one a certain detachment. ::: Because I have found it better to write books like this in one go rather than a piece at a time. ::: Because I wrote another book, Six Thinking Hats, on a plane trip from London to Melbourne. ::: On that occasion I used a Canon 5 Star electronic typewriter, which meant messing around with pieces of paper. ::: This time I'm using a small Psion MC400 mobile computer, which removes the need for paper and also is quieter. ::: Brown brogue action may also include twisting your tie back to front when eating on a plane so that dropped food does not ruin the tie. ::: These are minor points of practicality. ::: Brown brogue action is not heroics but small practical things that come together to give effectiveness. ::: Chapter 23: Pragmatism ::: Some people condemn pragmatism because they believe that pragmatism seems to be a way of acting without principles. ::: Pragmatism does not mean being unprincipled: it means the pragmatic use of principles. ::: Pragmatism is when you do what can be done to achieve an objective and put as much emphasis on practicality as on principles. ::: Action without principles is dangerous and intolerable in a civilized society because principles help society control action. ::: The main objection to pragmatism is that the end might come to justify the means. ::: If offering false evidence to convict a drug dealer is acceptable because the end is worthwhile, then the door is opened to all sorts of behavior. ::: Pragmatism, however, asserts that the end cannot justify the means without leading to total chaos. ::: Much theft, for example, would be justified on the grounds of need. ::: Pragmatism is concerned with where an action might lead — with the effect or #consequences of the action — but it does not say that anything is acceptable as long as the outcome is positive. ::: Pragmatism should be contrasted with the arrogance (often based on principles) that declares, "I am sure that what I am doing is right, and I do not care what the #consequences might be." ::: Pragmatism means being sensitive to a situation, to the people involved in the situation, and to what is practical. ::: Pragmatism is the art of the possible. ::: Politicians are pragmatic people. ::: The term expediency also has a bad image. ::: Politicians are said to do things in order to gain votes even though these things may be unprincipled. ::: Buying votes with favors is an unpleasant practice, and some types of expediency are not acceptable. ::: Nevertheless, it may not be hygienic to use a dirty handkerchief to staunch a flow of blood, but if there is nothing else on hand then one urgent need overrides the danger. ::: An infection can be dealt with later. ::: Chapter 24: Effectiveness ::: In the course of my work I have met a lot of highly intelligent and creative people. ::: But what seems to be more rare than intelligence or creativity is simple effectiveness. ::: Effectiveness is very much a part of brown brogue action. ::: Brown brogue action is not just concerned with survival and getting by, even though that may sometimes be the priority. ::: Brown brogue action is concerned with getting results. ::: Efficiency and effectiveness are not at all the same thing. ::: Efficiency is a balance between input and output. ::: There is an effort to cut down on input and costs so that the ratio looks good. ::: Effectiveness means making sure that the resources are available to get the results that you want. ::: If the resources are not sufficient to allow you to do everything that you need to do, then you list priorities and go down that list as far as you can. ::: But you make sure that each item you tackle is done effectively. ::: Effectiveness does not mean inefficiency. ::: It means focusing directly on what you want to achieve rather than on the balance between input and output. ::: An efficient operation may give a poor quality output. ::: To some extent the Japanese tend to put effectiveness first, whereas the Americans tend to put efficiency first: the Americans removed all extras from cars to decrease the price, and the Japanese put in as many extras as possible to increase the value. ::: It is a good habit to ask at every step, what is the most effective course of action here? ::: That is a good brown brogue habit. ::: Chapter 25: What Is the Basis of Brown Brogue Action? ::: Brown brogue action is a combination of good values, good sense, and good principles. ::: What are good values? ::: Human respect is an example of a good value. ::: From this basic value comes an avoidance of bullying, pressure, extortion, torture, prejudice, racism, etc. ::: Human respect is a practical aspect of the love that religions advocate. ::: You can respect an enemy even when you feel you can't love that enemy. ::: Respect acknowledges others' dignity and right to exist. ::: Being unwilling to cause harm is another basic value. ::: One of the most basic values in medicine is not to cause more harm than help: sometimes the side effects of drugs do just that. ::: Respect for the truth is another basic value and so is respect for the environment. ::: There are individual values, community values, social values, and environmental values. ::: Unless the brown brogue action is specifically directed toward doing something directly in these areas, the minimum requirement is to avoid doing harm. ::: If a person is in good standing in a community, then to destroy that standing unreasonably is causing harm to the community. ::: To arrest a person as publicly as possible causes such harm. ::: An arrested person is not yet a convicted person (that is for the courts to decide), so there is no justification for this harm. ::: Should brown brogue action attempt to create benefits or positive values as such? ::: Probably not, unless this is the specific purpose of the action. ::: A slight additional effort may be able to create such additional values, but it is usually difficult enough to achieve the main objective of the brown brogue action, and blurring one objective with another may confuse the action and make it less effective. ::: What is good sense? ::: In hindsight, everything that works out well can be attributed to common sense and any failure to lack of common sense. ::: Good sense and common sense are most easily visible in hindsight when everything has been worked out. ::: It is not unlike standing beside a roulette table when the number twenty-three comes up. ::: If you had had the good sense to put your money on number twenty-three, then you would have won a lot of money. ::: Hindsight is easy. ::: So a plea for common sense is usually pointless. ::: Good sense is a combination of sensitivity, priorities, and practicality. ::: Sensitivity means clear understanding of the situation and of the people involved. ::: This is a matter of perception and also of trying out different perceptions. ::: This sensitivity does not mean sympathy or compassion but an understanding of what is going on. ::: Establishing priorities is very much part of brown brogue action. ::: Without a good sense of priorities it is difficult to lay down the necessary action steps. ::: Priorities set objectives and guidelines for action. ::: What do you want to achieve? ::: What matters most? ::: What needs to be done first? ::: The final component of good sense is practicality. ::: This is an acknowledgment of what is actually doable. ::: You might like to do some things, but they may not be feasible. ::: What can actually be done? ::: This should not give rise to a sense of timidity and the setting of timid objectives. ::: The sense of practicality extends to a feeling of what is likely. ::: What is likely to happen? ::: How is the situation likely to evolve? ::: What is the likely reaction to an intervention? ::: To some extent this assessment of what is likely depends on experience and understanding human nature. ::: But even a simple pause to ask, "What is the most likely outcome here?" can make a significant difference. ::: It is important to distinguish between the likely and the possible. ::: There are times when the possible does indeed happen, but in general you are going to be better off aiming for the likely. ::: What are good principles? ::: That the end cannot justify the means is a basic principle. ::: A concern for the truth is both a principle and a value. ::: There are general moral principles such as these and also practical principles of action. ::: The latter might include the need to define your role, your resources, and your objectives. ::: Another practical principle is to define the action mode that you want to use. ::: Is it really brown action mode, or might it be a purple action mode? ::: Being reliable when others have to depend on you is a further important principle. ::: These guidelines for behavior in the brown brogue action mode may seem much like the guidelines for training the perfect person who acts appropriately on every occasion. ::: This is true but refers to only one of the six action modes. ::: The pragmatic nature of brown brogue action requires a double sensitivity: ::: 1. A sensitivity to the situation. ::: 2. A sensitivity to guiding principles. ::: This is the definition of pragmatic behavior. ::: The other five action modes do not have this characteristic. ::: Chapter 26: Initiative ::: Since there are no formal rules of procedure, then a person in the brown brogue action mode needs to use initiative. ::: Analyze the situation and determine priorities and objectives. ::: Behave in the most obvious and established way. ::: This depends on a personal repertoire of action steps provided by experience. ::: If the action does not work, then try another approach. ::: Always do the obvious thing first unless you are sure that surprise is important. ::: There may be a place for creativity if the value of a creative approach is high and the cost of failure low. ::: Is this the right situation in which to risk a new and untried approach? ::: Patterns of action depend on individual personalities and styles. ::: The extrovert may behave in a way that is different from the introvert. ::: No one pattern is right for everyone. ::: That is the difference between the navy action mode and the brown action mode. ::: With the navy action mode there is one routine that has to be used by everyone. ::: Brown action mode is more customized and more individualized. ::: Because brown action mode is individual, there is training value in discussing what has been done in debriefing sessions. ::: Why did you do that? ::: What did you do next? ::: In sales training colleagues quickly learn from the behavior of a master salesperson because there is a tangible measure of success (the sales volume). ::: This instant measurement of success is more difficult to find in other fields. ::: So training should include an acknowledgment of the success of the action. ::: This acknowledgment may be based on many criteria-effectiveness, speed, simplicity, low cost, low risk. ::: All these aspects need to be discussed. ::: Brown action mode does not mean having to create an action pattern from scratch on each occasion. ::: When you get up in the morning, you have a choice of clothes to wear (as distinct from having to wear a uniform). ::: So the brown action operator may choose from a range of available action patterns. ::: But the choice is up to the operator. ::: Chapter 27: Use of the Brown Brogue Action Mode ::: "There is no set way of doing this. ::: Keep your head. ::: Be practical. ::: Use the brown brogue mode. ::: Make your decisions as you go along." ::: "He's fine in routine situations. ::: A great navy action person. ::: But not so good at the brown brogue stuff. ::: He does not seem to have any common sense." ::: "We are going to put the books aside and use the brown brogue mode. ::: You know, practical and moment-to-moment action depending on what we find. ::: We have our objectives and our priorities for guides." ::: "I liked the way you used your initiative. ::: That was a very good example of brown brogue action mode. ::: You are getting pretty good at it." ::: "What do we do now? ::: I don't yet know. ::: We'll wait and see how the situation develops and then decide what to do. ::: Brown brogue stuff." ::: "I am sorry I just froze up. ::: I couldn't think of a thing to do. ::: I guess I am not very good at this brown brogue action mode." ::: "Yes, that is a reasonable plan of action. ::: You can try it, but if you find it does not work then switch to the brown brogue action mode." ::: "There are times when doing nothing at all is the correct brown brogue action mode." ::: "She is totally the wrong sort of person for that job. ::: She has no feel for situations. ::: She does not understand what is meant by pragmatism. ::: She wants to do everything by the book. ::: But the book does not cover all situations. ::: She just does not seem happy with brown brogue action." ::: Chapter 28: Source of Brown Brogue Action ::: Brown brogue action is determined in the first place by the needs of the situation. ::: What are you there for? ::: What are you trying to do? ::: What sort of situation is it? ::: Brown brogue action is, above all, responsive to the situation. ::: Brown brogue action follows a simple analysis, understanding, or appreciation of the situation. ::: What is going on? ::: How is it likely to develop? ::: What are the sensitive points in the situation? ::: What are the action points? ::: What are the needs? ::: Brown brogue action requires simple initiatives. ::: Keep things as simple as possible. ::: Do the obviousexcept in a conflict situation where surprise may have a benefit. ::: Don't try to be clever. ::: Prefer to be practical. ::: Brown brogue action draws on your experience and also the experience of others. ::: What action patterns are available to you? ::: What did you do in the past in similar situations? ::: Although brown brogue action is responsive to the situation, always try to be in control of the situation. ::: Avoid letting the situation get out of control so that you are carried along and have to respond to the initiatives of others. ::: Chapter 29: What Should Brown Brogue Action Be Like? and Exercises ::: Brown brogue action should be simple, practical, and effective. ::: There is nothing more to be said. ::: Everything is covered in those three words. ::: Use them to test any brown brogue actions: ::: • Are the actions simple enough? ::: • Are the actions practical (doable)? ::: • Are the actions likely to be effective? ::: If the answers to these three questions are not an easy yes, then think again. ::: Brown brogue action is not mindless action. ::: It includes the thinking necessary to choose suitable actions. ::: Exercises ::: For each of the following situations suggest a brown brogue course of action. ::: A father asks your advice because he suspects his son is a thief. ::: You are waiting patiently in a line when some newcomers move directly to the head of the line. ::: You are in a public meeting that is constantly interrupted by someone with a grievance who makes the same point over and over again. ::: You are in a store and notice that the man in front of you is stealing some of the merchandise. ::: At a party one of the guests gets drunk and wants to pick a fight with you. ::: A neighbor always parks her car so that it blocks the entrance to your garage. ::: When you come back late at night, you are unable to get into your garage. ::: Someone unknown is spreading false rumors that your business is in difficulties and is likely to go bankrupt. ::: You are driving a distance of fifty miles to get to an important meeting for which you cannot be late. ::: After twenty miles you hear a strange sound coming from the back of the car. ::: What do you do? ::: Chapter 30: Brown Brogue Action Style ::: The style is low key and practical. ::: You don't go in with any set plan, but you assess the situation moment to moment and act accordingly. ::: The emphasis is on practicality and effectiveness. ::: You do what is doable. ::: There is a need for a clear sense of objectives and a clear sense of priorities. ::: Within these guidelines you determine your actions. ::: Take initiatives and don't be passive. ::: Keep control of the situation. ::: Be sensitive to changes in the situation. ::: Give yourself space for action and fallback positions in case things do not work out as intended. ::: Have plans, but don't be trapped by them. ::: Be flexible: if the situation changes, then adjust to that change. ::: Keep your head and use it. ::: Pragmatism is the key aspect of brown brogue action. ::: Chapter 31: Summary ::: Think of brown earth and down to earth. ::: Think of mud and messy situations. ::: Think of the practicality of brogues, which are hard-wearing shoes suitable for most occasions. ::: The result is brown brogue action mode that is low key and practical. ::: Assess the situation, and then act on your own initiative. ::: Your actions will be guided by basic values, principles, good sense, and a feel for what is possible. ::: The emphasis is always on simplicity, practicality, and effectiveness. ::: Over time you will build up basic action patterns: pick and choose from these as the situation requires. ::: A strong sense of priorities and likelihood is useful in guiding your choice of action. ::: Be pragmatic, and be flexible. ::: Keep in control of the situation even as you adjust to it. ::: In brown brogue mode you watch and you act. ::: Introduction ::: Day-to-day shoes for most occasions ::: The emphasis is on practicality, pragmatism, and good sense ::: Action is determined moment to moment by the actual situation ::: Quite often the situation falls outside established routine or training ::: Flexibility is a key aspect ::: You change your behavior as the situation changes ::: If you cannot do what you set out to do ::: You change your objective ::: There is no rigidity ::: You do what can be done ::: You do what you can do ::: It is low key and unspectacular ::: There is something to do ::: You do it ::: Good sense, common sense, and a little wisdom are required ::: General experience ::: Can help ::: But may have set up bad habits of behavior ::: That interfere with true flexibility (that is required) ::: Can trap people in routines of … ::: perception ::: and behavior ::: Can lead to navy formal shoe behavior ::: Can help prevent overreaction ::: Can provide a sense of perspective ::: Can provide a sort of calmness in coping ::: It is “get your hands dirty” action ::: Without thinking there would only be mindless action, but the thinking is directed to what can be done in the moment ::: The general skills of doing come under brown brogue action ::: Operacy ::: Assessing priorities ::: Guessing well ::: The examples ::: The window seat ::: Plane status ::: Drink boxes ::: Writing a book while flying ::: Moving you tie when you eat ::: Brown brogue action is not heroics but small practical things that come together to give effectiveness ::: Pragmatism ::: The pragmatic use of principles ::: You do what can be done to achieve an objective and put as must emphasis on practicality as on principles ::: Action without principles is dangerous and intolerable in a civilized society because principles help society control action ::: Concerned with were an action might lead ::: With the effect or consequence of the action ::: But it does not say anything is acceptable as long as the outcome is positive ::: Should be contrasted with arrogance ::: often based on principles ::: “I am sure that what I am doing is right, and I do not care what the #consequences might be” ::: Means being sensitive to … ::: a situation ::: the people involved in the situation ::: what is practical ::: Is the art of the possible ::: Politicians are pragmatic people ::: Expediency ::: Effectiveness ::: The rareness of simple effectiveness ::: Concerned with getting results ::: The difference between efficiency and effectiveness ::: Efficiency is a balance between input and output ::: There is an effort to cut down on input and output ::: Effectiveness means making sure that the resources are available to get the results that you want ::: If the resources are not sufficient to allow you to do everything that you need to do ::: List priorities ::: Go down that list as far as you can ::: Make sure that each item you tackle is done effectively (did he mean efficiently) ::: Effectiveness means focusing directly on what you want to achieve ::: rather than the balance between input and output ::: It is a good habit to ask at every step, what is the most effective course of action here? ::: What is the basis of brown brogue action? ::: A combination of good values, good sense, and good principles ::: Good values ::: Human respect (an example) ::: Avoidance of bullying, pressure, extortion, torture, prejudice ::: A practical aspect of the love that religions advocate ::: Unwilling to cause harm ::: Respect for the truth ::: Individual values ::: Community values ::: Social values ::: Environmental values ::: Unless the brown brogue action is specifically directed toward doing something directly is these areas the minimum requirement is to avoid doing harm ::: Should brown brogue action attempt to create benefits or positive values as such? ::: Probably not unless this is the specific purpose of the action ::: A slight additional effort may be able to create such additional values, but it is usually difficult enough to achieve the main objective of brown brogue action, and blurring one objective with another may confuse the action and make it less effective ::: Good sense ::: Combination of sensitivity, priorities, and practicality ::: Sensitivity ::: Clear understanding of the situation and of the people involved ::: This is a matter of perception and also of trying out different perceptions ::: Does not mean sympathy or compassion ::: Means an understanding of what is going on ::: Priorities ::: Establishing priorities ::: Needed to lay down the action steps ::: They set objectives and guidelines for action ::: What do we want to achieve? ::: What matters most? ::: What needs to be done first? ::: Practicality ::: An acknowledgement of what is actually doable ::: You might like to do some things, but they may not be feasible ::: What can actually be done? ::: This should not give rise to a sense of timidity and the setting of timid objectives ::: The sense of practicality extends to a feeling of what is likely ::: What is likely to happen? ::: How is the situation likely to evolve? ::: What is the likely reaction to an intervention? ::: To some extent this assessment of what is likely depends on experience and understanding human nature. ::: But even a simple pause to ask, “What is the most likely outcome here?” can make a significant difference ::: It is important to distinguish between the likely and the possible ::: There are times when the possible does indeed happen ::: But in general you are going to be better off aiming for the likely ::: Good principles ::: The end cannot justify the means is a basic principle ::: A concern for the truth is both a principle and a value ::: There are general moral principles such as these ::: And also practical principles of action ::: The need to define … ::: your role ::: your resources ::: your objectives ::: To define the action mode you want to use ::: Is it really brown brogue action? ::: Or might it be a purple action mode ::: Being reliable when others have to depend on you is a further important principle ::: These guidelines for behavior ::: May seem much like the guidelines for training the perfect person who action appropriately on every occasion ::: This is true but refers to only one of the six action modes ::: The pragmatic nature of brown brogue action requires a double sensitivity: ::: To the situation ::: To guiding principles ::: This is the definition of pragmatic behavior ::: Initiative ::: Since there are not formal rules of procedure, then a person in the brown brogue action needs to use initiative ::: Analyze the situation ::: Determine priorities and objectives ::: Behave in the most obvious and established way ::: This depends on a personal repertoire of action steps provided by experience ::: If the action does not work, then try another approach ::: Always do the obvious thing first ::: Unless you are sure that surprise is important ::: There may be a place for creativity if the value of a creative approach is high and the cost of failure low ::: Is this the right situation in which to risk a new and untried approach? ::: Patterns of action depend on individual personalities and style ::: The extrovert may behave in a way that is different from the introvert ::: No one pattern is right for everyone ::: That is the difference between the navy action mode and the brown action mode ::: Because brown action mode is individual, there is training value in discussing what has been done in debriefing sessions ::: Why did you do that? ::: What did you do next? ::: The instant measurement of success is more difficult to find in other fields ::: So training should include an acknowledgement of the success of the action ::: This acknowledgement may be based on many criteria ::: Effectiveness ::: Speed ::: Simplicity ::: Low cost ::: Low risk ::: All the aspects need to be discussed ::: Brown brogue mode does not mean having to create an action pattern from scratch on each occasion ::: When you get up in the morning ::: You have a choice of clothes to wear ::: As distinct from having to wear a uniform ::: So the brown action operator may choose from a range of available action patterns ::: But the choice is up to the operator ::: Use of brown brogue action ::: A list of quotes ::: Source of brown brogue action ::: Brown brogue action is determined in the first place by the needs of the situation ::: What are you there for? ::: What are you trying to do? ::: What sort of situation is it? ::: Brown brogue action follows a simple analysis, understanding, or appreciation of the situation ::: What is going on? ::: How is it likely to develop? ::: What are the sensitive points in the situation? ::: What are the action points? ::: What are the needs? ::: Brown brogue action requires simple initiatives ::: Keep things as simple as possible ::: Do the obvious ::: Except in a conflict situation where surprise may have a benefit ::: Don’t try to be clever ::: Prefer to be practical ::: Brown brogue action draws on your experience and also the experience of others ::: What action patterns are available to you? ::: What did you do in the past in similar situations? ::: Although brown brogue action is responsive to the situation, always try to be in control of the situation ::: Avoid letting the situation get out of control so that you are carried along and have to respond to the initiatives of others ::: What should brown brogue action be like? and Exercises ::: Brown brogue action should be simple, practical, and effective ::: Are my action simple enough? ::: Are the actions practical (doable)? ::: Are the actions likely to be effective? ::: If the answers to these three questions are not an easy yes ::: Then think again ::: Brown brogue action is not mindless action ::: It includes the thinking necessary to choose suitable actions ::: Brown brogue action style ::: Low key and practical ::: You don’t go in with any set plan ::: Assess the situation moment to moment ::: Act accordingly ::: The emphasis on practicality and effectiveness ::: You do what is doable ::: There is a need for a clear sense of objectives and a clear sense of priorities ::: With these guidelines you determine your actions ::: Take initiatives and don’t be passive ::: Keep control of the situation ::: Be sensitive to changes in the situation ::: Give yourself space for action and fallback positions in case things do not work out as intended ::: Have plans, but don’t be trapped by them ::: Be flexible ::: If the situation changes ::: Then adjust to that change ::: Keep your head and use it ::: Pragmatism is the key aspect of brown brogue action ::: Summary of brown brogue action ::: Think of brown earth and down to earth ::: Think of mud and messy situations ::: Think of the practicality of brogues ::: Mode is low key and practical ::: Assess the situation, and then act on your own initiative ::: Your actions will be guided by basic values, principles, good sense, and a feel for what is possible ::: The emphasis is always on simplicity, practicality, and effectiveness ::: Over time you will build up basic action patterns: pick and choose from these as the situation requires ::: A strong sense of priorities and likelihood is useful in guiding your choice of action ::: Be pragmatic and flexible ::: Keep in control of the situation even as you adjust to it ::: You watch and you act ::: Orange gumboots ::: Introduction ::: Once something is classified as an emergency, then priorities change ::: There are new rules for action ::: For most people these are rare situations ::: People where emergencies are a part of their daily lives ::: Police, fire fighters ::: Business crises due to financial problems or personnel problems ::: Domestic crisis ::: Any situation that threatens danger requires orange gumboot action ::: To the people within the situation ::: In a fight or an attempted suicide ::: To innocent people what are not responsible in any way for the situation ::: Flood ::: An accident involving a vehicle carrying toxic material ::: To people who are tackling problems ::: Fire fighters in a forest blaze ::: Police officers in a drug raid ::: Accidents of any sort usually require an orange gumboot response ::: Because speed is essential to … ::: save human lives ::: and limit the damage ::: We accept a degree of risk in order for society to function effectiv ::: We try to minimize risk ::: But risks do remain ::: Especially the natural disaster risks like … ::: Characteristic of emergency situations ::: Basic features ::: A danger to human life or lives is present ::: Events happen quickly ::: The situation is unstable ::: The situation is unpredictable ::: Action of some sort is required urgently ::: Someone usually can be blames in an emergency ::: When the emergency is over, some people claim that it could have been handled differently ::: Standard reaction patterns are ineffective because each situation is unique ::: Emotions are heavily activated ::: Impotence often characterizes the situation ::: Many of the about characteristics apply only to major emergencies ::: Minor emergencies are just as real as major emergencies ::: Routine of police and fire departments ::: Lack the extra pressures caused by medial and political involvement ::: Characteristics that apply to all emergencies ::: Threat of danger or harm ::: Rapid onset or quick acceleration of the situation ::: The situation is unstable ::: The situation is unpredictable ::: Action of some sort is required urgently ::: Standard reaction patterns are ineffective because each situation is unique ::: Emotions are heavily activated ::: Classification of the situation ::: The spectrum of emergency situations ::: Ranges … ::: From those that are clearly orange mode in nature ::: To others that have elements of orange mode ::: Many situations may be a mixture of orange and brown modes ::: A situation also may suddenly change into orange mode if a human life is endangered ::: Most organizations have ways of classifying and labeling major emergency situations ::: Red alert ::: Orange gumboot mode applies to a wider variety of situations ::: Because it describes not the situation but the action mode ::: Once a situation is classified as requiring orange gumboot action ::: Then the nature of the situation is set ::: and the priorities are determined ::: The basic priority is to remove, contain, or minimize the danger ::: At this point other considerations are less important ::: The focus become clear ::: What is the existing danger? ::: What are the potential dangers? ::: How can the dangers be removed, contained, or minimized? ::: Auto accident example ::: Cars may pile up ::: People may suffer unless they get medical attention quickly ::: Guidelines for orange mode action ::: Eleven guidelines ::: Assess the existing situation as accurately as possible ::: Determine what needs to be known (and how it can be found out) ::: and how it can be found out ::: Assess the potential development of the situation in terms of what is likely and what is possible ::: Assess the existing and potential dangers to the people ::: directly involved ::: innocent bystanders ::: those who intervene ::: the environment ::: property ::: Some people may wish to consider the political effects ::: Determine who needs to be involved, who is in charge, and the line of communication between the various parties involved ::: Set up methods of decision making and planning ::: Avoid actions that might make things worse ::: Decide on a strategy, but be prepared to change or modify the strategy if it is not working or if events demand a change ::: Avoid overreacting to every change and following events instead of taking the initiative ::: You may need two parallel strategies ::: One strategy may minimize and contain the danger (evacuating people in danger) ::: The second strategy may tackle the cause of the danger directly, in cases where this is possible ::: Develop and review a variety of action options ::: Some actions may not solve the crisis but may tilt the balance the right way ::: Some actions may put you in a better position if things move in a certain direction ::: Think ahead to deal with eventualities ::: Reassess the situation periodically, even when nothing new has happened ::: Reassess when there is a development or change in circumstances ::: Never panic or permit others panic ::: Panic never improves the quality of the actions of those involved ::: People who do not fully appreciate the danger in which they have been placed must be informed—but without causing panic ::: Formulate a strategy for dealing with public announcements and the media ::: This is required in certain circumstances ::: This requires direct attention and coordination among the involved ::: At times waiting it out is the best strategy ::: as in hostage situations ::: People tire and moods change ::: so waiting it out instead of taking precipitate action may be the better choice ::: In other situations ::: Waiting is not an option ::: because the situation is likely to worsen ::: It is difficult to justify inaction when things do get worse ::: At the very beginning of a crisis a spontaneous reaction might avert the crisis, but once the crisis is established, there is probably no room for spontaneity ::: Actions need to be designed, planned, and assessed ::: There is room for hunches and intuition ::: Provided these do not increase the danger ::: and provided there is a strong fallback position if the initiative fails ::: In conflict situations you may need to apply the techniques of negotiation ::: These involve … ::: Perceptions ::: Values ::: Expectations ::: and power ::: Important parts of negotiation are … ::: establishing trust and communication ::: and designing action options ::: Courage ::: Orange action modes requires courage of all sorts ::: Physical courage ::: Make a decision and follow a strategy knowing that things may not work out as hoped ::: Background courage of acting and knowing that the safety of others depends on your thinking and your actions ::: Courage (defined) ::: does not mean deliberating embracing risks ::: as in a Hollywood tough-guy movie: “I’m going in there.” ::: involves minimizing and avoiding risks ::: Entrepreneurs and risk ::: Many hated risks ::: Tried hard to have the odds stacked in their favor ::: See page 97 ::: Risk ::: The risks of any action need to be weighted against the risks of inaction ::: In some cases inaction is not very visible ::: In an emergency situation inaction is very visible as a form of action ::: 3 types of risk associated with action ::: The action will cause more harm and damage ::: This is the big danger ::: Where other people are involved ::: the other party may panic with disastrous results ::: It will fail to achieve its purpose ::: If an action can fail with … then there is little risk in trying it ::: no negative effects ::: no resetting of the situation ::: no closing off of further options ::: Fear of failure should not be a bar to action in such cases ::: “Will this make things worse if it does not succeed? ::: It will close off further options ::: Back-up and fallback positions ::: Risk is reduced if a backup position is designed to be implements should the initial operation falter ::: Sometimes ::: This new and secure fallback position can be designed as a secondary objective ::: “If we don’t reach the main objective, then we’ll try for this secondary objective.” ::: In general … are on the side of the orange mode operator ::: resources ::: thinking power ::: time ::: initiative ::: These benefits should therefore be used carefully ::: Resources include access to expert opinion in fields such as ::: psychology ::: chemistry ::: Design is a key word ::: Design means bringing resources to the emergency in a systematic manner ::: Design is impeded when too many people are involved in decision making ::: Advice should be take from many people ::: But designs and decisions are best left to one person or a small group ::: A good design is not a democratic consensus ::: Every action taken should fit into the design ::: In the orange gumboot mode ::: There is a greater need for strategy and design ::: Than in the brown brogue mode (which is more reactive) ::: If the disaster is major ::: Then it is important to review the available concepts ::: What are these concepts? ::: How can they be carried through? ::: There may be a need for … ::: new concepts ::: deliberate creative thinking ::: for some green hat thinking ::: What should orange mode thinking be like? ::: This is our assessment of the current situation ::: These are the existing dangers ::: and these are the potential dangers that might develop ::: These are the practical actions that can be taken right now to reduce (contain) the danger (to people, environment, property) ::: This is our overall strategy ::: We shall review it from time to time to see how it is working ::: and how it fits changing circumstances ::: We have obtained expert advice in the following matters ::: We are working with the following groups, and the lines of communication are as follows ::: These are the alternatives we have considered and the reasons we have put them aside for the moment ::: We assess the risks as follows. ::: We assess the chances of success as follows ::: Design for action ::: Orange mode actions need to be designed ::: The routine approach of the navy shoes cannot be applied ::: The free initiative of the brown brogue is not rigorous enough ::: There is a need to take grey sneaker action to collect information ::: and then to move into orange mode ::: and design a strategy ::: Simply thinking of the ultimate objective is not enough ::: Every subobjective and every step toward the objectives must be designed ::: The means must be specified as well as the ends ::: Alternative steps have to be … ::: generated ::: considered ::: assessed ::: The possible outcomes of each step must be examined ::: The priorities of the orange mode are very clear ::: Minimize the danger ::: Everything is assessed against this priority ::: As in chess steps may be taken to create a situation in which the final step will be effective ::: Every advantage is worth having ::: but it is not worth going for a short-term advantage ::: if this has a long-term negative consequence ::: Getting the situation under control is the first step ::: Until the situation is under control ::: action is going to be haphazard ::: Carrying through orange mode action ::: Requires … ::: control ::: decisiveness ::: a unified strategy ::: All those involved need to work as a team ::: Different opinions can be put forward up to the moment of a decision ::: But after that there should be cooperation ::: Modifications to moment-to-moment tactics can be suggested as long as the benefits are clearly stated ::: If such modification are rejected ::: They stay rejected ::: Everyone needs to know exactly what is to be done and who is to do it ::: The … need to be worked out in detail ::: backup ::: follow-through ::: fall-back actions ::: and the point at which they come into play ::: Contingencies are thought through, and provision is made for a change of plan should this be required ::: In the case of totally unexpected events some sort of stabilization plan needs to be prepared ::: People crises and exercises ::: People crises ::: When the emergency or crisis involves people ::: Then an understanding of psychology may be required ::: This may mean understanding the behavior of … ::: an individual ::: certain groups ::: certain situations ::: Understanding perceptions, values, emotions is important ::: It is difficult to empathize with people with different personal styles ::: but this must be attempted ::: The strategies and psychology of negotiation may be needed ::: Time and the use of time are important ::: In the end most people crises are solved through shifts in perception ::: either of the reality of the situation or of the future ::: Changes in perception precede changes in behavior and changes in emotion ::: Changes in perception are much more powerful than logic arguments ::: It is necessary to develop perceptions and present the possibility of alternative perceptions ::: Once an alternative perception is presented ::: it may not be accepted ::: but it can’t be unthought ::: Because perceptions are fragile ::: and can easily be destroyed by a false move ::: it is important for a single person to be in charge ::: Where people are involved ::: then trust, credibility, and personality play a big part ::: It may be necessary to change the people involved in order to begin a dialogue ::: Egos, pride, and turf battles are counter-productive when orange mode action is needed ::: Exercises ::: Orange gumboot action style ::: Emergency of crisis action ::: Accepting the need for orange gumboot action mode ::: Assessing the situation, the dangers, and the possible developments ::: Clear sense of priorities ::: Which means removing, containing, or reducing the danger ::: Everything is directed toward this purpose ::: Clear understanding who is in control and the lines of communication ::: Designing a detailed strategy for action ::: Planning the steps and also the fallback positions ::: Assessing the risks of any action and also the risks of inaction ::: Using expert help where possible ::: Assessing the likelihood of success ::: Putting the strategy into action ::: Everyone knowing what has to be done and who is going to do it ::: Periodically reassessing the situation ::: Modifying or even changing strategy as required ::: A main characteristic of the style is focus ::: On the danger ::: On ways of reducing that danger ::: Summary of orange gumboot action ::: Orange is a vivid color suggesting warning and alarm ::: Gumboots are worn by fire fighters and emergency teams ::: They are not normal everyday wear ::: So the orange gumboot action mode is concerned with emergencies, crisis, and dangers ::: It focus and priorities are clear ::: reducing the danger ::: The situation and the dangers involved need to be assessed carefully ::: A strategy and action steps for carrying through that strategy need to be designed ::: It is within this tight framework of defined action steps that action takes place ::: The risks of action and inaction are constantly reassessed within a framework of coordinated action rather than the ad hoc initiative of the brown brogue mode ::: There may be a range of situations ::: From those that obviously require orange gumboot mode to those that have some orange elements ::: Focus, urgency, and sense of priorities characterize orange gumboot action ::: Pink slippers ::: Introduction ::: Has to do with human … ::: feelings ::: compassion ::: sympathy ::: tender loving care ::: People caring for people … ::: is the essence of a family ::: defines a successful community ::: is the basis of civilization ::: The human caring values advocated in all religions are in pink slipper mode ::: Applies to all action involving human feelings and human caring ::: Some situations are pure pink slipper mode, but as with the orange mode, many situations have some pink slipper aspects ::: Only where a special caring element needs emphasizing does the pink slipper mode need to be spelled out ::: Many pragmatic situations require on brown brogue and one pink slipper ::: What is caring? ::: Is caring a matter of … ::: sympathy, compassion, and understanding ::: or the actions that go with these feelings ::: Active caring ::: The intention to care ::: and the actions that arise from this intention ::: Is it necessary to have a strong understanding of psychology or human nature in order to show caring? ::: Certainly not ::: Caring is a human emotion and not an intellectual exercise ::: Caring and action ::: Usually takes one of two forms ::: Adds an element of human caring and human compassion to other actions ::: Modifies other actions ::: Pink slipper mode as the prime activity ::: Comforting victims of an accident (may be a pure pink slipper behavior) ::: Dealing with an unhappy customer ::: Intervention in domestic disputes ::: The practical nature of the actions will vary with situations, but it includes such fundamentals as the willingness to listen ::: Training for caring ::: People matter ::: Over the last few years business has learned that people matter ::: Motivating employees has become a key element in business success ::: Human resource departments ::: In Search of Excellence ::: Viewing video tapes of poor service ::: Caring means what it says ::: Small gestures can be important ::: They show that someone matters ::: They show that someone cares ::: Calling people by their name ::: Remembering who they are ::: What their interests might be ::: Offering help in small ways ::: Being willing to listen ::: Inquiring about someone’s family ::: Sometimes these sort of things can become overdone ::: The simple process of labeling a situation pink slipper mode creates a particular framework for action ::: Action needs are now perceived in a special way ::: You are alerted to the human aspects ::: People are very good at playing the game that is required of them at the moment ::: But the rules of the game have to be clearly spelled out ::: That is what the six action shoes labeling does ::: It doesn’t mean play-acting, artificiality, or insincerity ::: It is a reminder of the nature of the situation and the action required ::: It is a tangible description of the idiom or feel of a situation ::: It is more powerful to say “Use the pink action mode” than to say “Be compassionate and caring” ::: Levels of caring ::: The possible levels of caring ::: Intention: The desire to care ::: Feeling: Empathy, sympathy ::: Gesture: Visible actions that show caring ::: Action: Actual help and care ::: Action can spring directly from intentions ::: Even if pink slipper action mode is carried through almost as a mechanical routine, it still has value ::: Interaction with other action modes ::: The example of the young person who got involved with the wrong crowd and committed a crime ::: Should not interfere directly ::: Help the family with welfare or support arrangements ::: The pink slipper action supports other actions ::: but usually does not run counter to those actions ::: At times pink slipper sentiments may clash with the formal impersonality of navy shoe routines ::: On such occasions it is necessary to explain the need for the routines ::: Sometimes, especially in brown action mode, pink slipper considerations may override other considerations because they become a central part of the situation ::: The pragmatism and flexibility of the brown brogue action mode would usually be sensitive to pink slipper factors ::: Sometime the main purpose of the action is human caring ::: and then actions are chosen specifically for that purpose ::: The priority is human caring just as the priority in orange mode action is reducing the danger ::: Using the pink slipper action mode ::: Quotes ::: Monsters ::: Some people behave inhumanely ::: The Nazi concentration camps ::: The Japanese prison camps ::: Pink slipper action removes these lines and barriers in order to realize that everyone deserves human care ::: This is not easy, especially if you come to expect equal consideration in return ::: The current business idiom is an attempt to change a perception ::: from “That is a member of the public who must accept what you care ::: to provide” to “That is the customer who really pays your wages” ::: Summary of pink slippers action ::: Pink ::: is a gentle and feminine color ::: suggests humanity and tenderness ::: Slippers ::: suggest comfort and domesticity ::: Has to do with caring ::: but actions show caring ::: Even when the feelings are not there ::: the actions should be carried through ::: There are times when the pink action mode is the main purpose of action ::: as in providing help and care ::: At other times the pink action mode modifies whatever else is being done so that what is done is done in a humane and caring manner ::: The pink action mode is always a reminder that people matter ::: The pink slipper action mode applies to everyone ::: Purple riding boots ::: Introduction ::: An officer is an officer because of the officer role ::: Playing out the purpose of that role is the purple boot action mode ::: Is all about official positions ::: An official position is not a superior on ::: When an official acts within the boundaries of that role ::: Then he or she has more authority that someone without an official role ::: It’s no longer the person who acts but the official role ::: There might even be a conscious separation between the person and the role ::: “Speaking as the principle of this school I am going to have to punish you for violating our discipline code” ::: The role of a judge is to administer justice ::: A good judge carries out that role properly ::: Even though in his or her private life the judge may not always act fairly or reasonably ::: People and their roles ::: Examples ::: Doctor ::: Vicar or priest ::: Village school master ::: Lawyer ::: In the above cases the official role is played by someone with expert training ::: Other official roles, however, have no grounding in expert training ::: A person may be in an official role because there seems to be a need … ::: for that role ::: and for having someone play that role ::: The most suitable person who is eligible or who applies is selected ::: You may object … (but) ::: to need for that role ::: and to the suitability of a particular person to hold the role ::: But ::: The role is there ::: and a person is filling it ::: Society is an organization of people for their mutual benefit ::: Organization require that decisions be made and actions be carried out ::: These needs justify establishing official roles ::: The will of society, as expressed by elected members of a legislature, is implemented by people performing official roles ::: Police officers, fire fighters, judges, school principals ::: Even in communes ::: Someone to wash dishes ::: Someone to carry out the trash ::: Living up to the role ::: Some argue ::: That no person should hide behind an official role ::: to escape personal responsibility for an action ::: Activities may be carried out by a person performing a role ::: rather than by that person as an individual ::: Some argue ::: That people in official roles should behave as they do in private ::: A teacher ::: should be a friend and counselor ::: rather than a teacher and disciplinarian ::: A tax inspector ::: should be a financial consultant ::: A police officer ::: should be a neighborhood watchdog ::: This is a sensible plea for … ::: more humanity ::: more pink slipper action in performing these roles ::: Taken to extremes it becomes impractical ::: The official role give authority and power to some people and not to others ::: Being cautioned or arrested by a police officer is not the same as being cautioned or arrested by an ordinary person ::: Actors and actresses are sometimes shy in ordinary life ::: They enjoy being on stage and losing their personality in the identity of the character they are playing ::: They pick up one role and put it down at the end of a performance ::: Judges ::: The abuse of something does not destroy its value ::: The petty tyrannies of some officials do not destroy the value of official roles ::: The role is bigger that the person because it has been identified by society as necessary ::: Can perform actions that might be impossible for them to perform without their role ::: The role magnifies innate abilities because it clearly defines how a particular ability is to be used ::: Navy action mode has a clear guide to behavior: carry out the routine ::: Grey action mode has a clear objective: collect information and use it ::: Orange action mode has clear priorities: reduce the danger ::: Pink action mode has clear objectives: care for people ::: Where is brown ::: Purple action mode also has clear guidelines: act according to your duties ::: An actor or actress performs on a stage ::: The person in purple action mode acts a part ::: There is no need to be embarrassed or apologetic about playing roles ::: Nor is there any value in always being in the purple action mode ::: That would be unnecessary and tedious to everyone ::: But when required ::: A person should be able to switch into the purple action mode ::: and act with the power and authority of that mode ::: Role and responsibility ::: With the power of a role also goes the responsibility of that role ::: Japanese CEO resignation ::: Where to draw the line between carrying out orders and doing wrong ::: If orders are illegal or criminal ::: Then they should not be carried out ::: If a country enacts laws that sanction behavior others regard as criminal ::: and if the behavior infringes on human rights ::: or is contrary to a generally accepted concept of natural law (meaning that in most countries it would be illegal) ::: Then purple action is no defense ::: No role takes a person above the law ::: Nor does any role relieve a person from being a human being first and official second ::: The roles is an enhancement of the person as a human being and as a member of society ::: and therefore those performing roles are bound by all the rules, laws, and considerations that apply to private individuals ::: If an official role requires you to act according to the laws of society and you still disapprove of the actions your role requires you to take, then you should resign from the role. You also should campaign to change the role’s responsibilities ::: Interaction with other action modes ::: Difference between Navy action mode and Purple action mode ::: In Navy action mode a routine is performed step by step ::: A clerk may ask a person to fill out a routine form ::: but has no authority to require that person to fill out the form ::: In the purple mode the person performs the role without referring to formal steps ::: It is almost brown action mode ::: but shaped by the character of the role ::: the nature of the role guides behavior ::: In the purple action mode a person can use initiative just as in the brown brogue mode ::: The navy action mode and the purple action mode overlap when an official caries out a formal routine ceremony ::: On occasion there also may be a close synergy between the purple action mode and the orange mode ::: Because the leadership and authority conferred by the role may be useful in emergency situations ::: When there is no time to establish personal leadership, the official role provides automatic leadership ::: The purple and the brown action modes sometimes harmonize and sometimes clash ::: Pragmatic brown action mode may be needed even when in purple action mode ::: At other times the low-key brown brogue approach may be subverted by an insistence on purple action rights ::: The pink action mode may help soften the harshness of the purple action mode ::: No role is designed to make people inhuman ::: But the pink mode may remind role players of their humanity ::: In a clash between the demands of the pink mode and the purple mode ::: the purple normally takes precedence ::: The grey sneaker mode is sometimes enhanced by the purple boot mode and sometimes inhibited ::: Sometimes obtaining certain types of information is easier when asking from an official position ::: but sometimes it may be inhibited by an official role ::: Use of the purple boot mode ::: Quotations ::: Carrying out purple boot behavior and exercises ::: There are two main requirements for carrying out purple boot behavior ::: The behavior must be clearly signaled ::: The behavior must be consistent ::: Purple riding boot action style ::: The style is authoritarian but civilized ::: The role player makes it clear when the official role is being performed ::: It is necessary to signal this role playing ::: and to remain consistently within the role ::: The duties, obligations, and expectations of the role provide guidelines for behavior ::: Behavior is firm, neutral, and fair ::: Those performing the role don’t need their actions to be liked all the time ::: but tyranny and bullying are unacceptable ::: Most important, the person acting in this mode must make clear that he or she is acting out a role and then must behave according to that role ::: To pretend to assume the role and then to act in a way that is inconsistent with that role leads to confusion and devalues the role function ::: Summary of purple riding boot action ::: Purple is an imperial color and suggests authority ::: Riding boots are used for special occasions ::: The purple riding boot action mode indicated that a person is acting in the capacity of an official role. ::: An individual is not acting: the role is acting ::: Indeed, the person consistently acts out the role ::: Behavior is guided by the behavior expected of that role ::: It is important to signal this role behavior and to act consistently with the role ::: Within these limits there is room for initiative ::: Combination of shoes ::: No formal framework for combining the different modes of action ::: See discussion of individual shoes for more suggestions ::: Types ::: Balanced combination ::: The situation demands an equal measure of two different modes ::: The uncertain situation ::: The balance of action may tip one way or the other. ::: Two colors are needed to cover the possibilites ::: A modifying situation ::: One action modes dominates but another action mode acts as a modifier :::  ::: It is also possible to have flavors of more than two colors in a situation ::: Doing so begins to dilute the effectiveness of the method ::: In practice, situations are rarely pure examples of one or another action mode. ::: There is no need to specify all possible combinations ::: It is usually enough to indicated the dominant action mode ::: even when the situation is not pure ::: Combination examples ::: ONE OF THE ADVANTAGES OF USING THE shoe metaphor is that we normally wear a pair of shoes. Although in real life it would be unconventional to wear one pink slipper and one orange gumboot, we can combine action modes when an action seems to call for a response that has both pink and orange elements. ::: There is no formal framework for combining the different modes of action. In discussing each of the shoes I have provided suggestions and examples of combinations, and I offer more in this section. ::: 1. Balanced combination: The situation demands an equal measure of two different action modes. ::: "This is very much a pink slipper and brown brogue situation." ::: "I want you to go in there with one purple boot and one orange gumboot." ::: "We want to make only official inquiries, so one grey sneaker and one navy shoe." ::: "Make your inquiries, but do it gently-grey sneaker with pink slipper." ::: 2. An uncertain situation: The balance of action may tip one way or the other. Two colors are needed to cover the possibilities. ::: "At this point I just don't know. Things could go either way. Be prepared for brown brogue or pink slipper action: carry them both." ::: "When you get there, you may find that it is more purple boot than orange gumboot. It depends on what happens. Be prepared for either." ::: "Essentially this is a grey sneaker assignment, but it could suddenly become brown brogue if you discover something important." ::: 3. A modifying situation: One action mode dominates but another action mode acts as a modifier. ::: "Straight purple action mode, but keep that pink slipper somewhere in the back of your mind." ::: "Brown brogue. Do what you think necessary. But keep the grey sneaker in mind too. There may be useful information to be picked up." ::: "Go through the navy shoe routine but with a strong flavor of purple boot in the background." ::: Here are some potential combinations of action shoe modes. They are simply suggestions: each pair could have several overlapping definitions. ::: Navy and Grey: Routine and formal inquiries. ::: Navy and Brown: Routine behavior with the possibility of being flexible and using initiative if necessary. ::: Navy and Orange: Routine procedure in an emergency. ::: Navy and Pink: Routine procedures carried out in a gentle manner. ::: Navy and Purple: Routine procedures with the weight of an official role behind them. ::: Grey and Navy: Investigations using formal procedures such as checklists. ::: Grey and Brown: Investigations using initiatives and ad hoc action to obtain more information. ::: Grey and Orange: Investigations in dangerous and sensitive situations, such as infiltration and undercover assignments. ::: Grey and Pink: Investigations using a sensitive and considerate manner to obtain information. ::: Grey and Purple: Investigations using an official position to collect information. ::: Brown and Navy: Practical action that uses flexibility and occasionally routine procedures, even personal routines. ::: Brown and Grey: Practical action that is sensitive to information in order to determine the next action step. ::: Brown and Orange: Practical action in a dangerous or potentially dangerous environment. ::: Brown and Pink: Practical action in a sensitive human situation where feelings and emotions are involved. ::: Brown and Purple: Practical action dealing with different officials and therefore requiring the use of an official position. ::: Orange and Navy: Using standard procedures in an emergency. ::: Orange and Grey: Collecting expert opinion and as much information as possible regarding an emergency. ::: Orange and Brown: Practical moment-to-moment action in a rapidly changing emergency situation before planning becomes possible. ::: Orange and Pink: Dealing with human suffering in an emergency. ::: Orange and Purple: Dealing with officialdom in an emergency; deciding who is in charge. ::: Pink and Navy: Using routines for dealing with delicate situations involving feelings and emotions; can be personal routines. ::: Pink and Grey: Listening and noting in order to offer help and comfort. ::: Pink and Brown: Practical action and initiatives in helping people. ::: Pink and Purple: Using official channels and positions in order to help people. ::: Purple and Navy: Formal behavior as part of an official position. ::: Purple and Grey: Using official statistics and information channels. ::: Purple and Brown: Practical action and individual initiatives within the framework of an official position. ::: Purple and Orange: Giving orders and organizing in emergencies; leadership in a crisis. ::: Purple and Pink: Modifying impersonal official behavior with human sensitivity. ::: It is also possible to have flavors of more than two colors in a situation, but doing so begins to dilute the effectiveness of the method. ::: In practice situations are rarely pure examples of one or another action mode. There is no need to specify all possible combinations. It is usually enough to indicate the dominant action mode, even when the situation is not pure. ::: Action, not description ::: The purpose of the framework is to set the style of the action in advance so that a person can behave within a certain style framework ::: Six action shoes are concerned with what is about to be done ::: Each person should be capable of operating in each of the different modes ::: Just as each person should be capable of using each of the six hats ::: Must resist the tendency to use the six action modes for purposes of description and categorization ::: Simple and practical ::: People who want things to be complicated (see page # 157) ::: Simple things are usable ::: Six hat method is extremely powerful ::: It is not easy to suggest that a person behave in a particular way ::: People may be offended if you tell them to behave in a more caring way ::: The six shoe framework is neutral and offends no one ::: The framework can be seen as a game or ritual ::: People find it easier to follow the rules of a game than to change their personalities ::: The colors and physical nature of the shoes make them easy to visualize and remember ::: Language and terminology ::: Different ways of referring to the six action shoes ::: The imagery is important for the ritual associated with mentally putting on the shoes ::: The framework ::: Six pairs of action shoes ::: Six shoe action framework ::: Six action modes ::: Action mode summary ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Color navy blue. Formal shoes. Navy suggest routines, drills, and formality ::: Navy action mode is for routine behavior ::: Select the appropriate routine ::: Switch into the routine ::: Carry through the routine as perfectly as you can ::: Routines ::: are crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: remove the need to think something through each time ::: reduce the risk of error ::: Go through the routine systematically step by step ::: Use flexibility if you absolutely have to, and return to the routine while you’re using it ::: Routines can be improved and may need changing ::: but that is separate action ::: Don’t seek to improve a routine while you’re using it ::: Although they may appear restrictive in some ways, routines are also liberating because they free you to think about other matters ::: Grey sneakers ::: Shoe description ::: Color grey ::: Sneaker type of shoe ::: Grey suggest grey matter of the brain ::: Grey also suggest fog and mist ::: Sneakers are quiet and casual ::: Action mode is for collecting information and thinking about it ::: That is the prime objective ::: The style is low key and unobtrusive ::: The information is used to clear up the fog and mist suggested by the color grey ::: Sometimes information can be collected in a systematic way by creating a procedure and then following it ::: Sometimes established routines can be followed ::: At other time it may be necessary to have a hunch, a theory, or an hypothesis to start collecting information ::: Collecting information may lead to a theory or hypothesis that then leads to further information collection ::: The purpose of information collection is to be as comprehensive and neutral as possible ::: It is not to support your initial hypothesis ::: It is a good habit to keep at least two hypothesis in mind to avoid being led astray by one hypothesis ::: The final stage of information collection is to check out the most reasonable hypothesis. ::: Avoid clinging to a single hypothesis too early. ::: Brown brogues ::: Shoe description ::: Color is brown ::: Brogue type of shoe ::: Brown is the color of the earth ::: And the action style is down to earth ::: The brogue is a hard-wearing shoe suitable for most occasions ::: The emphasis is on pragmatism and practicality ::: It is a matter of doing what can be done ::: Moment-to-moment adjustment and flexibility in response to the situation are called for ::: Have a clear sense of objectives and priorities ::: Behavior is guided by objectives, priorities, and basic values and principles ::: Behavior is determined by personal initiatives at the moment rather than by formal routines or master plans ::: Be sensitive and respond to the situation ::: But keep in control ::: Don’t just follow ::: Effectiveness and simplicity are important ::: The purpose of any action is to be effective ::: Choose from and combine existing action patterns ::: Do the obvious unless surprise has some particular value ::: Orange gumboots ::: Shoe description ::: Color orange ::: Gumboot style of footwear ::: Orange is the color of danger, fire, explosions ::: Gumboots are work by fire fighters and emergency crews ::: Has to do with emergencies, crises, and dangerous situation ::: When situations are … urgent action is required (if only to get medical attention) ::: Unstable ::: Unpredictable ::: and likely to get worse ::: Action is usually needed ::: But in special cases involving people waiting may have a strategic value ::: The clear objective is to reduce the danger ::: May require attending to the source of the danger ::: Or removing people from the danger area ::: Determine who is in charge ::: Establish communication between the different parties involved ::: A strategic plan needs to present carefully worked out steps ::: Everyone must know what is to be done and who is doing what ::: Back-up, follow-through, and fallback considerations are required ::: Flexibility is necessary if the plan does not work according to expectations ::: Obtain as much information and expert advice as possible ::: Assessment and reassessment of the situation are vital ::: Emotions are usually heavily involved ::: Courage is needed both in making decision and in taking action ::: It is always easy, in hindsight, to say how things could have been better ::: Pink slippers ::: Shoe description ::: Color pink ::: Slippers as a style of footwear ::: Pink is a gentle, feminine color ::: Slippers represent comfort and domesticity ::: Concerned with human caring ::: Sympathy ::: Compassion ::: Help ::: Feeling is not enough ::: The feeling must be put into action ::: If the feeling is not there, the intention to act is a caring way still results in caring actions ::: The prime consideration is that people matter as people ::: Caring applies to all people ::: Some people are not worth more caring than others ::: Listening is an important part of caring ::: Sometimes caring is the prime purpose of the action. ::: At other times the pink slipper action mode may be used to modify, in a caring direction, other types of action that are taking place. ::: Understanding the perceptions and values of others is a key part of caring. Understanding precedes appropriate actions ::: Purple riding boots ::: Shoe description ::: Color purple ::: Riding boots ::: Purple is the traditional color of authority, as in ancient Rome ::: Riding boots suggest a special function ::: Has to do with authority and playing out an official role ::: Not acting as a normal person ::: Through an official role that he or she is performing ::: Action must be consistent with the duties, obligations, and expectations of that role ::: Within this framework initiatives are possible ::: Signal to those around you when you switch into the purple action mode and are going to be acting through your official role ::: Once you have indicated that you are acting in an official capacity, be consistent and don’t keep switching back and forth between official and unofficial roles ::: Purple action mode can be modified by pink slipper considerations, but duties must be performed ::: There is no obligation to perform duties that are illegal or immoral

Six Frames for Thinking about Information ::: Preface (about attention, perception, information) ::: Directing attention (the function of the Six Frames) ::: Masses of information ::: Introduction ::: Purpose: The Triangle Frame ::: Notice ::: Time-filling and distraction ::: Awareness ::: Interest ::: General interest ::: Specific interest ::: Browse and scan ::: Need and search ::: What and where? ::: Confirmation ::: Very specific questions ::: Where? ::: The triangle frame ::: Point 1: WHAT? ::: Point 2: WHY? ::: Point 3: WHERE? ::: Offering information ::: Summary ::: Accuracy: The Circle Frame ::: Authority ::: Internal checking ::: Comparative accuracy ::: Adequate accuracy ::: Doubts ::: The circle frame ::: Summary ::: Point of view: The Square Frame ::: Persuasion ::: Difficulty of balance ::: The use of adjectives ::: Point of view ::: The power of balance ::: Alternative views from the same point ::: The square frame ::: Summary ::: Interest: The Heart Frame ::: General interest ::: Addition ::: Research ::: Special interest ::: Note-taking ::: Mining ::: The heart frame ::: Summary ::: Value: The Diamond Frame ::: Need satisfaction ::: Question answered ::: Interest value ::: Confirmation value ::: Disagreement value ::: Opportunity ::: Awareness of the world around us ::: Enrichment ::: Note-taking ::: Six value medals ::: Gold Medal ::: Silver Medal ::: Steel Medal ::: Glass Meda ::: Wood Medal ::: Brass Medal ::: Medal Usage ::: The diamond frame ::: Summary ::: Outcome: The Slab Frame ::: Next step ::: So what? ::: Information report ::: Computers ::: The slab frame ::: Summary ::: Summary ::: Truth paste ::: About the author ::: How to Have a Beautiful Mind ::: The Six Value Medals ::: H+ (Plus) A New Religion? ::: How to Have Creative Ideas

The Six Value Medals (by Edward de Bono) ::: Introduction: What Are the Six Value Medals? ::: Why We Need Values ::: Commodities ::: The Cooking Competition ::: Changes in Thinking ::: Thinking about Value ::: 1 Values ::: When Do We Need to Assess Values? ::: Decisions ::: Value Scanning ::: Analysis and Values ::: Perception and Value ::: Logic and Values ::: Values and Emotions ::: 2 Negative Values ::: Impact ::: Checking Values ::: 3 Frameworks ::: Attention ::: North, South, East and West ::: Other People's Views ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Six Action Shoes ::: Perception ::: Purpose ::: 4 Six Value Medals ::: Symbol ::: Focus ::: Materials ::: Overview of the Six Value Medals. This is a quick overview of all the medals. Each medal will then get full attention in a chapter of its own. ::: GOLD MEDAL: This medal deals with human values, the values that affect people. Gold is a superior material and human values are the most important values of all in the end. What are the human values here? ::: SILVER MEDAL: This medal focuses directly on ::: organisational values. That means values related ::: to the purpose of the organisation (in business ::: this would be profitability). Silver is associated with money. There are also the values involved in the actual running of the organisation, such as cost control. The organisation may also be a family, group of friends or social club. ::: STEEL MEDAL: These are the quality values. ::: Steel should be strong. The values are in the intended direction. What are the values of the product, service or function in terms of what it is trying to do? If it is tea, is it good quality tea? ::: GLASS MEDALS: This medal covers a number of associated values: innovation, simplicity and creativity. Glass is a very simple material originating in sand. But with glass you can use your creativity to do a lot of things. ::: WOOD MEDAL: These are the environmental ::: values in the broadest sense. What are the impact values on the environment, on the community, on others? The values relate to those things and people not directly involved. ::: BRASS MEDAL: This medal deals explicitly with perceptual values. How does this appear? How might it be seen? Perception is real even when it is not reality. Brass looks like gold. ::: 5 Gold Medal Values ::: Assessing Gold Medal Values ::: Gold Medal Values of a Change ::: Gold Medal Values of an Existing ::: Situation ::: The Range of Human Values ::: Basic Needs ::: Freedom From... ::: Psychological Needs ::: What Are Your Gold Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 6 Silver Medal Values ::: Purpose ::: Different Organisations, Different ::: Purposes ::: Operations ::: Levels ::: Problem-Solving ::: What Are Your Silver Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 7 Steel Medal Values ::: Customer Values ::: Quality of Service ::: Function Quality ::: Quality and Change ::: Negative Values ::: Perceived Values ::: Quality Focus ::: What Are Your Steel Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 8 Glass Medal Values ::: Innovation ::: Simplicity ::: Creativity ::: The Culture of Creativity ::: Fragility ::: Potential ::: What Are Your Glass Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 9 Wood Medal Values ::: Impact ::: Nature ::: Other Parties ::: Competitors ::: Suppliers ::: Friends and Family ::: Negative Values ::: What Are Your Wood Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 10 Brass Medal Values ::: Whose Interest? ::: Negative Perceptions ::: Shaping Perceptions ::: Credibility ::: Selective Perception ::: Different Points of View ::: What Are Your Brass Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 11 Value Sensitivity ::: Criticism ::: Danger Sensitivity ::: Unseen Value ::: Elimination ::: The Value Scan ::: Habit ::: 12 Conflicts and Priorities ::: Prioritising Values ::: Conflict of Values ::: 13 Design ::: Problem-Solving ::: Conflict Resolution ::: Conflicting Values ::: 14 Value Size ::: Figures ::: Four Degrees of Value ::: Strong Values ::: Sound Values ::: Weak Values ::: Remote Values ::: Negative Values ::: Assessment ::: 15 Benefits and Costs ::: Decisions ::: Negative Values ::: 16 Sources of Value ::: Communication Values ::: Permission ::: Gateway ::: Enabler Values ::: Catalyst Values ::: Enhancer Values ::: Accelerator Values ::: Problem-Solving ::: Removing Bottlenecks ::: Mistakes ::: Competitors ::: Failures ::: Concepts ::: 17 The Value Triangle ::: The Triangle ::: Silver Medal ::: Steel Medal ::: Gold Medal ::: Glass Medal ::: Wood Medal ::: Brass Medal ::: Value Strength ::: Negative Values ::: Comparison ::: 18 The Value Map ::: Listing ::: Negative Values ::: Sample List ::: Joint Maps ::: State of Thinking ::: VICTERI Teams ::: Conclusion ::: Seeing Values ::: Perception and Communication ::: Visual Display

The brain



I am right - You are wrong (From this to the new renaissance: From rock logic to water logic) ::: Preliminary ::: Foreword by Ivar Giaever, Nobel Prize for Physics, Rensselaer Institute ::: Foreword by Brian Josephson, Nobel Prize for Physics, Cambridge ::: Foreword by Sheldon Lee Glashow, Nobel Prize for Physics, Harvard ::: Author's Note ::: Introduction: The New Renaissance ::: Our Thinking System ::: Overview ::: Some of the topics that are covered in this book are listed below: ::: Why humour is the most significant characteristic of the human brain and why humour has always been neglected by classical philosophers. ::: Why, contrary to our traditional view, the brain may be a very simple mechanism acting in a highly complex way. ::: The very important difference between our usual 'passive' information systems and 'active' information systems. ::: Why the very excellence of language for description has made language so crude and inefficient for perception. ::: Why we are able to see only what we are prepared to see. ::: Why it may be much easier to learn things backwards rather than forwards. ::: How patterns have both broad catchment areas and also knife-edge discrimination. ::: Why the classical thinking traditions of truth and reason that we inherited from the Greeks may have set civilization on the wrong track. ::: How we became, and remain, so very obsessed with history. ::: Why I call our traditional reasoning 'table-top' logic. ::: How we can have been so successful in technical matters and yet made so little progress in human affairs. ::: Why the analysis of data cannot by itself produce new ideas and is even unlikely to discover the old ideas in the data. ::: How we can move from the behaviour of a neurone in a neural network to the behaviour of the mind in politics, economics and world conflict. ::: How we can have a patterning system and yet enjoy free-will. ::: Why we have completely failed to understand creativity and why something that is logical in hindsight may be inaccessible to logic in foresight. ::: Why logical argument has never been successful at changing prejudices, beliefs, emotions or perceptions. Why these things can be changed only through perception. ::: How beliefs are cheap and easy to set up in a self-organizing system and how they provide the only perceptual truth. ::: How traditional logic has trapped us with the righteousness of its absolutes. ::: How we can design specific creative tools that can be used deliberately to generate new ideas. ::: Why there may not be a reason for saying something until after it has been said—the logic of provocation which is mathematically necessary in a patterning system. ::: How a simple, randomly obtained, word can be so powerful a creative tool. ::: Why there is an urgent need to create many new words to help our thinking. ::: Why there is a need for the functions (such as zero-hold) carried by the new word ' po '. ::: Why the established scientific method and its call for the most 'reasonable' hypothesis is perceptually faulty. ::: How the Laffer curve (more is better) is such a problem in our traditional thinking. ::: Why our cherished argument mode sets out to provide motivated exploration of a subject but soon loses the 'exploration'. ::: Why our underlying model of progress—evolution through muddling along—is bound to be ineffective. ::: Why philosophy can never again be more than a word-game unless we take into account the system behaviour of the human mind. ::: Why the false dichotomies we constructed in order to operate the logic principle of contradiction have been so especially disastrous. ::: Why poetry and humour both illustrate so well the logic of perception, which is different from the logic of reason. ::: Why we left perception to the realm of art and why art has done such a poor job. ::: Why truth is best described as a particular constellation of circumstances with a particular outcome. ::: How we may eventually derive a new ideology from information technology just as Karl Marx derived one from the steam-engine technology of the industrial revolution. ::: Human Affairs ::: Perception ::: Humour ::: Practical Outcomes ::: The Human Brain ::: Validity of the Model ::: Different Universes ::: Traditional Table-Top Logic ::: The Nerve Network of the Brain ::: How Perception Works ::: Overview ::: PATTERN-MAKING: the brain works by providing an environment in which sequences of activity become established as patterns. ::: TRIGGER: the brain will reconstruct the whole picture from just part of it or a sequence can be triggered by the initial part. ::: ASYMMETRY: the sequence patterns are asymmetric and this gives rise to humour and to creativity. ::: INSIGHT: if we enter the pattern sequence at a slightly different point we may follow a short cut. We can rely on chance to bring this about or do it deliberately. ::: LEARNING BACKWARDS: there is good reason to believe that learning things backwards is much more effective than learning them forwards. ::: SEQUENCE: the brain is a history recorder and the patterns are highly dependent on the initial sequence of experience. ::: CATCHMENT: each pattern has a very wide collection basin so that a variety of inputs will give the same output. ::: KNIFE-EDGE DISCRIMINATION: the boundary between two catchment basins is very sharp, so very clear distinctions may be made between things which are quite similar—provided the patterns are in place. ::: PRE-EMPTION: once a pattern exists it is very hard to cut across it to establish a new pattern. ::: MISMATCH: if what is offered to the brain contradicts what is established as pattern the brain notices this strongly. ::: READINESS: the patterns in the brain are not solely in an active/inactive state but there is a 'readiness' to go which is dependent on context and emotions. ::: CONTEXT: the actual patterns that emerge are determined by history, by activity at the moment and also by context which sets the background readiness level of different patterns. ::: CIRCULARITY: a circularity can be established in which patterns lead back into each other. This is the basis of belief systems. ::: MAKING SENSE: the brain has a powerful ability to put together and to seek to coalesce into sense whatever is put before it. ::: ATTENTION: there is unitary attention which may take in the whole field or focus on part of it, ignoring the rest. ::: RELEVANCE AND MEANING: attention will move to those areas which trigger existing patterns. ::: NO ZERO-HOLD: the activity in the brain cannot stabilize into a zero-hold which accepts input but does not seek to follow an accepted pattern. ::: Sequence Patterns ::: Trigger and Reconstruction ::: Asymmetry of Patterns ::: Insight ::: Learning Backwards ::: Time Sequence ::: Catchment ::: Knife-Edge Discrimination ::: Preemption ::: Mismatch ::: Readiness ::: Context ::: Circularity ::: Making Sense ::: Attention ::: Relevance and Meaning ::: Zero-Hold ::: Our Traditional Thinking Habits ::: Overview ::: LANGUAGE: marvelous as a communication system but poor as a thinking system, yet it dominates our thinking. ::: INTELLIGENCE: highly intelligent people do not necessarily make good thinkers. Thinking is a skill, not intelligence in action. ::: CRITICAL THINKING: a greatly over-esteemed part of our thinking culture. It is easy and satisfying but produces little. ::: LAFFER CURVE: a major type of error arising from table-top logic. Something is good so more must, surely, be better. ::: PROBLEM-SOLVING: part of the maintenance mentality which will get us back to where we were. Progress requires different thinking. ::: ANALYSIS: a central and valuable part of our thinking system but assumes all situations are closed and cannot produce ideas. ::: DESCRIPTION: both describes perception and can set perceptions through naming. But has no more validity than any perception. ::: NATURAL: the view that 'nature' and deep feelings are what really matter and should set our decisions rather than thinking. ::: MATHEMATICS: the strong certainty of a constructed system, powerful within its area of application, which is limited. ::: EITHER/OR: the seductive dichotomies which we need and create in order to operate the logical principle of contradiction. ::: ABSOLUTES: the need for truth and its multiple purposes. The problem is that absolutes must be circumstance-independent. ::: ARGUMENT AND CLASH: the motivated exploration as a subject. There are better methods of exploration. Clash is not generative. ::: BELIEF: a making sense of things. The circular system in which belief sets the perceptions that reinforce the belief. ::: SCIENCE: a methodology for testing beliefs. Driven mainly by the 'cause and effect' idiom. Weak on the perceptual side. ::: CREATIVITY: strongly neglected because it seems to happen anyway and we have not understood at all what is going on. ::: HISTORY: almost am obsession, possibly deriving from the period when all future progress could be got by looking backwards. ::: LOGIC: we use little explicit logic In our everyday thinking because we have fed it into our language habits already. ::: ART: this is directly concerned with reflecting existing perceptions and changing them, but does not encourage perceptual skills. ::: Language ::: Thinking and Intelligence ::: Critical Thinking ::: Laffer Curves ::: Problem-Solving ::: Analysis ::: Description ::: Natural ::: Mathematics ::: Either/Or ::: Absolutes ::: Argument and Clash ::: Belief ::: Science ::: Creativity ::: History ::: Logic ::: Art ::: Thinking In Society And Its Institutions ::: Overview ::: CHANGE: our basic belief in an evolutionary model. We muddle along and adapt to pressures, crises and innovations as they arise. ::: THE NEXT STEP: the next step we take is based on where we are and how we got there rather than on where we want to be. ::: FULL UP: there is no vacuum, there are no gaps. Time, space and resources are all committed. ::: EDUCATION: a locked-in system that is largely unaware of the need for thinking in society or of the type of thinking. ::: LUDECY: a new word to describe the playing of a game according to the way the rules are written. Not a matter of selfishness. ::: SHORT-TERM: much of our thinking has to be short-term (business, politics) because the rules are written that way. ::: DEMOCRACY: a system designed to get consensus for action but now much more effective in preventing things from happening. ::: PRAGMATISM: if behaviour is not driven by principles that are fixed and absolute, what is the alternative? ::: BUREAUCRACY: an organization put together for a purpose but coming to survive for its own sake. ::: COMPARTMENTS: one trend towards increased specialization and compartments and the other trend towards unifying understandings. ::: UNIVERSITIES: an educational, cultural and research role strongly based in history and dominating the use of intellectual re sources. ::: COMMUNICATION: the limitations of language and the imperatives of the media and yet a great power to change sentiment. ::: PACKAGING: our growing skill at perceptual packaging may pose a problem in the future. ::: Change ::: The Next Step ::: Full Up ::: Education ::: Ludecy ::: Short-Term Thinking ::: Democracy ::: Pragmatism ::: Bureaucracy ::: Compartments ::: Universities ::: Communication ::: Packaging ::: Summary Of Practical Outcomes ::: Overview ::: At this point we have reached the end of a progression which had the following stages: ::: 1. A look at the self-organizing model of the brain and a contrast between self-organizing information systems and table-top systems. ::: 2. A look at how the behavior of perception arises directly from the behavior of self-organizing systems. ::: 3. A look at the impact of an understanding of perception on our traditional thinking habits and their defects. ::: 4. A look at thinking in society and its institutions. ::: I would now like to pull together and summarize in this section some of the practical outcomes of this exercise. ::: There are many, ranging from the very specific (such as creativity tools) to the more general (such as concern with the deficiencies of language). ::: Some of the points are simple but others open up huge areas of further consideration. ::: To repeat a point I have so often made in this book, I have not set out to provide all the answers but to indicate that these matters now need very serious attention. ::: There are other points implicit in the book which I have not listed here but which individual readers will note and consider. ::: The practical outcomes fall into two broad areas: ::: 1. Practical points arising directly from our understanding of the nature of perception. ::: 2. Defects in our traditional thinking habits made visible by our understanding of perception. ::: Complacency ::: The Need for More Effort and Attention ::: System Basis ::: Traditional Philosophy Is Dead ::: Perception ::: Mental Illness ::: Free-Will ::: Evolution for Change ::: Argument ::: Critical Thinking ::: Clash ::: Analysis ::: Problem-Solving ::: Truth and Absolutes ::: Description ::: Obsession with History ::: Intelligence Is Not Enough ::: Language ::: Polarizations ::: More Is Better ::: Limited Gate-Keepers ::: Understanding Perception ::: Perception and Emotion ::: Perception and Belief ::: Perception and Truth ::: Prejudice and Logic ::: Time Sequence ::: Reconstruction ::: What We Are Prepared to See ::: Innocence ::: Humor ::: Poetry ::: Stratal ::: Six Thinking Hats ::: Attention ::: Perceptual Tools ::: Mechanics of Interest ::: Attention Flow in Art ::: Manipulation of Perception ::: Zero-Hold ::: 'Same as … ' ::: Understanding Creativity ::: The Logic of Provocation ::: The Logic of Insight ::: Specific Tools of Lateral Thinking ::: Resistance to Change ::: The Next Step ::: Education ::: Universities ::: Compartments ::: Short-Term Thinking ::: Ludecy ::: Learning Backwards ::: New Language ::: Water Logic ::: Hope ::: Summary ::: Appendix: Water Logic ::: Hodics

The Mechanism of the Mind ::: Introduction ::: Oxford example of perception ::: Part One ::: Understanding the System ::: The Simple Basis of Complexity ::: Simplicity and complexity ::: Levels of Organization ::: Transformations, Notations and Models ::: Models ::: Notation ::: Models and notation in this book ::: The model and the brain ::: Memory Traces and Memory Surfaces ::: Memory ::: Less obvious memories ::: Time course ::: Play-back ::: Storing memories ::: Functional connections ::: Good and bad memory-surfaces ::: Special Universes ::: A Self-Organizing Memory Surface: The Polythene and Pins Model ::: Summary ::: Threshold Effects: The Thousand Bulb Model ::: Circular System Effects ::: Notation ::: More complex systems ::: Artificial models ::: Limited Attention Span ::: Behaviour of the thousand bulb rnernory-surface ::: Summary ::: Passive Choice and Selection ::: Attention ::: Single attention area ::: The Past Organizes the Present: The Jelly Model ::: Centring ::: Assimilation ::: Fixed patterns ::: Linked patterns ::: Backbone channel ::: Representative part ::: Time sequence ::: Summary ::: Change and Flow on the Memory Surface ::: Swift flow and staccato flow ::: Self ::: Self and identity ::: Communication by Preset Patterns ::: Elaboration ::: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory ::: Synthesis ::: Time and space ::: Holding effect ::: Separation and synthesis ::: The Emergence of Patterns ::: Emotion, Need and the Internal Patterns ::: The Peculiar Universe of the Memory-Surface ::: D-Lines: A Notation of Convenience ::: D-lines and behaviour on the special memory-surface ::: Fragments and continuity ::: Diversion ::: Centring ::: Polarizing ::: Unit size ::: Abstraction ::: Starting-point and sequence of attention ::: Summary ::: Part Two ::: Characteristic Behaviour of the System ::: Thinking behaviour on the special memory-surface ::: The Mechanics of Thinking ::: Summary ::: Changes in established patterns ::: Extension ::: Diversion ::: Preference ::: Sudden changes in the established pattern ::: The Insight Phenomenon ::: Humour and insight ::: Further ways of changing the basic pattern ::: Cumulative effect ::: Effort and change ::: Errors, Defects and Limitations ::: Momentum ::: The Myth Effect ::: The Dividing and Polarizing Effect ::: Static divisions ::: Mobile divisions ::: Mechanics of polarization ::: The Continuity Effect ::: The Distorting Effects of internal Patterns ::: Bias ::: Overcoming the Limitations ::: Summary of faults ::: Natural Thinking ::: Thinking ::: Natural thinking ::: Repetition ::: Logical Thinking ::: Mathematical Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Alternatives ::: Non-sequential ::: Undoing selection processes ::: Attention ::: Use of lateral thinking ::: Random input ::: Quota ::: Rotation of attention ::: Reversal ::: Cross-fertilization ::: The New Functional Word ::: PO ::: The first use of PO ::: The end before the means ::: Disconnected jumps ::: Juxtaposition ::: Reversal ::: Being wrong ::: Semi-certainty ::: Construction ::: Random stimulus ::: Summary ::: The second use of PO ::: Anti-arrogance ::: PO as interjection ::: Re-unite ::: Counteracting NO ::: Alternative approaches ::: Summary ::: Emotional content of PO ::: Hypothesis, suppose, poetry ::: Grammatical use of PO ::: PO and language ::: Summary ::: Physiology ::: Translation ::: Inhibition and excitation ::: Units ::: Short-term memory ::: Long-term memory ::: Patterns on the surface ::: Parallel systems ::: Dangers of introspection ::: Broad features ::: PO and the brain ::: General Summary

Water Logic ::: Foreword ::: Introduction ::: Structure of the book ::: Outer world—inner world ::: Water logic ::: 'TO' ::: Dance of the jellyfish ::: Stability ::: Self-Organizing ::: How the Brain Flows Into Perception ::: Self-Organizing ::: The Behaviour of Perception ::: Recognition ::: Centring ::: Preparedness ::: Discrimination ::: Meaning ::: The Importance of Words ::: Myths and 'Why?' ::: Closure ::: Shift ::: Levels of Organization ::: Broad Principles of System Behaviour ::: Flowscapes ::: Stream of Consciousness List ::: Examining the Flowscape ::: Collectors ::: Stable Loops ::: Links ::: Further Examples ::: Faithful and Loyal Secretary ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Petrol Pump Price War ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Absenteeism From Work ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Sectarian or ethnic violence ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Inner and Outer World ::: Practical Technique ::: Stream of Consciousness—Base List ::: CAF on the Choice of a Pet ::: The Stream of Consciousness List Is Not an Analysis of the Situation ::: Analysis ::: Stream of Consciousness ::: Problem Solving ::: More Complex Flowscapes ::: Choosing a Holiday ::: Choosing a Career ::: Rapidly Escalating Health Care Costs ::: Complexity ::: Concepts ::: Concepts, Categories and Aristotle ::: Lumping and Splitting ::: Concepts and Flexibility ::: Pre-Concepts and Post-Concepts ::: Blurry Concepts ::: Working Backwards and the Concept Fan ::: Concepts and Flow ::: Interventions ::: Juvenile Crime ::: Old Church Which Is Standing in the Way of a Major Road Development ::: Racism ::: Action ::: Context, Conditions and Circumstances ::: Creating Contexts ::: Accuracy and Value ::: Flowscapes for Other People ::: From Written Material Etcetera ::: Guessing ::: Discussion ::: Hypothesis ::: Attention Flow ::: 'Isness' ::: Tension ::: Triggering ::: Directing Attention ::: Difficulties ::: Example: Looking Around for a New Job ::: Errors ::: Summary

 

… snip, snip …

Proto-truth

What would happen if we discarded the concept of absolute truth?

What would happen if we threw out absolute truth from its central position in philosophy and in religious meta-systems? ¶¶¶

We could replace absolute truth with temporary or contingent truths.

In areas such as science this would only seem to be acknowledging what any proper scientist knows to be the position anyway.

Karl Popper has suggested that the purpose of an hypothesis is not to be proved but to be disproved so that a better one can emerge.

Scientific truths are temporary truths which may seem absolute at the time but are later replaced by others.

Newton’s truths seemed a perfect and absolute explanation until Einstein came along and provided a different explanation.

In time Einstein’s concepts will certainly be replaced by an even newer truth. ¶¶¶

We can look at the evolution of truths in the same way as we can the evolution in any self-organizing system.

There is a stable state which continues for some time.

Then there is a period of change to a new stable state which again lasts for some time.

This gives a series of plateaux as shown below.

 

prototruth-pict

 

All the time the truth is ‘improving’. ¶¶¶

We can call these plateaux or stable states ‘proto-truths’.

We can treat them as truths in all respects except one:

a proto-truth is always held to be changeable and is never regarded as absolute.

A proto-truth is only changed for a better prototruth.

There is a constant readiness for change but at the same time a willingness to use the proto-truth as if it were absolute.

It is very important to realize that the rejection of absolute truths does not mean that no truth is possible and that we should not try to find any.

On the contrary, it means that we can freely believe in and use truths because we no longer fear being trapped by them.

We often reject absolute truths because we fear the consequences of accepting them.

The same fear is not present with proto-truths. ¶¶¶

Proto-truths satisfy the dilemma that has become more and more obvious in our scientific age.

In theory we should be unable to act until science had given a full explanation of the world and a scientific basis for action.

In practice we do have to act and in many areas we have to act on the basis of little information and little scientific understanding.

A proto-truth is a working truth with which we can proceed.

The distinction between a proto-truth and an hypothesis will be discussed later in this section.

Proto-truths and absolute truths

It should now be clear that there are two systems of truth.

Both types of truth are believable and usable.

The sole difference is that proto-truths are capable of being changed to better ones whereas absolute truths are not.

Absolute truths hold sway in special universes and in circular situations.

An absolute truth cannot be changed unless the universe in which it operates is changed.

Proto-truths hold sway in ‘open’ universes. ¶¶¶

The meta-system suggested in this book is based on proto-truth rather than absolute truth.

In particular it is realized that the world created by the perception of man’s mind is entirely a world of proto-truth:

one way of looking at things is capable of being replaced by a better way.

Most religious meta-systems are based on absolute truth.

Proto-truth

Obtains in open universes;

an evolutionary type of truth which is usable as truth in every way but which is capable of replacement and change.

Proto-truth and hypothesis

It is important to make a clear distinction between the two.

In its essential meaning an hypothesis is a sort of guess which creates an explanation of events which can then be used to design experiments.

Any hypothesis is a provocative tool of science.

For example, I might have an hypothesis that certain species eat their young when upset in order to keep the population constant in an area.

My hypothesis would suggest that in conditions of overcrowding there would be changes in the brain leading to production of chemicals that made an animal more easily irritable.

Such animals would be easily upset and so would eat, their offspring.

Such an hypothesis would lead to a variety of experiments:

  • measuring chemicals in the brain
  • using tranquilizers
  • comparing the provocation thresholds of animals from overcrowded areas with those of animals from less densely populated areas
  • observing other instances of irritation in overcrowded areas
  • etc.

After thorough research there might be enough evidence to support a conclusion.

This conclusion would become a proto-truth.

The proto-truth could itself be used deliberately as an hypothesis by someone else who would confirm the proto-truth or replace it with a better one.

The essential difference is a matter of use:

a prototruth is a conclusion (even if short-lived) whereas an hypothesis is a provocative experimental tool.

Proto-truth and pragmatism

This is another important distinction.

Pragmatism was developed by the American philosopher William James who derived the idea from Charles Peirce, another American.

Pragmatism holds that there is no truth except the ‘cash-value’ of an idea.

In other words, a statement is true only if it makes a practical difference to life.

This is generally interpreted to mean that a statement is true only if it is useful.

At once huge dangers open up.

The Nazis may have found it useful to consider the Jews as sub-human because this gave their followers a feeling of superiority which was important for the functioning of the Third Reich.

The Catholic Inquisition may have felt that it was useful to burn apparent heretics because it kept others in line.

Truth can usually be rationalized around actions which seem useful.

A proto-truth does not have to be useful or even usable.

It may make no difference to life at the moment.

It is simply a truth which is acknowledged to be replaceable.

The consequences of proto-truth

Once absolute truth is replaced by proto-truth a number of possibilities at once explode into being.

The practical use of proto-truths

There can be personal proto-truths, group proto-truths and cultural proto-truths as well as more universal ones arrived at by consensus.

Proto-truths are ways of looking at the world, and the experience-histories of different people will lead to different proto-truths.

There may seem an obvious danger here that an individual or group may have arrived at a rather peculiar proto-truth which constitutes a danger to other people (like the Manson cult in the USA).

If such a person or group is entitled to its own version of truth, does this not open the way to anarchy?

The answer is that because a proto-truth is only a temporary truth it cannot be held with sufficient intensity to interfere with the rights or proto-truths of others.

Subjective truths are valid so long as they are not objectively imposed on others.

In any case a person or group who have considered their own version of truth as absolute are not going to be made more dangerous by being told that it is not absolute but only temporary.

The trend would be towards reducing such dangers along with the reduction in arrogance and intolerance. ¶¶¶

Like any other truth, a proto-truth should be free of deliberate error or deception.

It should also be based on a full consideration of the situation, not just on a tiny part of it or a special point of view.

The requirements for a proto-truth are no different from the requirements for truth as we now accept them—the only difference is the acknowledgement of the possibility of improvement or replacement. ¶¶¶

The Buddhist meta-system insisted that the human mind can only perceive illusion, not reality.

The mind has to be trained away from illusion until it is released into a state of contemplation of pure reality.

The new meta-system insists that illusions are usable and workable and may be regarded as proto-truths.

This does not mean that every illusion is a proto-truth but that some illusions may be regarded as proto-truths and others will still be regarded as illusions.

The distinction is based on the application of the usual criteria of evidence, proof, fit and consensus. ¶¶¶

The same distinction can be made between subjective proto-truths and objective proto-truths as is now made with truth.

The only difference is that the arrogance of absolute truth is removed from both. ¶¶¶

It may be suggested that if there is no such thing as absolute truth then it is better to dispense with the illusion of truth entirely.

This attitude would mistake the functioning of a self-organizing and evolutionary system.

Animals are ‘definite’ enough even though they may in time evolve into better animals.

It is only because we are so used to considering truth as absolute that proto-truth seems worthless.

In fact proto-truth is of more value than absolute truth because it is evolutionary.

We can use proto-truth with confidence because we know that we are not going to be trapped by it.

Proto-truth is not another word for doubt or indecision.

On the contrary it makes for definiteness and decisiveness:

we must use the proto-truth we have at the moment as we have to do in science.

Without proto-truth life is a meaningless drift of confusion. ¶¶¶

The essential point about a proto-truth is that we can use it and believe it—so long as we are prepared to improve or replace it with a better one. ¶¶¶

A proto-truth may seem intangible in the way water is intangible.

It cannot be handled and attacked because it is so fluid.

But there is nothing intangible about the way water supports a boat.

Just as a boat makes its way over water so we can live our lives supported by proto-truths that are fluid and changeable.

Proto-truths

The new system replaces absolute truth with proto-truth.

Absolute truths only exist in circular systems or special universes.

Proto-truths exist in the sort of open universe with which science and life deal.

A proto-truth is as free from conscious error or deception as any other truth, but it is never held to be unchangeable.

A proto-truth is believable so long as it is realized that it can be improved or replaced by a better one.

Proto-truths are regarded as relatively stable states in the evolution of ideas.

The self-organization of experience forms such stable states both in the mind of individuals and also in society as a whole.

There are individual proto-truths or cultural proto-truths.

Proto-truths are not dogmas but acceptable and sensible ways of looking at the world that fit experience.

Proto-truths may be changed by new experience or by the restructuring of existing experience.

Because proto-truths are not regarded as absolute there is no effort to impose them on other people, and this gives rise to the tolerance of the new meta-system.

Nor is there a need to defend the proto-truths at all costs, and this gives rise to the positive and constructive attitude of the meta-system.

Improvement in the proto-truths is brought about by the process of exlectics instead of dialectics.

Dialectics seek improvement by a process of attack and clash whereas exlectics seek improvement by reconstruction of the initial idea.

List of topics in this Folder

 

“The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not turbulence; it is to act with yesterday’s logic”. — Peter Drucker


The shift from manual workers who do as they are being told — either by the task or by the boss — to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves ↓ profoundly challenges social structure

Managing Oneself (PDF) is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.” … “It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us—even of the younger generation—still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.” …

… “Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations (and therefore, employers can’t be depended on for designing your life), and the knowledge worker has mobility.” ← in a context

 

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