Drucker+ landscape exploration
Jump to book list
How is it possible
to WORK TOWARD
that aren’t on YOUR mental radar
at the right pointS in time?
“For almost nothing
in our educational system
PREPARES people for …
in which THEY will live, work.
and become effective.” PFD
Topics vs. realities ::: larger view ↓
“Is it then
not only astonishing
but also absurd
that THINKING is not
the core subject
in all education? …
totally neglected” explore
Most mistakes in THINKING
are mistakes in perception
Choice of ATTENTION areas
The Black Cylinder Experiment
ATTENTION directing frameworks
Who was Peter Drucker?
Click image to enlarge
Walter Wriston (on memo) ::: Bob Buford ::: Rick Warren
books by Drucker — in outline format
Where do I begin to read Drucker?
#ptf Civilization: The West and the Rest at Amazon.com
↑ … finding and selecting
the pieces of the puzzle
Why didn’t somebody tell me?
Dealing with risk and uncertainty
Self-development … something once gained
can’t be taken away
The Lessons of History by Will & Ariel Durant
… Juxtaposing the great lives, ideas, and accomplishments with cycles of war and conquest, the Durants reveal the towering themes of history and give meaning to our own. #situation
Hesitations | History and the Earth | Biology and History | Race and History | Character and History | Morals and History | #Religion and History | Economics and History | Socialism and History | Government and History | History and War | Growth and Decay | Is Progress Real? #surprises
History ↑ hasn’t ended ↓
We face long years of profound change
The Challenges Looming Ahead
#worldview #bp #ptf Druckerism ↓
“We know only two things
about the future ↑.
It cannot be known.
It will be different
from what exists now
and from what we now expect”
#worldview ::: The Second Curve ::: Water Logic
America Before Columbus
The Vietnam War:
A Film by Ken Burns & Lynn Novick | PBS
Ken Burns and Lynn Novick’s ten-part, 18-hour documentary series, The Vietnam War, tells the epic story of one of the most consequential, divisive, and controversial events in American history as it has never before been told on film.
Visceral and immersive, the series explores the human dimensions of the war through revelatory testimony of nearly 80 witnesses from all sides—Americans who fought in the war and others who opposed it, as well as combatants and civilians from North and South Vietnam.
The Vietnam War Wikipedia
History of France in Indochina
Books by Walter Wriston #bbww (Quotes ::: Remembering Kathryn Dineen Wriston (Kathy Wriston) ::: Obit | #PDF 1 | #PDF 2 ::: Touching people)
Bits, Bytes, and Balance Sheets: The New Economic Rules of Engagement in a Wireless World (2007) ::: Foreword by The Honorable George P. Shultz ::: A Note to Readers ::: A Momentous Revolution ::: Unintended Consequences ::: The Creation of Wealth ::: Bits, Bytes, Power, and Diplomacy ::: New Rules: Different in Kind, Not Degree ::: The Whiskey Ain’t Working Anymore ::: What Gets Measured, Gets Done ::: The Great Disconnect: Balance Sheets Versus Market Value ::: Politically Correct Versus Accurate Earnings ::: Global Accounting for a Global Market ::: Other People’s Money ::: Afterword ::: Selected Bibliography ::: About the Author
The Twilight of Sovereignty: How the Information Revolution is Transforming Our World (1992) ::: The Twilight of the Idols ::: A New Source of Wealth ::: The Global Conversation ::: The Information Standard ::: The End of Trade ::: Where We Stand ::: Serendipity Inc. ::: Borders are not Boundaries ::: The Great Equalizer ::: Power to the People
Risk & Other Four-Letter Words (1986) ::: The Individual and Society ::: Not Every Battle is Armageddon ::: The Great American Transference Machine ::: The Other Nine Amendments ::: The Law May Be Hazardous to Society’s Health ::: Going to Hell on a Best-Fit Curve ::: The Business/Government Connection ::: Banking in Wonderland ::: The Ultimate Loophole: Spend Your Own Money ::: From Adam to George, from 1776 to 1984 ::: The Land Where No One Speaks the Truth ::: Observations From the Global Attic ::: Gnomons, Words, and Policies ::: Common Sense and Technological Nonsense ::: The Great Whale Oil Syndrome ::: We Were an LDC Once Too ::: If it Works, Don’t Fix It ::: Agents of Change Are Rarely Welcome ::: Gresham Revisited ::: EPILOGUE: Risk Is a Four-Letter Word
#ptf The World: A Brief Introduction — Amazon
PART I: THE ESSENTIAL HISTORY :::
From the Thirty Years War to the Outbreak of World War I (1618-1914) :::
The Long Shadow: the Great War and the Twentieth Century :::
From World War II Through World War I (1914-1945) :::
The Cold War (1945 - 1989) ::: The Post-Cold War Era (1989 -Present) :::
PART II: REGIONS OF THE WORLD ::: Europe :::
East Asia and the Pacific ::: Asia :::
The Middle East ::: Africa ::: The Americas :::
PART III: THE GLOBAL ERA ::: Globalization :::
Terrorism and Counterterrorism :::
Nuclear Proliferation ::: Climate Change ::: Migration :::
The Internet, Cyberspace, and Cybersecurity :::
Global Health ::: Trade and Investment :::
Currency and Monetary Policy ::: Development :::
PART IV: ORDER AND DISORDER :::
Sovereignty, Self-Determination, and Balance of Power :::
Alliances and Coalitions ::: International Society :::
War Between Countries :::
Internal Instability and War Within Countries :::
The Liberal World Order ::: Preface
Is reality divided into conceptual “islands”
similar to the parts and chapters of a book?
but we still need
A Century of Social Transformation
Edward de Bono (thinking) book search
Most mistakes in thinking
are mistakes in perception
Intelligence Information Thinking
The “here” links below lead to an external page. To find a book title on this page may require a Page Search (Command F on a Mac or “Find on Page” for iOS)
What thinking is needed?
The End of Economic Man 1939 (here)
The Future of Industrial Man 1942 (here)
Concept of the Corporation 1946 (here)
The New Society — The Anatomy of Industrial Order 1950 (here)
The Practice of Management 1954 (here)
Landmarks of Tomorrow 1957 (here)
Managing For Results 1964 (here)
The Effective Executive 1967 (here)
Age of Discontinuity 1968 (here)
Technology, Management and Society 1970 (here)
Men, Ideas, and Politics 1971 (here)
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices 1973 (here)
Adventures of a Bystander 1978 (here)
Managing in Turbulent Times 1980 (here)
Toward the Next Economics and Other Essays 1981 (here)
The Changing World of The Executive 1982 (here)
Innovation and Entrepreneurship 1985 (here)
Frontiers of Management 1986 (here)
The New Realities 1989 (here)
Managing The Nonprofit Organization — Principles And Practices 1990 (here)
Managing For The Future 1992 (here)
The Ecological Vision 1993 (here)
Post-Capitalist Society 1993 (here)
Managing In A Time Of Great Change 1995 (here)
The Executive in Action: Three Drucker Management Books on What to Do and Why and How to Do It Amazon
Drucker on Asia 1997 (here)
Peter Drucker On The Profession Of Management 1998 (here)
Management Challenges for the 21st Century 1999 (here)
Managing Oneself 1999 (here)
The Essential Drucker 2001 (here)
Managing in the Next Society 2002 (here)
A Functioning Society 2002 (here)
The Daily Drucker 2004 (here)
Five Most Important Questions 2008 (here)
The Effective Executive in Action (by Peter Drucker and Joseph A. Maciariello) 2006 (here)
The Definitive Drucker 2007 (here)
Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices by Peter Drucker with Joseph A. Maciariello 2008 (here)
Management Cases (Revised Edition) 2009 (here)
Inside Drucker's Brain 2008 (here)
The Drucker Difference 2009 (here)
The Drucker Lectures: Essential Lessons on Management, Society, and Economy by Rick Wartzman 2010 (here)
A Class With Drucker: The Lost Lessons of the World's Greatest Management Teacher by William A. Cohen, Ph.D 2007 (here)
Drucker on Leadership: New Lessons from the Father of Modern Management by William A. Cohen, Ph.D 2009 (here)
Books by Edward de Bono
The memo THEY don't want you to SEE
From The End of Economic Man:
The Origins of Totalitarianism
“The End of Economic Man was my first book, and at the time of its publication I was still an unknown young man.
Yet the book received tremendous attention when it came out in the spring of 1939, and was an instant success. #adt
It was even more successful in Britain than in the United States.
Winston Churchill, then still out of office, wrote the first review, and a glowing one. #pdf
When, a year later, after Dunkirk and the fall of France, he became prime minister he gave the order to include The End of Economic Man in the book kit issued to every graduate of a British Officers’ Candidate School.
(It was, appropriately enough, packaged together with Lewis Catroll’s Alice in Wonderland by somebody in the War Department with a sense of humor.)
Although this book was published more than fifty years ago, it was actually written even earlier.
It was begun in 1933, a few weeks after Hitler had come to power.
An early excerpt — the discussion of the role of anti-Semitism in the Nazi demonology and the reasons for its appeal — was published as a pamphlet by an Austrian Catholic and anti-Nazi publisher in 1935 or 1936.
And it was finished between April 1937, when I first arrived in the United States from England, and the end of that year.
It was the first book to try to explain the origins of totalitarianism — its subtitle.
It has kept on selling.
Indeed it has been reissued several times before this republication as a Transaction book, the last time in 1969 (the preface to that reissue is included in this volume).
And lately the book has again gotten a fair amount of scholarly attention.
But for a long time during the nineteen-sixties — and indeed, well into the nineteen-seventies — the book was pointedly ignored by the scholarly community.
One reason: it was not “politically correct” to use current jargon.
It fitted neither of the two politically acceptable theses of the postwar period: the thesis that Nazism was a “German” phenomena to be explained by German history, German character, German specifics of one kind or another or the Marxist thesis of Nazism as the “last gasp of dying capitalism.”
This book, instead, treated Nazism — and totalitarianism altogether — as a European disease, with Nazi Germany the most extreme, most pathological manifestation and with Stalinism being neither much different nor much better.
Anti-Semitism, for instance, appeared first as persecution and popular demagoguery in France, rather than in Germany, in the Dreyfus Affair of the eighteen-nineties.
And it was the failure of Marxism — rather than that of capitalism — as a creed and as a savior, The End of Economic Man asserted, that led to the “despair of the masses” and
made them easy prey to
totalitarian demagoguery and demonology ↓
King Trump ↑ #evidence-wall ↓
But there was a second reason why the book did not fit into the scholarly climate of the postwar period.
It is the more important one, simply because the climate still persists.
This book treats a major social phenomenon as a social phenomenon.
This is still largely considered heresy (except by such fellow-heretics as the publishers of Transaction books and Society magazine).
No two people ever read the same book
Major social phenomena are treated either as political and economic history, that is, in terms of battles, armies, treaties, politicians, elections, national-income statistics, and so on.
(A good example for Germany and Nazism are the excellent books of the Stanford historian Gordon Craig, for example, his 1978 book Germany: 1866-1945 .)
Such developments are also explained in terms of “isms.” that is, in terms of all-embracing philosophies.
The prototype and exemplar of this approach for our theme is the 1951 book by Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism which blames Hitler and Nazism on the systematic German philosophers of the early nineteenth century: Fichte, Schelling, or Hegel.
No matter how valid either approach, they are not adequate by themselves.
The stool needs a third leg.
Social phenomena need social #analysis, an analysis of the strains, stresses, trends, shifts, and upheavals in society.
This, I would maintain, is what sociology was meant to do, was indeed invented for in the early years of the last century.
It is what the great men of sociology, a Max Weber (1864-1920) or a Vilfredo Pareto (1864-1923), did.
It is what Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) did when he identified the “innovator” as the social force that turns economies upside down; the innovator does not behave economically, does not try to optimize, is not motivated by economic rationale — he is a social phenomenon.
It is what this book tries to do.
“Society” (#pdf) is vague and impossible to define, argue my historian friends, my economist friends, my philosopher friends.
They are absolutely right.
But equally resistant to definition are history, economics, philosophy, nation, science, and poetry — indeed everything worthwhile thinking, talking, and writing about.
Yet all of us know what to do with these terms — “plus or minus 80%” as the statisticians would say — that is, adequate for operational purposes (despite everything the linguistic logicians say to the contrary).
The End of Economic Man treats society as the environment of that very peculiar critter, the human being.
History treats what happens on the surface, so to speak.
“Isms” — that is philosophical systems — may be called the atmosphere.
But society is the “ecology.”
This book does not attempt to define “society.”
It tries to understand it.
Whether it succeeds in this attempt readers must decide for themselves.
But this book was the first attempt to understand the major social phenomenon of the first half of this century, that is, the rise of totalitarianism as a social event.
It is still, half a century later, the only such attempt.
This alone, I hope, makes it worthwhile reading.”
Peter F. Drucker
The End of Economic Man: The Origins of Totalitarianism book page
Freedom, power, revolutions, and
the alternative to tyranny
… “It is this belief in diversity and pluralism and in the uniqueness of each person that underlies all my writings, beginning with my first book ( The End of Economic Man ) more than fifty years ago.
During most of these fifty years centralization, uniformity, and conformity were dominant.
The totalitarian regimes ( The End of Economic Man ) in which everybody was to conform, to think the same, to write and paint the same, to be centrally controlled—the Nazis called it “switched onto the same track” (gleichgeschaltet)—were but the head of a universal current.
It swept over the democracies as well.
#pdsv But every one of my books and essays, whether dealing with politics, philosophy, or history; with social order and social institutions; with management, technology, or economics, has stressed pluralism and diversity.
Where the prevailing doctrines preached control by big government or big business, I stressed decentralization, experimentation, and the need to create community.
And where the prevailing approaches saw government and big business as the only institutions and as the “countervailing powers” of a modern society, I stressed the importance and central role of the nonprofit, public-service institutions, the “third sector”—as the nurseries of independence and diversity; as guardians of values; as providers of community leadership and citizenship. #profit more from Adventures of a Bystander
… but there’s no virtue in being a nonprofit #profit
Every social problem is an opportunity
And I pointed out how much of society is organized and informed by non-business, non-governmental institutions, the universities, for instance, or the hospitals, each with very different values and a different personality.
But I was swimming against a strong current.
Now, at last, the tide has turned, and it has turned my way.
The flag-bearer of the collectivist, centralizing, uniformity-imposing parade, Communism, has proven a sham, incompetent even to provide the mere rudiments of effective government, functioning economy, citizenship, and community.
And in the West too we are now rapidly decentralizing, indeed uncentralizing.
For a generation after World War II, we believed that any sickness was best treated in a centralized hospital, the bigger the better.
We are now moving patients into “outreach” facilities as fast as we can.
During the last fifteen years America’s large corporations have been shrinking steadily.
All the phenomenal employment growth in this period—the fastest growth in jobs in peacetime history anywhere—has been in small and middle-sized enterprises.
In the decades following World War II, America built ever-bigger consolidated schools—one cause, I believe, of our educational malaise.
Now we are moving towards diverse, decentralized schools, the “magnet schools,” for instance.
(See chapter 14, “The Accountable School” in Management, Revised Edition)
“Small is beautiful” is, of course, as much stifling dogma as “big is best”—and equally stupid, as one look at the diversity of God’s creation will show.
We surely will not return to the nineteenth-century society, which knew only the smallest and weakest of governments and few institutions except the local church and school.
The knowledge society into which we are moving so fast is going to be a society of organizations.
But of organizations—plural—that will be diverse, decentralized, multiform.
And within these organizations, we are moving away from the standardized, uniform structures that were generally accepted in public administration and business management, “the one right structure for the typical manufacturing company,” for instance, or the “model government agency.”
We are moving toward organic design, informed by mission, purpose, strategy, and the environment, both social and physical—the design I began to advocate forty years ago in The Practice of Management (which came out in 1954). …
This means a radical change in structure for the organizations of tomorrow
From command to responsibility-based organization
… November 11 in the Austria of my childhood was “Republic Day,” commemorating the day, in 1918, on which the last of the Habsburg emperors had abdicated and the Republic was proclaimed.
For most of Austria this was a day of solemnity, if not of mourning—the day of final defeat in a nightmare war, the day in which centuries of history had crumbled into dust. …
A Functioning Society ::: The (human) Ecological Vision ::: The End of Economic Man
Management Tasks Responsibilities Practices → Management Revised Edition and
Management Revised Edition Cases
ONCE upon a time a young man set out to write
the definitive book on China. continue
The Effective Executive ::: Managing Oneself
Creating Tomorrow’s Society of Citizens
Drucker and Me by Bob Buford
What Bob Buford is remembered for #pdf
Peter once told me ↑, “The fruit of your work grows on other people’s trees.”
T. George Harris ↓
YouTube : Thoughts on prayer #youtube
Interview with T. George Harris ↑ → Deming, Juran, Drucker
↑ A deeper sense of purpose : T. George Harris was born a Baptist on a small and rocky Kentucky tobacco farm in 1924, a time when most Americans believed the earth was 7,000 years old and heaven was a place you could point to—straight up. …
Harris wrote and edited about many subjects, including civil rights, politics, business, psychology, careers, self-development, health and spirituality.
Sixteen different angles #sda
Served in World War II and graduated from Yale.
He became a journalist, as a reporter and later bureau chief and editor for Time and Look magazines.
Harris was a media pioneer when it came to mind-body health, for instance as founding editor of American Health magazine, and particularly about how health intersected with spirituality.
He was a founder of Spirituality & Health magazine, and was an early columnist for Beliefnet.com.
Besides their friendship, Harris and Drucker were associated in a variety of ways. Post Capitalist Executive
Harris was editor-in-chief of Psychology Today and later executive editor of the Harvard Business Review .
Celebrating the life of Peter Drucker — Rick Warren
Who was Peter Drucker
An organization is a special-purpose institution ::: A human group composed of specialists — not labors — working together on a common task ::: The function of organizations to make knowledge productive ::: The more specialized knowledges are, the more effective they will be ::: Have to be put together with the work of other specialist to become #results — outside the organization ::: Knowledges by themselves are sterile ::: Specialist are effective only as specialists — and knowledge workers have to be effective ::: The most highly effective knowledge workers do not want to be anything but narrow specialists #ntea ::: Specialist need exposure to the universe of knowledge, but they need to work as specialists and to concentrate on being specialist ::: And for this to produce results, an organization is needed ::: Organization as a distinct species ::: All one species … Armies, Churches, Universities, Hospitals, Businesses, Labor unions ::: They are the man-made environment, the “social ecology” of post-capitalist society ::: Management is a generic function pertaining to all organizations
The characteristics of organizations ::: Organizations are special-purpose institutions ::: They are effective because they concentrate on one task ::: In an organization, diversification means splintering ::: It destroys performance capacity ::: Organization is a tool ::: The more specialized its given task, the greater its performance capacity ::: Its mission must be crystal clear ::: Because the organization is composed of specialists ::: Each with his or her own narrow knowledge ::: Otherwise its members become confused ::: They will follow their specialty ::: Rather than applying it to the common task ::: They will each define “#results” in terms of that specialty — imposing their own values on the organization ::: Only a clear, focused, and common mission can hold the organization together and enable it to produce #results ::: The prototype of the modern organization is the symphony orchestra ::: Many high-grade specialists ::: By themselves they don’t make music. Only the orchestra can do that ::: Perform because they have the same score ::: # Results exist only on the outside ::: Organizations exist to produce results on the outside ::: Results in an organization are always pretty far away from what each member contributes ::: Results need to be defined clearly and unambiguously and, if at all possible, measurably ::: Organizations need to appraise and judge itself and its performance against clear, known, impersonal #objectives and goals ::: “Voluntary” membership and the ability to leave an organizations ::: Organizations are always in competition for its essential resource qualified, knowledgeable, dedicated people ::: Need to market membership (what do the jobs really have to be to attract the needed people) ::: Have to attract people ::: Have to hold people ::: Have to recognize and reward people ::: Have to motivate people ::: Have to serve and satisfy people ::: Has to be an organization of equals, of “colleagues,” of “associates” ::: The position of each is determined by its contribution to the common task rather than by any inherent superiority or inferiority ::: Must be organized as a team of “associates” ::: They are always managed ::: Have “leaders” ::: May be perfunctory and intermittent ::: Or may be a full-time and demanding job for a fairly large group of people ::: Have to be people who make decisions ::: or nothing will get done ::: Have to be people who are accountable for the organization’s mission, spirit, performance, results ::: Must be a “conductor” who controls the “score” ::: There have to be people who: focus the organization on its mission; set the strategy to carry it out; define what the results are ::: This management has to have considerable authority ::: Yet its job in the knowledge organization is not to command; it is to direct (and inspire) ::: To be able to perform, an organization must be autonomous ::: Cannot be used to carry out “government policy”
Organization as a destabilizer #jump #lter #psdapa #sda ::: The organization of the post-capitalist society of organizations is a destabilizer ::: Its function is to put knowledge to work on tools, processes, and products + on knowledge itself ::: #horizons It must be organized for constant change ::: It must be organized for #innovation ::: It must be organized for systematic abandonment of … the established, the customary, the familiar, the comfortable, products, services, and processes, human and social relationships, skills, organizations themselves (#wgobcd) ::: Knowledge changes fast ::: Today’s certainties will be tomorrow’s absurdities ::: Skills change slowly and infrequently ::: Changes that most profoundly affect a knowledge do not, as a rule, come out of its own area ::: Social innovation is as important as new science or new technology in creating new knowledges and in making old ones obsolete ::: Purposeful innovation has itself become an organized discipline ::: Which is both teachable and learnable ::: Every organization has to build into its very structure the management of change ::: Organized abandonment ::: Increasingly, organizations will have to plan abandonment rather than try to prolong the life of a successful policy: practice, or product—something which so far only a few large Japanese companies have faced up to (#wgobcd) ::: The ability to create the new (three systematic practices) ::: Continuing improvement of everything it does (Kaizen) ::: What every artist does ::: Aim is to improve each product or service so that it becomes a truly different product or service in two or three year’s time ::: Learn to exploit ::: Develop new applications from its own successes ::: Learn how to innovate ::: Every organization will have to learn how to innovate and to learn that innovation can and should be organized as a systematic process ::: Then we come back to abandonment and we start all over again
Post-capitalist society has to be decentralized (#sda #horizons) ::: Its organizations must be able to make fast decisions based on closeness to performance, to the market, to technology, to the changes in society, environment, and demographics, all of which must be seen and utilized as (REAL not imagined) opportunities for innovation ::: Organizations in the post-capitalist society thus constantly upset, disorganize, and destabilize the community (#horizons #sda) ::: The “culture” of the organization must transcend community ::: It is the nature of the task that determines the culture of an organization, rather than the community in which that task is being performed ::: If the organization’s culture clashes with the values of the community the organization’s culture will prevail or else the organization will not make its social contribution ::: “Knowledge knows no boundaries” ::: Of necessity every knowledge organization is of necessity non-national, non-community ::: Even if totally embedded in the local community
The employee society ::: Another way to describe the phenomenon of the society of organizations ::: Employees who work in subordinate and menial occupations ::: Service workers ::: The wage earner, the “worker” of yesterday ::: Knowledge workers ::: 1/3 of the work force ::: They own the “means of production” ::: Cannot, in effect, be supervised ::: Cannot be told what to do, how to do it, how fast to do it and so on ::: Unless they know more than anybody else in the organization they are to all intents and purposes useless ::: They hold a crucial card in their mobility ::: Organizations and knowledge workers are interdependent ::: “Loyalty” will have to be earned by proving to knowledge employees that the organization which presently employs them can offer them exceptional opportunities to be effective ::: Capital now serves the employee ::: From command and control to information-based to responsibility-based organizations (#responsibility #information word stem #contribut) ::: The Society of Organizations text society of organizations brainroad
Drucker book search
The Executive In Action Preface
There are many “How-to-Do-It” management books; few, however, tell the executive what to do, let alone why.
There are equally a great many “What-to-Do” management books; but few of them tell the executive how to do it.
Yet treatment without diagnosis is as useless as diagnosis without treatment.
In any practice the two go together — and Management is a Practice.
The three books of mine, here brought together in one volume, embrace the three dimensions of the successful practice of management:
Managing the Existing Business — Managing for Results
Changing Tomorrow’s Business — Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Managing Oneself — The Effective Executive
Each of these three books is distinct and self-contained.
Yet in the executive’s work the three are always joined.
Managing the Existing Business is the first day-to-day task
no matter how clear the executive’s vision;
no matter how brilliantly he or she plans for the future and innovates,
today’s business has to be managed for results now or there will be no tomorrow.
What knowledge is needed for that job?
What actions have to be taken?
What pitfalls to be avoided?
And what results should — perhaps must — be attained?
Conversely, the seemingly most successful business of today is a sham and a failure if it does not create its own and different tomorrow.
It must innovate and recreate its products or services but equally the enterprise itself.
Business is society’s change agent.
All other major institutions of society are designed to conserve if not to prevent change.
Business alone is designed to innovate.
No business will long survive, let alone prosper, unless it innovates successfully.
And neither innovation nor entrepreneurship are “inspiration,” let alone “flash of genius.”
They are disciplines and require concepts, tools, and organized, systematic work.
Finally, no matter how brilliant individual executives are or how hard they work, they will be failures and their efforts will be futile unless they are effective.
It is not so terribly difficult to be an effective executive.
All it requires are a few habits — that is, doing a few things day in and day out and not doing a few other things.
Yet few of the many executives with whom I have worked over more than fifty years were truly effective.
They were mostly very bright, worked mostly very hard, yet had little to show for their ability, their knowledge, their hard work.
The reason is simply that the modern organization — and with it executives in significant numbers — only emerged a little over a century ago and the human race is a slow learner.
To be sure, there have been “naturals” throughout human history.
The most effective executive on record of whom we have any information was surely that minister of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who, all of 4250 years ago, conceived the first pyramid (without any precedent whatever for such an edifice) designed it and built it — and it still stands today without once having to be “re-engineered.”
And he did so without any management books to help him and surely without having an MBA.
But we need far too many effective executives to depend on geniuses.
And then there is need for a discipline — the discipline for being an effective executive.
Together these three books should enable executives — whether high up in the organization or just beginning on their career — but also those men and women who are studying today to become executives tomorrow:
to know the right things to do;
to know how to do them; and
to do them effectively.
Together these three books provide The Tool Kit for Executive Action.
Claremont, Easter 1996
Peter F. Drucker
What Makes An Effective Executive
What Executives Should Remember
Managing Oneself — A Revolution In Human Affairs
The End of Economic Man #mbr
The Future of Industrial Man #mbr
Concept of the Corporation #mbr
Concept of the Corporation had an immediate impact on American business, on public service institutions, on government agencies — and none on General Motors!
3 Kinds of Intelligence — Niccolò Machiavelli
It appeared in early 1946, just when Henry Ford II, still only in his mid-twenties, had taken over a near-bankrupt Ford Motor Company that was even more denuded of management than it was short of cash and weak in market standing and products.
As both Henry Ford II and Ernest Breech, the GM-trained executive whom Henry Ford II brought in as his Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, have said and written repeatedly, it was Concept of the Corporation which they took as their text to save and to rebuild their company.
A few years later, in 1950, the General Electric Company took Concept of the Corporation as the basic blueprint for its own massive reorganization, which then became the model of organization structure and set off the big “organization boom” of the next twenty years.
In the course of this boom practically every large business anywhere in the non-Communist world restructured itself on the concepts of decentralization that GM had pioneered and that Concept of the Corporation first described and analyzed.
Almost immediately after its publication, the book also became the text for the restructuring of major state universities: Michigan and Michigan State, Minnesota, Iowa, and others all found their traditional structure totally inadequate to serve an exploding student population when the veterans of World War II streamed in under the G.I. Bill.
A few years later, when the United States unified its armed services, the first Secretaries of Defense, James Forrestal and George C. Marshall, both reached for Concept of the Corporation to find in it their organizational guidelines.
And so did Cardinal Spellman, at about the same time, when he tried to find new organizational principles for the Archdiocese of New York, which, as he asserted, had outgrown, in both size and complexity, the administrative and organizational lineaments of the world’s oldest organization chart, the Canon Law of the Catholic Church.
But Concept of the Corporation was not only even rejected by General Motors; it was studiously ignored by the company.
There was nothing personal in this.
On the contrary, with few exceptions every GM executive whom I met in the course of my study had been friendly or at least courteous, and willing to give me of his time despite the heavy burden which war production imposed on him.
And all of them, without exception, were patient with even the dumbest of my questions.
Some of these men became personal friends.
And not one of them tried to exert any pressure on me to change anything I had written.
GM’s most important executive, Alfred Sloan — Chairman, Chief Executive, and the main-force behind the company’s growth, its policies, and its organizational structure — always went out of his way to be friendly and helpful.
After the book was published, he repeatedly called me in to get my opinions on his two favorite projects, the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research Institute in New York and the Sloan School of Management at MIT.
Indeed he offered me the Management Chair at the Sloan School and was quite hurt when I, by then happily settled at the Graduate Business School of New York University, turned him down.
Yet, the book itself was totally unacceptable to most GM executives, and above all to Alfred Sloan himself.
Indeed, as he told me a good many times, my book made him sit down and write his own book on General Motors, My Years with General Motors (New York: Doubleday, 1964), primarily to refute Concept of the Corporation and to lay down what a book on GM should really be and should really focus on.
Even though Concept of the Corporation was then the only book on General Motors, it is not even mentioned in Sloan’s work.
And this treatment of it as a “nonbook” was by and large the standard reaction of GM and of its executives.
The book was not distributed within GM, was rarely, if ever, mentioned, and could not be found on the bookshelves in the offices of GM executives.
And when General Motors Institute, the company-owned, company-run engineering school which was the apple of Alfred Sloan’s eye, started to teach management a few years after Concept of the Corporation appeared, the book was not on its reading list and indeed, I was told, was not even to be found in the catalogue of the Institute’s library.
The three main reasons for this reaction on the part of GM explain in large part both GM’s great success in the post-World War II years, and GM’s later equally great failure: (1) the book’s attitude toward GM’s policies; (2) the recommendation on employee relations; and (3) the treatment of the large corporation as “affected with the public interest.”
Landmarks of Tomorrow — Book Contents
Introduction: This Post-Modern World circa 1959
At some unmarked point during the last twenty years we imperceptibly moved out of the Modern Age and into a new, as yet nameless, era.
The New Pluralism (1957)
Moving Beyond CAPITALISM
Our view of the world changed; we acquired a new perception and with it new capacities.
There are new frontiers of opportunity, risk and challenge.
There is a new spiritual center to human existence.
The old view of the world, the old tasks and the old center, calling themselves “modern” and “up to date” only a few years ago, just make no sense any more.
They still provide our rhetoric, whether of politics or of science, at home or in foreign affairs.
But the slogans and battle cries of all parties, be they political, philosophical, aesthetic or scientific, no longer serve to unite for action—though they still can divide in heat and emotion.
Our actions are already measured against the stern demands of the “today,” the “post-modern world” and yet we have no theories, no concepts, no slogans—no real knowledge—about the new reality.
↑ finding and selecting the pieces of the puzzle ↓
Indeed anyone over forty lives in a different world from that in which he came to manhood, lives as if he had emigrated, fully grown, to a new and strange country.
For three hundred years, from the middle of the seventeenth century on, the West lived in the Modern Age; and during the last century this modern West became the norm of philosophy and politics, society, science and economy all over the globe, became the first truly universal world order.
Today it is no longer living reality—but the new world, though real, if not indeed obvious to us, is not yet established.
We thus live in an age of transition, an age of overlap, in which the old “modern” of yesterday no longer acts effectively but still provides means of expression, standards of expectations and tools of ordering, while the new, the “post-modern,” still lacks definition, expression and tools but effectively controls our actions and their impact.
This book is a report on the new post-modern today we live in—nothing more.
It does not deal with the future.
It deals with the tangible present.
Indeed I have tried to resist the temptation to speculate about what might be, let alone to predict what will be.
I have not even tried to pull together into one order of values and perceptions what are still individual pieces.
↑ finding and selecting the pieces of the puzzle
Till this is done, we shall not, of course, have a really new age with its own distinct character and worldview; we shall only be “post” something else.
As I saw the job, it was to understand rather than to innovate, to describe rather than to imagine.
This is, of course, by far the smaller and less important of the tasks to be done; we still need the great imaginer, the great creative thinker, the great innovator, of a new synthesis, of a new philosophy and of new institutions.
This book encompasses a very wide horizon; yet it is incomplete.
Essentially I have tried to cover three big areas, each representing a major dimension of human life and experience:
The new view of the world, the new concepts, the new human capacities:
The first part of the book (Chapters One, Two and Three) treats the philosophical shift from the Cartesian universe of mechanical cause to the new universe of pattern, purpose and process.
I have also explored our new power purposefully to innovate, both technologically and socially, and the resulting emergence of new opportunity, new risk and new responsibility.
There is a discussion of the new power to organize men of knowledge and high skill for joint effort and performance through the exercise of responsible judgment, which has given us both the new and central institution of the large organization and a new ideal of social order in which society and individual become mutually dependent poles of human freedom and achievement.
The new frontiers, the new tasks and opportunities:
The second part (Chapters Four through Nine) sketches four new realities, each of them a challenge, above all to the peoples of the Free World.
The first is the emergence of Educated Society—a society in which only the educated man is truly productive, in which increasingly everybody will, at least in respect to years spent in school, have received a higher education, and in which the educational status of a country becomes a controlling factor in international competition and survival.
What does this mean for society and the individual?
What does it mean for education?
The second is the emergence of Economic Development—“Up to Poverty”—as the new, common vision and goal of humanity, and of international and interracial class war as the new threat.
Third is the decline of the government of the nation-state, the “modern government” of yesteryear, its increasing inability to govern internally and to act internationally.
And fourth is the new reality of the collapse of the “East,” that is of non-Western culture and civilization, to the point where no viable society anywhere can be built except upon Western formulations.
A short concluding section—only a few paragraphs—asks:
What does all this mean for the nations of the West and for the direction, goals and principles of their government and policies?
The human situation:
The third and last part (Chapter Ten) is concerned with the new spiritual—or, if one prefers the word, metaphysical—reality of human existence: the fact that both knowledge and power have become absolute, have gained the capacity for absolute destruction beyond which no refinement, no increase is meaningful any more.
This, for the first time since the dawn of our civilization, forces us to think through the nature, function and control of both.
Though I have tried to be faithful to the facts I am certain that I have often misunderstood them—as any newcomer to a strange country is bound to misunderstand.
Though I have tried to be objective I am conscious of my Western background, and of my bias—that of the great tradition of European and especially Anglo-American conservatism with its beliefs in liberty, law and justice, in responsibility and work, in the uniqueness of the person and the fallibility of the creature.
I am equally conscious of the limitations of my knowledge and understanding—above all of my weaknesses in the creative arts.
But, still, I hope that the aim of this book: to report and to give understanding, has been reached at least to the point where it conveys to the reader both the shock of recognition—how obvious the unfamiliar new already is; and the shock of estrangement—how irrelevant the familiar modern of yesterday has already become.
Landmarks of Tomorrow — Introduction: This Post-Modern World ::: Essentially I have tried to cover three big areas ::: The new view of the world, the new concepts, the new human capacities ::: The new frontiers, the new tasks and opportunities ::: The human situation ::: Newcomer to a Strange Country ::: The New World-View ::: “The Whole Is the Sum of Its Parts” ::: From Cause to Configuration ::: The Purposeful Universe ::: Toward a New Philosophy ::: From Progress to Innovation ::: The New Perception Of Order ::: The Research Explosion ::: Man and Change ::: Innovation and Knowledge ::: The Power of Organized Ignorance ::: The Power of Innovation ::: The Open-Ended Technology ::: From Reform to Social Innovation ::: Innovation—The New Conservatism? ::: The Risks of Innovation ::: Plan or No Plan? ::: Local Plan or No Plan ::: Innovation as Responsibility ::: Beyond Collectivism and Individualism ::: The New Organization (hospital transformation — nurses)::: The Capacity to Organize ::: Individual Work and Teamwork ::: From Magnate To Manager ::: Specialist and Manager ::: Power and Responsibility in Organization ::: The Organization Man ::: The Discipline of Managing ::: The Principle of Organization ::: Beyond Collectivism And Individualism ::: The Middle-Class Society ::: Freedom in Dynamic Order ::: The New Frontiers ::: The Educated Society ::: - The Educational Revolution ::: The Scale of the Explosion ::: The Impact on Society ::: The Educational Competition ::: Society’s Capital Investment ::: An Economic Analysis ::: Teachers and Teaching ::: How to Pay ::: Education For What? ::: Society’s Stake ::: The General versus the Special ::: Learning by Doing ::: The Educational Whole ::: The Social Responsibility of Education ::: “Up to Poverty" ::: The Frontier of Development ::: The Agents of Revolution ::: The Promise and the Danger ::: Is Economic Development Possible? ::: The “Take-off Crisis” ::: The Agriculture Problem ::: Distribution and Credit ::: “Social Overhead” Costs ::: The Problem of Attitudes ::: The Ultimate Resource ::: Building An Industrial Society ::: The Role of Money ::: Leadership by Example ::: The Problems We Face ::: Modern Government in Extremis ::: The End Of The Liberal State ::: The Definition of Modern Government ::: The Rise of the Liberal State ::: The Decline of the Liberal State ::: The New Pluralism ::: The New Metropolis ::: The Crisis of Government ::: Pluralism and the Common Interest ::: The Vanishing East ::: Success or Failure of the West? ::: The Failure of the East ::: Can the West and the New East Meet? ::: The Work to Be Done ::: Our Self-Delusion ::: The New Frontiers ::: The Human Situation Today ::: The Control of Power ::: Knowledge and Human Existence ::: Living in an Age of Overlap continue
Dense reading and Dense Listening
Thinking broad and Thinking detailed
Decisions ::: Topic work ::: Action plans ::: Communications
The Practice of Management (1954) Preface #mbr
Management books, though only few of them, had been written and published before The Practice of Management appeared in 1954.
I myself had published in 1946 my first management book, Concept of the Corporation (New York: John Day).
A few years earlier, in 1938, Chester I. Barnard’s The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press) had appeared.
The papers on management Mary Parker Follett had written in the 1920s and early 1930s were collected and published under the title Dynamic Administration (New York: Harper & Brothers) in 1941.
Elton Mayo, the Australian-born Harvard professor, had published his two short books on work and worker: The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan) and The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press) in 1933 and 1945, respectively.
The English translation of Henry Fayol’s Industrial and General Administration —first published in Paris in 1916—had come out in 1930 (London, England: Pitman); and Frederick W. Taylor’s Scientific Management had come out even earlier, in 1911 (New York: Harper & Brothers), and had been reprinted many times since.
Every one of these books is still being read widely, and deserves to be read widely.
Every one was a major achievement.
Every one laid firm and lasting foundations; indeed, in their respective fields, none has yet been surpassed.
There are no better guides to what we now call organizational psychology and organizational development than Barnard and Mary Parker Follett.
When we talk of “quality circles” and “worker involvement,” we only echo what Elton Mayo wrote forty and fifty years ago.
Fayol’s language is outdated, but his insights into the work of management (not the tasks of management) and its organization are still fresh and original.
Little has been added in respect to top management, its functions and its policies to what I wrote in Concept of the Corporation .
And we find ourselves today going back to Taylor in order to understand the work of knowledge-workers and to learn how to make knowledge-work productive.
Still, The Practice of Management was the first true “management” book.
It was the first to look at management as a whole, the first that attempted to depict management as a distinct function, managing as specific work, and being a manager as a distinct responsibility.
All earlier books had dealt with one aspect of management and managing—with communications, for instance, as did Barnard’s Functions of the Executive , or with top management, organizational structure, and corporate policy, as did my Concept of the Corporation .
The Practice of Management talks of “managing a business,” “managing managers,” and “the management of worker and work”—the titles, respectively, of Parts One,Two, and Four.
It talks of “the structure of management” (Part Three) but also of “making decisions” (Chapter 28).
It talks of “the nature of management,” its role, its jobs, and the challenges managements face.
But it also talks of managers as people, of the individual men and women who perform managerial work and hold managerial positions: their qualifications, their development, their responsibilities, their values.
The Practice of Management has a chapter entitled “The Spirit of an Organization” (Chapter 13), in which can be found everything that is now discussed under the heading of “corporate culture.”
The Practice of Management was the first book to talk of “objectives,” to define “key result areas,” to outline how to set #objectives, and to describe how to use them to direct and steer a business and to measure its performance.
Indeed The Practice of Management probably invented the term “objectives” at least, it is not to be found in the earlier literature.
And The Practice of Management was the first book to discuss both managing the existing business and innovating the business of tomorrow.
Conditions for survival
Perhaps even more important—and certainly more novel—was the fact that The Practice of Management was a “first” also in that it saw the enterprise as a whole .
All earlier management books — and indeed most management books even now — only see one aspect.
Indeed, they usually see only the internal dimension : organization, policies, human relations within the organization, authority within it, and so on.
The Practice of Management portrays the enterprise three-dimensionally:
first, as a “business” that is an institution existing to produce economic results outside of it, in the market and for customers;
second, as a human and social “organization” which employs people, has to develop them, has to pay them, has to organize them for productivity, and therefore requires governance, embodies values and creates relationships of power and responsibility; and
third, as a “social institution” embedded in society and community and thus affected by the public interest.
The Practice of Management also discusses the “social responsibilities of business”—a term that was practically unknown at the time the book was published.
The Practice of Management thus created some thirty years ago what we now refer to as the “discipline” of management.
And this was neither accident nor good luck—it was the book’s mission and intent.
When I wrote The Practice of Management , I had ten years’ successful consulting practice under my belt.
My own starting point had been neither business nor management.
To be sure, I had, much earlier, worked for banks—one short year in Germany, three years in England.
But I had become a writer and journalist and taught government and political science.
I thus came to management almost by accident.
In 1942 I published a book, The Future of Industrial Man , in which I argued that a good many of the social tasks which community and family had performed in earlier societies had come to be discharged by organizations and especially by the business enterprise.
This book attracted the attention of a senior executive of the world’s largest manufacturing company, General Motors, who, in the late fall of 1943, invited me to make an in-depth study of his top management, its structure and its basic policies.
Out of this study grew Concept of the Corporation , finished in 1945 and published in 1946.
I found the work fascinating—but also frustrating.
There was practically nothing to help me prepare myself for it.
Worse, what few books on management and business enterprise existed were totally inadequate.
Landmarks of Tomorrow
They dealt with one aspect, and one aspect only, as if it existed in isolation.
They reminded me of a book on human anatomy that would discuss one joint in the body—the elbow, for instance—without even mentioning the arm, let alone the skeleton and musculature. #pta
Worse still, there were no studies at all on most aspects of management.
Yet what made management and the work of the manager so interesting, I thought, was precisely that there was always a true whole, a three-dimensional entity.
Managing, I soon learned, always had to take into account
the results and performance for the sake of which the business exists,
the internal organization of people engaged in a common task and
the outside social dimension —the dimension of social impacts and social responsibilities.
Yet nothing could be found on most of these topics, let alone on their relationship to one another.
Plenty of books existed at the time on the impact of government policy on business; indeed, courses on government regulation of business were then—and still are—highly popular.
But what about the impact of business on society and community?
There was ample material on corporate finance—but virtually nothing on business policy and so on.
I continued for some time as a consultant to General Motors after I had finished my study.
And then I gradually was called in to consult by some other large corporations—Sears, Roebuck, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, General Electric. #mbr
Everywhere I found the same situation : a near-total absence of study, thought and knowledge regarding the job, function and challenges of management—nothing but fragments and specialized monographs.
And so I decided to sit down, first to map out that “dark continent,” management, then to define what pieces were missing and had to be forged and finally to put the whole together into one systematic, organized—yet short—book.
↑ finding and selecting the pieces of the puzzle #fastp
In my consulting assignments I was meeting large numbers of able younger people, people in middle- and upper-middle management positions or in their first major assignment, either as a manager or as an individual professional contributor.
These were the people who knew that they were managers —their predecessors, who had made their careers before World War II, were often barely conscious of that fact.
These younger achieving people knew that they needed systematic knowledge; needed concepts, principles, tools—and had none.
It was for them that I wrote the book.
And it was that generation which made the book an immediate success, that generation which converted being a manager from being a “rank” into work, function and responsibility.
And the book was an immediate success, not only in the United States but worldwide, in Europe, in Latin America and, especially, in Japan.
Indeed, the Japanese consider it the foundation of their economic success and industrial performance.
Some of my subsequent management books have taken one major theme of The Practice of Management and developed it at greater length—for instance, Managing for Results (1964), which was the first book on business strategy connect, and The Effective Executive (1966), which treats managing oneself as a manager and executive in an organization.
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (1973) was written as a systematic handbook for the practicing executive but also as a systematic text for the student of management; it thus aims at being comprehensive and definitive, whereas The Practice of Management aims at being accessible and stimulating.
Managing in Turbulent Times (1980) further develops basic questions raised in The Practice of Management #question #ntea #lter
What is our business?
What could it be?
What should it be?
but also considers the question of how a business both innovates and maintains continuity in a time of change, thus turning change into opportunity.
These four volumes—all originally published by Harper & Row—have now come out as Harper paperbacks in the same format as this paperback edition of The Practice of Management .
But The Practice of Management has remained the one book which students of management, young people aspiring to become managers and mature managers still consider the foundation book.
“If you read only one book on management,” the chairman of one of the world’s largest banks tells his officers again and again, “read The Practice of Management .”
What explains this success is, I believe, the book’s balance between being comprehensive and being accessible and easy to read.
Each chapter is short, yet each presents the fundamentals in their entirety.
This is, of course, the result of the book’s origins; I wanted something that would give the managers I was working with in my client companies everything they would need to do their jobs and prepare themselves for top-management responsibilities; yet the material had to be accessible, had to be readable, had to fit the limited time and attention busy people could give to it.
It is this balance, I believe, that has made this book keep on selling and being read for thirty years despite the plethora of books on management that have been written and published since.
This balance, I believe, has made it the preferred book of the practitioner of management and of those who aspire to become managers, in public-service organizations as well as in businesses.
And I hope this paperback edition will serve the same function and make the same contribution to new generations of students, aspiring young management professionals, and seasoned practitioners for years to come.
table of contents
PETER F. DRUCKER
Thanksgiving Day, 1985
Where do I begin to read Drucker? #whtmal
Management and the World’s Work #pdf
↑ In less than 150 years, (circa 1988)
management has transformed the social and economic fabric
of the world’s developed countries.
It has created a global economy
and set new rules for countries
that would participate in that economy as equals. ↓
Post Capitalist Executive
#caf #pdbooks ↓ List of Drucker book contents
#fan “For almost nothing in our educational systems prepares people for the reality in which they will live, work, and become effective” — Peter Drucker in The New Realities
“Thinking is the most fundamental of all human skills.
The quality of our future will depend directly on the quality of our thinking.
Is it then not only astonishing but also absurd that thinking is not the core subject in all education
and the central subject on any school curriculum” — Edward de Bono
Practice of Management — The Nature of Management ::: The Role of Management ::: The Jobs of Management ::: The Challenge to Management ::: Managing a Business ::: The Sears Story ::: What is a Business? ::: What is Our Business—and What Should it be? ::: The #Objectives of a Business ::: Today's Decisions for Tomorrow's Results ::: The Principles of Production ::: Managing Managers ::: The Ford Story ::: Management by #Objectives and Self-Control ::: Managers must manage ::: The spirit of an organization ::: Chief Executive and Board ::: Developing Managers ::: Structure of Management ::: What kind of Structure ::: Building the Structure ::: The Small, The large, the growing business ::: The Management of Worker and Work ::: The IBM Story ::: Employing the Whole Man ::: Is Personnel Management Bankrupt? ::: Human Organization For Peak Performance ::: Motivating To Peak Performance ::: The Economic Dimension ::: The Supervisor ::: The Professional Employee ::: What parts of this can be done by top management and what part by the manager in charge of the operation ::: What it Means to be a Manager ::: The Manger and His Work ::: Making Decisions #PDFs ::: The Manager of Tomorrow ::: Conclusion: The Responsibilities of Management continue
The Poverty of Economic Theory #pdf
… the real pattern of economic activity
larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two
The Forces Creating a New Geography of Opportunity?
The Management Revolution ↑ ::: Developing countries
by JAMES K. GALBRAITH
Jul 23, 2021
Although neoclassical economics relies on assumptions that should have been discarded long ago, it remains the mainstream orthodoxy.
Three recent books, and one older one, help to show why its staying power should be regarded as a scandal.
Mason Gaffney and Fred Harrison, The Corruption of Economics Shepheard-Walwyn Publishers Ltd., 2006 (first published 1994.
Stephen A. Marglin, Raising Keynes: A Twenty-First-Century General Theory, Harvard University Press, 2021.
Alessandro Roncaglia, The Age of Fragmentation: A History of Contemporary Economic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Robert Skidelsky, What’s Wrong with Economics?: A Primer for the Perplexed, Yale University Press, 2020.
AUSTIN – Self-regarding economics departments at prestigious academic institutions no longer bother to teach the history of economic thought — a field that I studied at Yale University in 1977, forever compromising my academic career.
Why was the topic abandoned – and even shunned and mocked?
Students with a skeptical turn of mind would not be wrong to suspect that it was for scandalous reasons (as when, in past centuries, inconvenient aunts were locked away in garrets).
The four books reviewed here each uncover parts of the scandal.
Three are brand new, and the other, The Corruption of Economics, first appeared in 1994 and was re-issued in 2006.
Its principal author, the American economist Mason Gaffney, kept his remarkable pen flowing until passing away last summer at the age of 96.
ECONOMICS WITHOUT HISTORY
Robert Skidelsky is a historian, an epic biographer of John Maynard Keynes, and a prolific debater in the United Kingdom’s House of Lords.
He calls What’s Wrong with Economics? a “primer,” and it is indeed the most accessible of the four books.
Skidelsky’s education in the history of economics resembles my own: a wide reading of the classical authors – Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, and others – followed by those associated with the “neoclassical” or “marginalist” revolution of the 1870s.
Some Books by Peter Drucker ↓ #bbpfd #sda
Men, Ideas, and Politics — Preface ::: “Political (or social) ecology” ::: The aim is an understanding of the specific natural environment of man, his “policical ecology,” as a prerequisite to effective and responsible action, as an executive, as a policy-maker, as a teacher, and as a #citizen. ::: The New Markets And The New Entrepreneurs ::: The Unfashionable Kierkegaard ::: Notes On The New Politics ::: This Romantic Generation ::: Calhoun’s Pluralism ::: American Directions ::: The Secret Art Of Being An Effective President ::: Henry Ford ::: The American Genius Is Political ::: Japan Tries For A Second Miracle ::: What We Can Learn From Japanese Management ::: Keynes: Economics As A Magical System ::: The Economic Basis Of American Politics continue
Technology, Management, Society — Preface ::: Information, Communications and Understanding ::: What We Have Learned ::: Communication Is Perception ::: Communication Is Expectations ::: Communication Is Involvement ::: Communication and Information Are Different and Largely Opposite—Yet Interdependent ::: Management’s New Role ::: The Old Assumptions ::: Management is management of business, and business is unique and the exception in society ::: “Social responsibilities” of management ::: The primary task of management is to mobilize the energies of the business organization ::: It is the manual worker ::: Management is a “science” or at least a “discipline” ::: Management is the result of economic development ::: —And the New Realities ::: Every major task of developed society is being carried out ::: Because our society is rapidly becoming a society of organizations ::: Entrepreneurial innovation will be as important to management as the managerial function ::: A primary task of management in the developed countries in the decades ahead ::: There are management tools and techniques ::: Management creates economic and social development ::: Admittedly, these new assumptions oversimplify ::: Work and Tools ::: Work and Tools-1 ::: Work and Tools-2 ::: Work and Tools-3 ::: Work and Tools-4 ::: Technological Trends in the Twentieth Century ::: The Structure of Technological Work ::: The Methods of Technological Work ::: The Systems Approach ::: Technology and Society in the Twentieth Century ::: The Pretechnological Civilization of 1900 ::: Technology Remakes Social Institutions ::: Emancipation of Women ::: Changes in the Organization of Work ::: The Role of Education ::: Change in Warfare ::: A Worldwide Technological Civilization ::: Man Moves into a Man-made Environment ::: Modern Technology and the Human Horizon ::: Technology and Man ::: The Once and Future Manager ::: The Conglomerates Will Be the Stranded Giants of the Next Decade ::: Never Look at Any One Measure Alone in Any Business; Look at Multiple Measures ::: The First Yardstick by Which Management Is Judged Is, Do They Keep Us Busy? ::: The Facts and the Myth of Job Mobility in America Are Not Necessarily the Same ::: Small Business Has Done Much Better Than Any Other in the Last Twenty Years ::: The Main Impact of the Computer Has Been to Create Unlimited Jobs for Clerks ::: The Job Which Most Managers Were Brought Up to Spend Most Time on Will Disappear ::: Is the Traditional Organization Structure Going to Work Tomorrow as It Has till Now? ::: Managers Have to Accept That Industrial Relations Will Become Increasingly Bitter ::: The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessons ::: Long-Range Planning ::: Business #Objectives and Survival Needs ::: The Need for a Theory of Business Behavior ::: What Are the Survival Needs of Business Enterprise? ::: The Work to Be Done ::: An Operational View of the Budgeting Process ::: The Manager and the Moron ::: The Obsolescence of Experience ::: Enter the Knowledge Utility ::: A New Age of Information ::: Managing the Moron ::: Beyond the Numbers Barrier ::: The Technological Revolution: Notes on the Relationship of Technology, Science, and Culture ::: Can Management Ever Be a Science? continue
Technology, Management and Society Preface
There should be underlying unity to a collection of essays.
There should be a point of view, a central theme, an organ point around which the whole volume composes itself.
And there is, I believe, such fundamental unity to this volume of essays, even though they date from more than a dozen years ago and discuss a variety of topics.
One of the essays, “Work and Tools,” states: “Technology is not about tools, it deals with how Man works.”
This might be the device of this entire volume, if not, indeed, for my entire work over the years.
All the essays in this volume deal with one or the other aspect of what used to be called “the material civilization”: they all deal with man’s tools and his materials, with his institutions and organizations, and with the way he works and makes his living.
But throughout, work and materials, organizations and a living are seen as “extensions of man,” rather than as material artifacts and part of inanimate nature.
If I were to reflect on my own position over the years, I would say that, from the very beginning, I rejected the common nineteenth-century view which divided man’s society into “culture,” dealing with ideas and symbols, and “civilization,” dealing with artifacts and things.
“Civilization” to me has always been a part of man’s personality, and an area in which he expressed his basic ideals, his dreams, his aspirations, and his values.
Some of the essays in this volume are about technology and its history.
Some are about management and managers.
Some are about specific tools—the computer, for instance.
But all of them are about man at work; all are about man trying to make himself #effective.
An essay collection, however, should also have diversity.
It should break an author’s thought and work the way a prism breaks light.
Indeed, the truly enjoyable essay collection is full of surprises as the same author, dealing with very much the same areas, is suddenly revealed in new guises and suddenly reveals new facets of his subject.
The essays collected in this volume deal with only one of the major areas that have been of concern to me—the area of the “material civilization.”
But there is a good deal of variety in them.
Five of the twelve essays in this volume deal with technology, its history and its impact on man and his culture.
They range in time, however, from a look at the “first technological revolution,” seven thousand years ago, when the irrigation cities created what we still call “modern civilization,” to an attempt to evaluate the position of technology in our present century.
They all assume that history cannot be written, let alone make sense, unless it takes technology into account and is aware of the development, of man’s tools and his use of them through the ages.
This, needless to say, is not a position historians traditionally have held; there are only signs so far that they are beginning to realize that technology has been with us from the earliest date and has always been an intimate and integral part of man’s experience, man’s society, and man’s history.
At the same time, these essays all assume that the technologist, to use his tools constructively, has to know a good deal of history and has to see himself and his discipline in relationship to man and society — and that has been an even less popular position among technologists than the emphasis on technology has been among historians.
Four essays in this volume—the first two, the essay, “The Once and Future Manager,” and the essay on “Business Objectives and Survival Needs”—look upon the manager as the agent of today’s society and upon management as a central social function.
They assume that managers handle tools, assume that managers know their tools thoroughly and are willing to acquire new ones as needed.
But, above all, they ask the question, “What results do we expect from the manager; what results does his enterprise, whether a business or, a government agency, need from him?
What results, above all, do our society and the human beings that compose it have a right to expect from a manager and from management?”
The concern is with management as it affects the quality of life — that management can provide the quantities of life is taken as proven.
The remaining three essays (“Long-Range Planning,” “The Manager and the Moron,” and “Can Management Ever Be a Science?”) deal with basic approaches and techniques.
They are focused on management within the enterprise rather than on management as a social function.
But they stress constantly the purpose of management, which is not to be efficient but to be productive, for the human being, for economy, for society.
An essay collection, finally, should convey the personality of the author better than a book can.
This is why I enjoy reading essays.
It should bring out a man’s style, a man’s wit, and the texture of a man’s mind.
Whether this essay collection does this, I leave to the reader to judge.
But I do hope that these twelve essays of mine, written for different purposes and at different times over the last twelve years, will also help to establish the bond between author and writer, which, in the last analysis, is why a writer writes and a reader reads.
Managing for Results ::: Understanding the business ::: The business realities ::: There are three different dimensions to the economic task ::: The present business must be made effective. ::: The present business's potential must be identified and realized. ::: It must be made into a different business for a different future. ::: One unified strategy ::: Requires an understanding of the true realities ::: of the business as an economic system ::: of its capacity for economic performance and ::: of the relationship between available resources and possible results ::: The generalizations regarding results and resources ::: Results and resources exist outside the business. ::: Results are obtained by exploiting opportunities ::: Economic results are earned only by leadership ::: Any leadership position is transitory and likely to be short-lived. ::: The generalizations regarding efforts within the business and their cost. ::: Making the business fit the realities of today ::: Allocating efforts/cost to high revenue producing activities ::: #Concentration is the key to economic results. ::: Result area identification ::: Nothing succeeds like concentration on the right business. ::: The basic business #analysis ::: Identify & understand those areas in a business for which results can measured ::: Defining the product/service ::: 3 dimensions of business results ::: The burden of pushing through the step-by-step process of analysis ::: Revenues, resources, prospects ::: Relate result areas to the revenue contribution and share of cost burden ::: Question ::: What are the essential, few but fundamental #facts on which to base a diagnosis of a business and its result areas? ::: Concepts apply to … ::: Products/services ::: Customers, markets, end-uses ::: Distributive channels ::: The form of analysis examines the entire product range of a business ::: - "Revenue contribution" based on transaction cost ::: Allocation of key resources to each result area. ::: - "Key resources" committed to result areas : quality /purpose ::: Questions ::: What are the scarce & expensive resources being used for? ::: In what areas are they deployed? ::: Are they applied to opportunities or to problems? ::: And to the most promising opportunities? ::: Key resources … ::: Knowledge-people resources - trained people ::: Money/working capital ::: Quality of resources vs. total resources ::: Mobility of resources ::: Analysis format : people ::: Product ::: Revenue ::: Quantity & quality of key personnel support ::: Analysis format : money ::: Product identification ::: Revenue ::: Money allocation as a % of company totals ::: Leadership position and prospects of each result area. ::: - "Leadership"(outside) analysis & growth prospects(future) ::: Leadership ::: Not a quantitative term. ::: Product must be ::: Best fitted for one or more of the genuine wants of market or customer. ::: Customer must be willing to pay for. ::: Preferring the product to its competitors ::: Market size, development, monopoly, & market position ::: Need to be the leader in the areas of the business ::: which are the mainstay of the business ::: produce the bulk of the sales ::: generate the bulk of the costs ::: absorb the most important & most valuable resources ::: Foundations of leadership position ::: Analysis format ::: Product … ::: Revenue ::: Leadership position & comments ::: Short-term prospects ::: Tentative diagnosis of result areas ::: Classify the result area ::: Factors involved in diagnosing the product ::: What to do with a result area diagnosed as… ::: Analysis format ::: Anticipate a change in the character of a product ::: Cost analysis ::: What matters about costs ::: Prerequisites for effective cost control p.69 ::: To be able to control cost need an analysis that: ::: Identifies the "cost centers" ::: Finds the important "cost points" in each major cost center ::: Looks at the entire business as one cost stream ::: Defines cost as what the customer pays rather than by entities ::: Classifies cost [points] according to their basic characteristics ::: Tied to market analysis before action ::: Format ::: Conclusions: ::: What to tackle? ::: Where to go to work? ::: What to aim at? ::: Market analysis ::: Introduction ::: How are we doing? Is answered by the analysis of the business. ::: How do we know whether we are doing the right things ::: What in other words is our business—and what should our business be ::: Business is a process which ::: The purpose of a business is to create a customer. ::: Need to find out what one gets paid for. ::: The disparity between what producers and customers see as related products ::: People inside a business can rarely be expected to recognize their own distinct knowledge ::: An appraisal of ::: Looking at one's own business from the outside. ::: The #marketing realities ::: These marketing realities lead to one conclusion ::: The market analysis ::: Market analysis is a good deal more than ordinary market research or customer research ::: Other books ::: Analytical questions ::: Analysis worksheets ::: Picture ::: Knowledge analysis ::: Knowledge ::: Need a leadership position and differentiation ::: What a business is able to do with excellence may be quite humdrum but this one does much better ::: May be purely technological ::: Examples—from an outsiders point of view ::: Uncovering one's specific business knowledge strengths ::: What have we done well? ::: What have we done poorly? ::: What explains our performance? ::: Ask good customers: what do we do for you that no one else does as well? ::: Need to learn to set goals and measure in terms of one's specific knowledge ::: Knowledge realities ::: A valid definition of the specific knowledge of a business is deceptively simple. ::: Takes practice to do a knowledge analysis well. ::: Knowledge is a perishable commodity. ::: Every knowledge becomes the wrong knowledge. ::: Need to concentration on doing a few things superbly well ::: Evaluations (diagnosis)—how good is our knowledge? ::: Do we have the right knowledge? ::: How effectively the right knowledge is being used? ::: The conclusions ::: - of the knowledge analysis ::: must be fed back into the marketing analysis to bring out market opportunities that might have been missed or underrated. ::: of the market analysis ::: are projected on the knowledge analysis ::: to bring out needs for new and changed knowledge. ::: Superimpose ::: Combining the various analysis ::: The analysis ::: Results, revenues, resources ::: Cost centers and cost structure ::: Marketing ::: Knowledge ::: Should be able to ::: Understand itself ::: Diagnose itself ::: Direct itself ::: Market analysis ￼ knowledge analysis: Needs for new or changed knowledge. ::: Knowledge analysis ￼ market analysis: Missed or underrated market opportunities. ::: Reexamine tentative diagnois in light of the market and knowledge analysis ::: Change of classification ::: Change of definition ::: Change in the way products/services, channels, markets/customers/end-uses fit together. ::: Substantial modification in … ::: Radical reclassification of costs and to change in the deployment ::: Examples of actions taken ::: What is lacking (3 gaps) ::: Need a major development ::: Lack of "adequate support" to exploit opportunities & success ::: Gap in knowledge needs & opportunities ::: The end result of the self-analysis ::: The business's contribution ::: Knowledge area excellences ::: Target result areas ::: Vehicles required to reach these targets ::: The leadership position required in each result area ::: Focus on opportunity ::: Building on strength ::: Ideal business concept ::: Maximizing opportunities ::: Maximizing resources ::: What these approaches have in common ::: The three together (what they do) ::: Procedure ::: Develop concept of ideal business ::: Design of the ideal business ::: IDEAL BUSINESS design controls itself ::: The "present" ::: Important thing is to get Major Results fast. ::: Project the ideal business design on the analysis of the existing business ::: Sort all the … into 3 categories ::: Push priorities ::: Rapid & purposeful abandonment ::: Also rans ::: What are the different things that ought to be done? ::: Identify replacements ::: Distinguishing between a replacement and a development ::: Should never present great technical difficulty. ::: Identify innovations ::: Examples ::: Innovation is ::: Questions: describing the need ::: What is lacking to make effective what is already possible? ::: What one small step would transform our economic results? ::: What small change would alter the capacity of the ::: Decide whether the results can be obtained ::: Maximizing resources/staffing for performance ::: Obstacles ::: Opportunity & resource ranking ::: List & rank opportunities ::: List & rank first-rate people & staff groups ::: The highest ranked opportunities is assigned all the high ranking ::: The next ranking opportunity comes next ::: Finding business potential ::: Restraints & limitations ::: Questions ::: The restraints of the business and industry ::: The vulnerabilities of the business and industry ::: The limitations of the business and industry ::: Examples ::: The essentials ::: Three major areas in which restraint should be looked for ::: The most promising area of potential is the built-in restraint of a business. ::: Imbalances—turning weaknesses into strengths ::: Chronic imbalance ::: Cost structure ::: The required action depends on the cause of the imbalance ::: Imbalances in support/policing activities or waste ::: Imbalances caused by productive efforts ::: Most important cases—Businesses that are the wrong size ::: Threats ::: Examples ::: Hidden opportunity in developments that seem to threaten a business or industry ::: What everybody in the business "knows" can never happen should be examined carefully. ::: What opportunities does this trend offer? ::: Conclusion ::: Making the future today ::: The future ::: We know only two things about the future: ::: The implications ::: On risk ::: The one thing that man can try ::: The future that has already happened ::: The clues/sources of change ::: Knowledge ::: Major cultural changes ::: Industry and marketing structures ::: Population ::: Other industries, countries, markets ::: Internal friction within the company. ::: A business or activity that has reached its #objectives. ::: Own assumptions ::: Looking for the future that has already happened ::: The power of this approach ::: Making the future happen (the power of an idea) ::: A different idea. ::: An entrepreneurial idea. ::: Source of the idea ::: By converting an existing theoretical proposition into and effective business. ::: By converting an existing idea into a business ::: Merely imitation of something that works in another country or industry ::: What's needed? ::: Willingness to ask ::: Willingness to look beyond products to ideas ::: Requires courage to commit resources to such an idea. ::: A touchstone of validity and practicality. ::: Operation validity ::: Economic validity ::: Personal commitment ::: Is this necessary? ::: A personal opportunity. ::: Performance program ::: Key decisions ::: Idea of the business ::: The requirements of validity ::: Sums up the answers to the questions: ::: It establishes #objectives ::: It sets goals & direction ::: It determines what ::: The specific excellence the business needs ::: What is our excellence? ::: Very different definitions of excellence can be equally valid. ::: Basis for the decisions on personnel: ::: Cannot be changed very often ::: The priorities ::: There have to be priority decisions or nothing will get done. ::: Priority decisions ::: Need to set posteriorities ::: Principles of maximizing opportunities & resources govern the priority decisions ::: The key decisions must be made systematically. ::: What ever a company's program, it must ::: Decide on the right opportunities and right risks ::: A business has to try to minimize risks. ::: No way to make sure that the right opportunities are chosen. ::: Opportunities ::: Risks need to be classified ::: Decide on scope & structure ::: Every business needs a core - an area where it leads ::: Must specialize. ::: Must diversify. ::: The balance between the two ::: Determines the scope ::: Largely determines the productivity of the company's resource. ::: The perfect balance can be easily upset. ::: Integration is often used as a means to diversify or concentrate. ::: Seek the right balance between … ::: specialization ::: diversification ::: integration ::: These are strategies of high impact & high risk. ::: Need a map of concentration, diversification, and integration ::: Decide between "building one's own" & "buying" to attain one's goals. ::: Main thrust of development comes from within - requires time. ::: Financial strategies & the tools of finance: ::: Sale of subsidiary business or product line ::: Acquisition or merger ::: Joint venture ::: Decide on organization structure ::: Appropriate to: ::: Its economic realities. ::: Its opportunities. ::: Its program for performance. ::: Structure has to highlight the results that are truly meaningful ::: As changes occur: ::: One job that always needs to be organized as a distinct ::: Implementing the program ::: Building economic performance into a business ::: Program must be converted into work for which someone is responsible. ::: The work plan ::: The foundations are the decisions on ::: Derive goals & targets ::: Assessment of the efforts required ::: Selection of the resources to be committed. ::: Work assignments ::: Performance becomes the job for which someone is responsible. ::: Deadline ::: Special attention needs to be paid to planning knowledge work. ::: Demands ::: Especially for research of any kind. ::: It is important in knowledge work ::: Not to do things that will not lead to major results ::: To abandon what is no longer productive ::: Concentrate the scarce resources where the results are. ::: Done by people of extraordinary ability ::: Program must be anchored in the practices of the business. ::: Proposals ::: All proposals should be directed toward company's program for performance. ::: All proposals should be presented together rather than piecemeal. ::: Each proposal should clearly spell out ::: Systematic review ::: The focus on economic performance must be built into the ::: Jobs of people ::: Spirit of the organization. ::: If a company is to obtain the needed contributions, it must reward those who make them. ::: Spirit of the organization made by the people it chooses for senior positions. ::: The crucial promotion ::: Grounds for promotion ::: Building business performance into a human organization ::: Conclusion ::: Every knowledge worker has to act the entrepreneur. ::: The task of top management ::: The executive's commitment ::: The first social responsibility of the manager today ::: The knowledge worker continue
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices — Preface - The Alternative to Tyranny ::: Introduction - From Management Boom to Management Performance ::: The Emergence of Management ::: The Management Boom and Its Lessons ::: The New Challenges ::: The Tasks ::: The Dimensions of Management #pdf ::: Performance ::: Business Performance ::: Managing a Business: The Sears Story ::: What Is a Business? ::: Business Purpose and Business Mission ::: The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons ::: Strategies, #Objectives, Priorities, and Work Assignments ::: Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill ::: Performance in the Service Institution ::: The Multi - Institutional Society ::: Why Service Institutions Do Not Perform ::: The Exceptions and Their Lessons ::: Managing Service Institutions for Performance ::: Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: The New Realities ::: What We Know (and Don’t Know) About Work, Working, and Worker ::: Making Work Productive: Work and Process ::: Making Work Productive: Controls and Tools ::: Worker and Working: Theories and Reality ::: Success Stories: Japan, Zeiss, IBM ::: The Responsible Worker ::: Employment, Incomes, and Benefits ::: “People Are Our Greatest Asset” ::: Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: Management and the Quality of Life ::: Social Impacts and Social Problems ::: The Limits of Social Responsibility ::: Business and Government ::: Primum Non Nocere: ::: The Manager: Work, Jobs, Skills, and Organization ::: Why Managers? ::: The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: What Makes a Manager? ::: The Manager and His Work ::: Design and Content of Managerial Jobs ::: Developing Management and Managers ::: Management by Objectives and Self-Control #pdf ::: From Middle Management to Knowledge Organization ::: The Spirit of Performance ::: Managerial Skills ::: The Effective Decision #PDFs ::: Managerial Communications ::: Controls, Control, and Management ::: The Manager and the Management Sciences ::: Managerial Organization ::: New Needs and New Approaches ::: The Building Blocks of Organization… ::: … And How They Join Together ::: Design Logics and Design Specifications ::: Work- and Task- Focused Design: Functional Structure and Team ::: Result - Focused Design: Federal and Simulated Decentralization ::: Relations - Focused Design: The Systems Structure ::: Organization Conclusions ::: Top Management: Tasks, Organization, Strategies ::: Georg Siemens and the Deutsche Bank ::: Top - Management Tasks and Organization ::: Top - Management Tasks ::: Top - Management Structure ::: Needed: An Effective Board ::: Strategies and Structures ::: On Being the Right Size ::: Managing the Small, the Fair - Sized, the Big Business ::: On Being the Wrong Size ::: The Pressures for Diversity ::: Building Unity Out of Diversity ::: Managing Diversity ::: The Multinational Corporation ::: Managing Growth ::: The Innovative Organization ::: Conclusion: The Legitimacy of Management continue
Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices — Chapter summaries #pdf ::: Contents ::: Peter Drucker’s Legacy by Jim Collins ::: Introduction to the Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices ::: Preface ::: 1 Introduction: Management and Managers Defined ::: 2 Management as a Social Function and Liberal Art ::: 3 The Dimensions of Management #pdf ::: Part I Management’s New Realities ::: 4 Knowledge Is All ::: 5 New Demographics ::: 6 The Future of the Corporation and the Way Ahead ::: 7 Management’s New Paradigm #mnp ::: Part II Business Performance ::: 8 The Theory of the Business #pdf ::: 9 The Purpose and #Objectives of a Business #pdf ::: 10 Making the Future Today ::: 11 Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill ::: Part III Performance in Service Institutions ::: 12 Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations ::: 13 What Successful and Performing Nonprofits Are Teaching Business ::: 14 The Accountable School ::: 15 Rethinking “Reinventing Government” ::: 16 Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution ::: Part IV Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: 17 Making Work Productive and the Worker Achieving ::: 18 Managing the Work and Worker in Manual Work ::: 19 Managing the Work and Worker in Knowledge Work ::: Part V Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: 20 Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: 21 The New Pluralism: How to Balance the Special Purpose of the Institution with the Common Good ::: Part VI The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: 22 Why Managers? ::: 23 Design and Content of Managerial jobs ::: 24 Developing Management and Managers ::: 25 Management by Objectives and Self-Control #pdf ::: 26 From Middle Management to Information-Based Organizations ::: 27 The Spirit of Performance #pdf ::: Part VII Managerial Skills ::: 28 The Elements of Effective Decision Making ::: 29 How to Make People Decisions ::: 30 Managerial Communications ::: 31 Controls, Control, and Management #pdf ::: 32 The Manager and the Budget ::: 33 Information Tools and Concepts ::: Part VIII Innovation and Entrepreneurship ::: 34 The Entrepreneurial Business ::: 35 The New Venture ::: 36 Entrepreneurial Strategies ::: 37 Systematic Innovation Using Windows of Opportunity ::: Part IX Managerial Organization ::: 38 Strategies and Structures ::: 39 Work- and Task-Focused Design ::: 40 Three Kinds of Teams ::: 41 Result- and Relation-Focused Design ::: 42 Alliances ::: 43 The CEO in the New Millennium ::: 44 The Impact of Pension Funds on Corporate Governance ::: Part X New Demands on the Individual ::: 45 Managing Oneself ::: 46 Managing the Boss (The boss list) ::: 47 Revitalizing Oneself—Seven Personal Experiences ::: 48 The Educated Person ::: Conclusion: The Manager of Tomorrow ::: Author’s Note ::: Bibliography ::: Drucker Annotated Bibliography ::: Index continue
Management Cases (Revised Edition) — Preface ::: Foreword: Rigor and Relevance by Warren G. Bennis ::: Part I Management’s New Realities ::: Yuhan-Kimberly’s New Paradigm: Respect for Human Dignity ::: Part II Business Performance ::: What Is OUR Business? ::: What Is a Growth Company? ::: Success in the Small Multinational ::: Health Care as a Business ::: Part III Performance in Service Institutions ::: The University Art Museum: Defining Purpose and Mission ::: Rural Development Institute: Should It Tackle the Problem of the Landless Poor in India? ::: The Future of Mt. Hillyer College ::: The Water Museum ::: Should the Water Utility Operate a Museum? ::: Meeting the Growing Needs of the Social Sector ::: The Dilemma of Aliesha State College: Competence versus Need ::: What Are “Results” in the Hospital? ::: Cost Control in the Hospital ::: Part IV Productive Work and Achieving Worker ::: Work Simplification and the Marketing Executive ::: The Army Service Forces ::: How Does One Analyze and Organize Knowledge Work? ::: Can One Learn to Manage Subordinates? ::: How to Staff the Dead-end job? ::: The New Training Director in the Hospital ::: Are You One of “Us” or One of “Them”? ::: Midwest Metals and the Labor Union ::: Safety at Kajak Airbase ::: Part V Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities ::: Corporate Image to Brand Image: Yuhan-Kimberly ::: The Peerless Starch Company of Blair, Indiana ::: Part VI The Manager’s Work and Jobs ::: Alfred Sloan’s Management Style ::: Performance Development System at Lincoln Electric for Service and Knowledge Workers ::: Internal and External Goal Alignment at Texas Instruments ::: Can You Manage Your Boss? ::: Ross Abernathy and the Frontier National Bank ::: The Failed Promotion ::: Part VII Managerial Skills ::: Lyndon Johnson’s Decision ::: The New Export Manager ::: The Insane Junior High School Principal ::: The Structure of a Business Decision ::: The Corporate Control Panel ::: Part VIII Innovation and Entrepreneurship ::: Research Strategy and Business #Objectives ::: Who Is the Brightest Hamster in the Laboratory? ::: Andy Grove of Intel: Entrepreneur Turned Executive ::: The Chardack-Greatbatch Implantable Pacemaker ::: Part IX Managerial Organization ::: The Invincible Life Assurance Company ::: The Failed Acquisition ::: Banco Mercantil: Organization Structure ::: The Universal Electronics Company ::: Research Coordination in the Pharmaceutical Industry ::: The Aftermath of Tyranny ::: What Is the Contribution of Bigness? ::: Part X New Demands on the Individual ::: The Function of the Chief Executive ::: Drucker’s Ideas for School Reform ::: What Do You Want to Be Remembered For? continue
The Ecological Vision — Part One: American Experiences ::: Introduction to Part One ::: The American Genius is Political ::: Calhoun’s Pluralism ::: Henry Ford: The Last Populist ::: IBM’s Watson: Vision for Tomorrow ::: The Myth of American Uniformity ::: Part Two: Economics as a Social Dimension ::: Introduction to Part Two ::: The Economic Basis of American Politics ::: The Poverty of Economic Theory ::: The Delusion of Profits #profit ::: Schumpeter and Keynes ::: Keynes: Economics as a Magical System ::: Part Three: The Social Function of Management ::: Introduction to Part Three ::: Management’s Role ::: Management: The Problems of Success ::: Social Innovation: Management’s New Dimension ::: Part Four: Business as a Social Institution ::: Introduction to Part Four ::: Can There Be “Business Ethic”? ::: The New Productivity Challenge ::: The Emerging Theory of Manufacturing ::: The Hostile Takeover and Its Discontents ::: Part Five: Work, Tools, and Society ::: Introduction to Part Five ::: Work and Tools ::: Technology, Science, and Culture ::: India and Appropriate Technology ::: The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessions ::: Part Six: The Information-Based Society ::: Introduction to Part Six ::: Information, Communications, and Understanding ::: Information and the Future of the City ::: The Information-Base Organization ::: Part Seven: Japan as Society and Civilization ::: Introduction to Part Seven ::: A View of Japan through Japanese Art ::: Japan: The Problems of Success ::: Behind Japan’s Success ::: Misinterpreting Japan and the Japanese ::: How Westernized Are the Japanese? ::: Part Eight: Why Society is Not Enough ::: Introduction to Part Eight ::: The Unfashionable Kiekegaard ::: Afterword: Reflections of a Social Ecologist continue
A Functioning Society — This collection presents the full range of Drucker’s thought on community, society, and the political structure, and constitutes an ideal introduction to his work ::: Contents ::: Introduction: Community, Society, Polity Acknowledgments ::: Prologue: What is a Functioning Society? connect #pdf ::: Part 1: Foundations ::: Introduction to Part ::: 1. From Rousseau to Hitler ::: 2. The Conservative Counter Revolution of 1776 ::: 3. A Conservative Approach ::: Part 2: The Rise of Totalitarianism ::: Introduction to Part 2 ::: 4. The Return of Demons 4 ::: 5. The Failure of Marxism ::: Part 3: The Sickness of Government ::: Introduction to Part 3 ::: 6. From Nation-State to Megastate ::: 7. The Sickness-of Government ::: 8. No More Salvation by Society ::: Part 4: The New Pluralism ::: Introduction to Part 4 ::: 9. The New Pluralism ::: 10. Toward a Theory of Organizations ::: 11. The Society of Organizations ::: Part 5: The Corporation as a Social Institution ::: Introduction to Part 5 ::: 12. The Governance of Corporations ::: 13. The Corporation as a Social Institution ::: 14. The Corporation as a Political Institution ::: Part 6: The Knowledge Society ::: Introduction to Part 6 ::: 15. The New WorldView ::: 16. From Capitalism to Knowledge Society ::: 17. The Productivity of the Knowledge Worker ::: Part 7: The Next Society ::: Introduction to Part 7 ::: 19. The Next Society continue
Managing in a Time of Great Change ::: Preface ::: Interview: The Post-Capitalist Executive +++ $PDF ::: Part I. Management ::: The Theory of the Business ::: Planning for Uncertainty ::: The Five Deadly Business Sins ::: Managing the Family Business ::: Six Rules for Presidents ::: Managing in the Network Society ::: Part II. The Information-Based Organization ::: The New Society of Organizations ::: Transformations in Western history ::: Current transformation — only world history and world civilization ::: In this society, knowledge is the primary resource ::: The central tensions and issues ::: They will be resolved where they originate: the individual organization ::: Social and community stability vs. organization change (knowledge dynamics) ::: For managers, the dynamics of knowledge impose one clear imperative ::: Equally disruptive is another fact of organizational life ::: The issue of social responsibility is also inherent in the society of organizations ::: Organization has become an everyday term ::: All organizations now say routinely, “People are our greatest asset.” ::: Because the modern organization consists of knowledge specialists ::: The society of organizations is unprecedented in human history ::: There's Three Kinds of Teams ::: The Information Revolution in Retail ::: Be Data Literate; Know What to Know ::: We Need to Measure, Not Count ::: Part III. The Economy ::: Trade Lessons from the World Economy ::: The US. Economy's Power Shift ::: Where the New Markets Are ::: The Pacific Rim and the World Economy ::: China's Growth Markets ::: The End of Japan, Inc.? ::: A Weak Dollar Strengthens Japan ::: The New Superpower.The Overseas Chinese ::: Part IV. The Society ::: A Century of Social Transformation ::: Introduction ::: The Social Structure and Its Transformations ::: The Rise and Fall of the Blue-Collar Worker ::: The Rise of the Knowledge Worker ::: II. The Emerging Knowledge Society ::: How Knowledges Work ::: The Employee Society ::: What Is an Employee? ::: The Social Sector ::: III. Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity ::: School and Education as Society’s Center ::: The Competitive Knowledge Economy ::: How Can Government Function? ::: Conclusion: The Priority Tasks—The Need for Social and Political Innovations ::: It Profits Us to Strengthen Non-profits ::: Knowledge Work and Gender Roles ::: Reinventing Government ::: Can the Democracies Win the Peace? ::: Conclusion > Interview: Managing in a Post-Capitalist Society ::: Acknowledgments continue
Innovation and Entrepreneurship ::: From Progress to Innovation #pdf ::: Contents ::: Preface ::: Introduction: The Entrepreneurial Economy ::: I ::: II ::: III ::: IV ::: V ::: The Practice Of Innovation ::: Systematic Entrepreneurship ::: I Who is an entrepreneur? ::: II Tradition economics vs. The Entrepreneur ::: III Should be low risk ::: Purposeful Innovation and the Seven Sources for Innovative Opportunity ::: Source: The Unexpected ::: The Unexpected Success ::: The Unexpected Failure ::: The Unexpected Outside Event ::: Source: Incongruities ::: Incongruous Economic Realities ::: The Incongruity Between Reality And The Assumptions About It ::: The Incongruity Between Perceived And Actual Customer Values And Expectations ::: Incongruity Within The Rhythm Or Logic Of A Process ::: Source: Process Need ::: Source: Industry and Market Structures ::: The Automobile Story ::: The Opportunity ::: When Industry Structure Changes ::: Source: Demographics ::: I ::: II ::: III ::: Source: Changes in Perception ::: “The Glass Is Half Full” ::: The Problem Of Timing ::: Source: New Knowledge ::: The Characteristics Of Knowledge-Based Innovation ::: Convergences ::: What Knowledge-Based Innovation Requires ::: The Unique Risks ::: The Shakeout ::: The Receptivity Gamble ::: The Bright Idea ::: Principles of Innovation ::: I—Brilliant ideas are not innovations ::: The Do’s ::: Purposeful, systematic innovation begins with the #analysis of the opportunities ::: Go out to look, to ask, to listen ::: An innovation, to be effective, has to be simple and it has to be focused ::: Effective innovations start small ::: A successful innovation aims at leadership ::: The Dont’s ::: Don’t try to be clever ::: Don’t diversify, don’t splinter, don’t try to do too many things at once ::: Don’t try to innovate for the future ::: Three Conditions ::: Innovation becomes hard, focused, purposeful work making very great demands on … ::: To succeed, innovators must build on their strengths ::: Innovation always has to be close to the market #horizons ::: The Conservative Innovator ::: The Practice Of Entrepreneurship ::: Entrepreneurial Management ::: The Entrepreneurial Business ::: I (Who innovates?) ::: Entrepreneurial Policies ::: A systematic policy of abandoning whatever is outworn, obsolete, no longer productive ::: Business X-Ray: a tool to find the right questions (#rq) ::: Kami: Gap and Need Analysis ::: An entrepreneurial plan with #objectives and deadlines ::: Summary ::: Entrepreneurial Practices ::: Focusing managerial vision on opportunity ::: What are you doing that explains your success? ::: Ideas from junior people ::: Measuring Innovative Performance ::: Each innovative project: Feedback from results to expectations ::: A systematic review of innovative efforts all together ::: Judging the company’s total innovative performance ::: Structures ::: The entrepreneurial, the new, has to be organized separately from the old and existing ::: Must have a top manager with the specific assignment to work on tomorrow as an entrepreneur and innovator ::: Keep away from it the burdens it cannot yet carry ::: Developing appropriate controls ::: A person or a component group should be held clearly accountable ::: Are all these policies and practices necessary? ::: Staffing ::: The Dont’s ::: The most important caveat is not to mix managerial units and entrepreneurial ones ::: Innovative efforts that take the existing business out of its own field are rarely successful ::: Acquire small entrepreneurial ventures ::: Entrepreneurship in the Service Institution ::: Obstacles to Innovation & some exceptions ::: There are three main reasons why the existing enterprise presents so much more of an obstacle ::: The public-service institution is based on a “budget” rather than being paid out of its results ::: A service institution is dependent on a multitude of constituents ::: Public-service institutions exist after all to “do good.” ::: These are serious obstacles to innovation ::: The most extreme example around these days may well be the labor union ::: The university, however, may not be too different from the labor union ::: There are enough exceptions, even old and big ones, can innovate ::: One Roman Catholic archdiocese in the United States ::: American Association for the Advancement of Science ::: A large hospital on the West Coast ::: Girl Scouts of the U.S. A. ::: Entrepreneurial Policies ::: The public-service institution needs a clear definition of its mission ::: The public-service institution needs a realistic statement of goals ::: Failure to achieve #objectives should be considered an indication that the objective is wrong … ::: Need to build into their policies and practices the constant search for innovative opportunity ::: One catholic archdiocese saw both as opportunities ::: American Association for the Advancement of Science ::: Girl Scouts ::: Even in government ::: The four rules outlined above constitute the specific policies and practices the PSI requires ::: Also needs to adopt those policies and practices that any existing organization requires ::: The Need To Innovate ::: The New Venture ::: The Need For Market Focus ::: Financial Foresight ::: Building A Top Management Team ::: “Where Can I Contribute?” ::: The Need For Outside Advice ::: Entrepreneurial Strategies ::: “Fustest with the Mostest” ::: Being “Fustest With The Mostest” ::: II ::: III ::: “Hit Them Where They Ain’t” ::: Creative Imitation ::: Entrepreneurial Judo ::: Ecological Niches ::: The Toll-Gate Strategy ::: The Specialty Skill ::: The Specialty Market ::: Changing Values and Characteristics ::: Creating Customer Utility ::: Pricing ::: The Customer’s Reality ::: Delivering Value To The Customer ::: Conclusion: The Entrepreneurial Society ::: I ::: What Will Not Work ::: The Social Innovations Needed ::: The New Tasks ::: The Individual In Entrepreneurial Society ::: Suggested Readings ::: Index continue
Managing the Nonprofit Organization (Principles and practices) by Peter Drucker ::: Preface ::: NPOs are central to American society and are indeed its most distinguishing feature ::: America’s largest employer ::: 2–3% of GNP. Same as 40 years ago. ::: NPOs “product” is a changed human being ::: NPO ::: Cured patient ::: A child that learns ::: A young man or woman grown into a self-respecting adult ::: A changed human life altogether ::: Business supplies goods and services ::: Has discharged its task when ::: Government … ::: Has discharged its function when its policies are effective ::: Need management so they can concentrate on their mission ::: Work together on their… ::: mission ::: leadership ::: management ::: Need management because they do not have a conventional “bottom line” ::: Need to learn how to use management as their tool lest they be overwhelmed by it ::: There is a “management boom” ::: Little that is so far available to the NPO help them with their leadership and management has been specifically designed for them. Little of it pays any attention to the distinct characteristics of the NPO or to their specific central needs ::: Their mission ::: What are “results” in nonprofit work ::: Strategies required to market their services and obtain the money they need to do their job ::: Challenge of introducing innovation and change in institutions that depend on #volunteers and therefore cannot command ::: The specific human and organizational realities of NPO ::: The very different role that the board plays in the NPO ::: The need to attract volunteers, to develop them and to manage them for performances ::: Relationships with a diversity of constituencies ::: Fund-raising and fund development ::: The problem of individual burnout, which is so acute in NPOs precisely because the individual commitment to them tends to be so intense. ::: Need materials that are specifically developed out of their experience and focuses on their realities and concerns ::: Bob Buford of the Leadership Network ::: Get audio tapes. Leadership and Management in the Nonprofit Institutions (“The Nonprofit Drucker”). ::: NPOs — America’s resounding success in the last 40 years ::: In many ways it is the “growth industry” of America ::: Health-care institutions ::: Community services ::: Fast growing pastoral churches ::: Hospital ::: Many other NPOs that have emerged as the center of effective social action in a rapidly changing and turbulent America ::: Has become America’s “Civil Society” ::: Face very big and different challenges ::: Convert donors into contributors ::: Need more money to do vital work ::: Giving is necessary above all so that the NPOs can discharge the one mission they all have in common ::: To satisfy the need of the American people for… ::: To make contributors out of donors means that the American people can see what they want to see—or should want to see—when each of us looks at himself or herself in the mirror in the morning: ::: Give community and common purpose ::: People no longer have exposure to community ::: NPOs are the American community ::: The mission comes first (and your role as a leader) ::: The commitment (of the NPO) (What we really believe in.) ::: Introduction ::: NPO exists to bring about change in individuals and in society ::: What missions work and what missions don’t work ::: How to define the mission ::: The ultimate test of the mission is right action ::: The first job of the leader is to think through and define the mission of the institution ::: Setting concrete action goals ::: Workable examples ::: Unworkable examples ::: Has to be operational, otherwise it’s just good intentions ::: Has to focus on what the institution really tries to do ::: Task of the NPO manager is to try to convert the organization’s mission statement into specifics. ::: Common mistake is to make the mission statement into a kind of hero sandwich of good intentions. ::: It has to be simple and clear ::: Have to think through ::: Constantly look at the state-of-the-art ::: Look at the opportunities in the community ::: Things that were of primary importance may become secondary or even totally irrelevant. ::: Watch this constantly ::: Three “musts” of a successful mission ::: Look at strength and performance ::: Look outside at the opportunities, the needs ::: What do we really believe in (committed to) ::: Summary ::: Leadership is a foul-weather job ::: Crisis leadership ::: Depend on a leader when there is a crisis. ::: The problems of success ::: Hard choices ::: Innovation ::: People who will do what the situation calls for (p15). This is effective crisis leadership. ::: How to pick a leader ::: Try to match the strengths of an individual with the needs of the institution ::: Look for integrity or character ::: Mediocrity in leadership shows up almost immediately. ::: Your personal leadership role ::: Have maybe a year to establish yourself ::: The role the leader takes has to fit ::: All of us play roles ::: To work the role the leader takes has to fit in three dimensions ::: Two things to build on ::: No such things as “leadership traits” or “leadership characteristics” ::: Never say “I.” Think “we” and say “we.” ::: You are visible. ::: To every leader there is a season ::: The balance decision ::: One of the key tasks is to balance long range and short range, the big picture and the pesky little details ::: There are always balancing problems in managing nonprofits. This is only one example ::: Balance between concentrating resources on one goal and enough diversification ::: Balance between being too cautious and being rash ::: Timing: expect result too soon or wait too long ::: Opportunity and risk #profit ::: The don’ts of leadership ::: Just announce decision and leave it to everyone else to understand ::: Be afraid of the strengths in your organization ::: Pick your successor alone ::: Hog the credit ::: Knock your subordinates ::: Keep your eye on the task, not on yourself ::: Setting new goals — interview with Frances Hesselbein (Girl Scouts) ::: The Daisy Scout program ::: Only 20% of the councils were enthusiastic about the new program. Another 10% were waiting in the wings ::: Summary #1 ::: Ready but not competent ::: Increase in number of volunteers ::: Deserved and required superior learning opportunities. ::: Summary #2 ::: Minority communities ::: Look at the population projections ::: Most thoughtful kind of planning and including those community leaders in that planning ::: Working on the target of opportunity ::: More than one customer ::: Girls ::: Volunteers ::: General conclusions ::: Carefully construct a marketing plan ::: Understand all the ways there are to reach people and use them ::: Need people in the marketing chain ::: Continuing evaluation ::: What the leader owes — interview with Max De Pree (Herman Miller, Inc. & Fuller Theological Seminary) ::: The leader is indebted to the organization ::: A volunteer nation ::: Owes certain assets ::: People development needs to be oriented primarily toward the person, and not primarily toward the organization. ::: When you take the risk of developing people, the odds are very good that the organization will get what it needs. ::: Building on what people are—not about changing them ::: Goal achievement vs. realization of our potential applies to organizations as well ::: A leader ::: Primarily future-oriented ::: First duty—Define reality ::: Have to deserve the person who works for us ::: They are committed to us by choice ::: Opportunity ::: Young people ::: Building a strong team of colleagues ::: Team held together by a common mission & common vision ::: Understand the task ::: Selecting people ::: Assign the work very clearly with a lot of interaction ::: Agree on what the process is going to be for getting the work done ::: Agree on timetables where those are appropriate ::: We agree on how we’re going to measure performance ::: The way we judge the quality of leadership by the tone of the body ::: Summary ::: Leader as the servant of the organization ::: Indebtness of the leader ::: Summary: The action implications ::: The mission ::: Comes first ::: If you lose sight of your mission, you begin to stumble and it shows very, very fast ::: Needs to be though through. Needs to be changed ::: The mission is always long-range. It needs short-range efforts and very often short-range results. ::: Leadership ::: First task is to make sure that everybody… ::: The leaders’s job ::: Leadership is doing ::: Leadership is also example ::: You are a leader ::: We are creating a society of citizens in the old sense of people who actively work, rather than just passively vote and pay taxes ::: Each is doing a responsible task ::: Tomorrow’s society of citizens. Everybody… ::: Mission and leadership ::: From mission to performance (effective strategies for marketing, innovation, and fund development) ::: Converting good intentions into results ::: Results (Until these things have happened the NPO has had no results; only good intentions) ::: The NPO is not merely delivering a service ::: It wants the end user to be not a user but a doer ::: It uses a service to bring about change in a human being ::: It creates … ::: It attempts to become a part of the recipient ::: NPOs need 4 things ::: Plan (part one) ::: Marketing (this section) ::: People (parts 4 & 5) ::: Money (this section) ::: Strategies that convert the plan into results ::: How do we get our service to the “customer,” that is to the community we exist to serve? ::: How do we market it? ::: How do we get the money we need to provide the service? ::: Marketing in a NPO is quite different from selling ::: More a matter of … ::: Have to know … ::: Selling an intangible ::: Basic strategy tasks ::: Design of the right marketing strategy ::: Fund development strategy ::: Winning strategies ::: Introduction ::: Good intentions don’t move mountains; bulldozers do ::: In the nonprofit management, the mission and the plan—if that’s all there is—are good intentions ::: Strategies are the bulldozers ::: About Strategies. They … ::: Brown University (a marketing strategy) ::: Excellent faculty ::: No distinction ::: Question: What do we have to do to become a leader despite the tough competition? ::: Two focuses (goals) ::: Had strategies for each of these goals ::: Has become the “in” university for bright kids in the East ::: This is almost a textbook case of a successful marketing strategy ::: Improving what we already do well ::: A clear strategy for improving ::: To work systematically on the productivity of the institution ::: Need a strategy for each of the factors of production ::: Need productivity goals—and ambitious ones ::: Constant improvement also includes … ::: Abandoning the things that no longer work ::: The innovation objective ::: Strategy development structure ::: Example: How does a pastor set a strategy? ::: Example: Public library ::: Steps in strategy development ::: Process of strategy development ::: The best example of a winning strategy: The Nature Conservancy ::: Strategy don’ts ::: How to innovate ::: Introduction ::: Refocus and change the organization when you are successful ::: Best rule for improvement strategies is to put your efforts into your successes. ::: Responsibility of top management ::: The search for changes ::: The requirements for successful innovation ::: The common mistakes (In doing anything new) ::: Defining the market — interview with Philip Kotler (Northwestern University) ::: Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Institutions 4th edition by Philip Kotler ::: Many institutions confuse marketing with hard selling or advertising ::: Most important tasks in marketing ::: Advertising and selling are afterthoughts ::: Marketing is finding needs and filling them. It produces positive value for both parties ::: Marketing starts with customers, or consumers, or groups you want to serve well ::: Selling starts with a set of products you have, and want to push them out into any market you can find ::: But isn’t the need the NPO serve obvious? ::: Many organizations are very clear about the needs they would like to serve, but they often don’t understand these needs from the perspective of the customers. They make assumptions based on their own interpretation of the needs out there ::: Different marketing efforts ::: Money raising ::: Recruiting students ::: Attracting and holding first-rate faculty ::: The problem marketing has to solve ::: How do I get the response I want? ::: The answer marketing gives is that you formulate an offer to put out to the group from which you want a response ::: The process of getting the answer is called exchange thinking ::: Reciprocity and exchange underlie marketing thinking ::: Institutional differentiation ::: Competition Examples ::: How important is it? ::: How do you do it? ::: Marketing is now thought of as a process of segmenting, targeting, and positioning (STP marketing) ::: As opposed to LGD marketing—lunch, golf, and dinner, which has its place ::: Positioning raises the question ::: So most organizations engage in the search for their own uniqueness, what we might call a competitive advantage or advantages ::: First steps in marketing ::: Define its markets, its publics ::: Before you think through the message ::: Church example ::: Market orchestration ::: The mission may well be universal. And yet to be successful … ::: the institution has to ::: This applies to fund-raising ::: Careful identification of the appropriate sources of funds and the giving motives ::: Why does that donor give money? ::: To whom does the donor give money? ::: Consumer research is important in the process of trying to direct your efforts ::: The extent to which a NPO has to mold what they are, do what they can for the market (p 78) ::: Church example ::: “Boutiques” are very successful for NPO ::: Translate boutiques into niches ::: Route of niching versus mass production ::: Do you want to satisfy one type of audience deeply or do you want to satisfy a number of audiences more superficially? ::: Museum example ::: More and more niching ::: We need product differentiation in NPO as much as we need it in business ::: Why does the NPO have to be interested in marketing and have to be engaged in marketing? ::: Is it to be sure that it really fulfills the need? ::: Will it satisfy the customer? ::: Is it to know what it should focus its energies on? ::: What are the real reasons for doing marketing for a nonprofit institutions? ::: Who should really do the marketing job in the NPO? ::: CEO is the CMO ::: Yet the CEO can’t do the marketing ::: The work has to be delegated to someone who is skilled in handling marketing ::: How can we tell whether marketing is making a genuine contribution? ::: Marketing is supposed to build up “share of mind” and “share of heart” for the organization ::: The cost side ::: It is very hard to gauge the impact of marketing without setting #objectives ::: Hospital example ::: Haven’t really gone into marketing in the right order ::: Do some customer research to understand the market you want to serve and its needs ::: Develop segmentation and be aware of different groups that you’re going to be interacting with ::: Develop policies, practices, and programs that are targeted to satisfy those groups ::: Communicate these programs ::: Hospital who resist to the bitter end the kind of communication their market research shows them the public wants ::: How many of the people who come in to have hip replacement can walk after six months. Because not everybody does. If we (see page 83) ::: Adopting marketing ::: NPO with little or no marketing takes 5 to 10 years to really install effective marketing procedures and programs if they’re fully committed to installing them. Many organizations give up after 1–2 years, especially if the early results are so good that they think they are already there. ::: More than a department ::: Everyone in the organization pursuing one goal ::: Getting everyone to understand… ::: Marketing becomes effective when the organization … ::: is very clear about what it wants to accomplish ::: has motivated everyone in the organization to … ::: has taken the steps to implement this vision in a way which ::: Marketing is … ::: the work—and it is work—that brings the needs and wants and values of the customer into conformity with the product and values and behavior of the supplier, of the institution ::: a way to harmonize the needs and wants of the outside world with the purposes and the resources and the #objectives of the institution ::: Building the donor constituency — interview with Dudley Hafner (American Heart Association) ::: Fund development ::: Recognizing that your true potential for growth and development is the donor, is someone you want to cultivate and bring along with your program ::: Not simply someone to collect this year’s contribution from ::: Reduces the cost of getting the money, when you have a donor base that is already sold ::: You’re going to help them increase their support to the organization ::: Tools used by the local organization ::: Acquaint donors with what you are as an organization ::: What you are trying to get accomplished ::: So they can identify with your goals ::: Need a very clear mission ::: Very clear goals that relate to our mission ::: Process ::: Development means ::: Development requires a long-term strategy (rather than putting together an annual campaign to go out and collect money.) ::: Donor segments ::: Materials / tools for creating constituency ::: Summary ::: Focus your message on what in marketing we would call the values of the potential customers ::: Very clear goals for a marketing campaign in which you market the American Heart Association to potential investors, to people willing to commit themselves, if only in the beginning to a token donation just to get rid of the collector ::: Door to door fund raising ::: Don’t go Sunday afternoon during pro football games ::: How much do you want so I can go back to my TV ::: Ability to answer questions I get ::: Leave material ::: Next year ::: That literature you left was very interesting ::: Last year you gave …; how about 2.5X (or a target goal based on ability) this year? 50% success rate ::: Appeal to the rational in the individual as well as the emotional part of the individual ::: In building local campaigns ::: Think of the person who does door-to-door ::: Opportunity to educate those potential donors about ::: Your greatest opportunity to create a long-term strategy ::: Competition for funds ::: Well ahead of inflation ::: Cannot afford to create a strategy that will cause one of them to do better at the expense of another NPO. ::: Figure out how to get new monies that have not been previously given ::: Have a long-term really positive impact on the good that the NPO are trying to do. ::: Most say “We want people who give to nobody but us” ::: Market research ::: Because we feel a commitment to the volunteers who go out as our ambassadors ::: We give them the best possible materials ::: Kind of knowledge about the market is relevant ::: Asking for a specific gift dramatically improves the return in our campaign ::: Level of income you should give so much ::: They are usually flattered ::: Once a donor has given a gift that falls into the suggested amount they should be cultivated (pay special attention): The long-term strategy of upgrading that gift ::: The long-term strategy of upgrading that gift ::: First target of opportunity ::: Increase the size of the gift you ask for each year form those people who have given the suggested amount. Gently nudges them to a higher level ::: Building the relationship ::: Market research tries to identify ::: Market segmentation ::: Market value expectations ::: Fund development ::: Go where the money is ::: Look upon fund development as an educational campaign ::: Justification for having a broad-based annual campaign ::: Larger givers, you have one strategy and one expectation ::: Smaller givers, another strategy and another expectation ::: Strategy definition ::: Strategy development for a segment ::: Information provided to fund-raisers ::: Emerging for the future (p 95) ::: #Critical factors ::: Volunterism ::: Applies to all NPOs (big & small, local) ::: Summary ::: The central importance of the clear mission ::: The importance of knowing your market, not just in generalities, but in fine detail ::: Enabling those volunteers of yours to do a decent job by giving them the tools that make it almost certain that they can succeed ::: Don’t appeal to the heart alone, and you don’t appeal to the head alone ::: Do you really need volunteers? p97 ::: Computer ::: TV ::: Telemarketing ::: Many organizations facing a crisis ::: When you lose your volunteer base, you lose your constituency, the course of strength and growth in the organization ::: Technology as a way of helping the volunteers do a more effective job ::: Summary ::: Fund development is people development ::: Both for donors and volunteers ::: You are building … ::: That is the way … ::: It is based on ::: This applies to purely local and small organizations as well ::: Summary: The action implications ::: About strategy ::: Strategy converts mission and #objectives into performance ::: Strategy ends with selling efforts ::: Strategy begins with knowing the market ::: The whole point of strategy is not to look at recipients as people who receive bounty, to whom the nonprofit does good. ::: Three strategies ::: Needs a marketing strategy that integrates the customer and the mission ::: Needs strategies to improve all the time and to innovate ::: Needs a strategy to build its donor base ::: All three strategies begin with research and research and more research ::: Organized efforts to find out ::: The important person to research ::: Training your own people ::: Everyone in the hospital must be patient-conscious. ::: That’s a training job—not just preaching. ::: It isn’t attitude, its behavior ::: Behavior training. This is what you do ::: Train the volunteers (may be even more essential) ::: Need to organize itself to abandon ::: What no longer … ::: If not built in … ::: The question always before the nonprofit executive ::: What should our service do for the customer that is of importance to that customer? ::: Think through how the service should be ::: Nuts and bolts ::: Strategy ::: Begins with the mission ::: Leads to a work plan ::: End with the right tools ::: The last thing to say about strategy that it exploits an opportunity, ::: Strategy ::: Commits the nonprofit executive and the organization to action ::: Its essence is action ::: The tests of strategy are results ::: Begins with needs and ends with satisfaction ::: Managing for performance (how to define it; how to measure it) ::: What is the bottom line when there is no “bottom line”? ::: NPOs tend not to give priority to performance and results ::: Yet performance and results are far more… than in a business ::: important ::: difficult ::: In a business, there is a financial bottom line ::: Profit and loss are not enough by themselves to judge performance #profit ::: but at least they are something concrete ::: A NPO executive faces a risk-taking decision when you try to think through your performance ::: First think through the desired result ::: Then the means of measuring performance and results can be determined ::: How is performance for this institution to be defined? ::: Examples ::: Not enough to say we serve a need. Really good ones create a want. ::: As NPO executive begin to define the performance that makes the mission of their institution operational two common temptations have to be resisted ::: Planning for performance ::: Performance in the NPO must be planned ::: This starts with the mission ::: Then one asks: Who are our constituencies, and what are the results for each of them? ::: Integrating constituency goals into the institution’s mission is almost an architectural process, a structural process. ::: Moral vs. economic causes ::: Illustration ::: Thinking through what results will be demanded of the nonprofit institution can protect it from squandering resources because of confusion between moral and economic causes. ::: NPO — almost impossible to abandon anything ::: Have to distinguish between moral causes and economic causes ::: Have a duty toward its … to allocate its scarce resources for results rather than to squander them on being righteous. ::: NPO are human-change agents ::: Their results are therefore always a change in people—in their… ::: The NPO has to judge itself by its performance in creating ::: NPO need to set specific goals in terms of its service to people ::: NPO needs to constantly raise these goals—or its performance will go down ::: Don’t’s and Do’s — The basic rules (Disregarding them will damage and may even impair performance) ::: The Don’t’s ::: Seeing the institution as an end in itself ::: Feuding and bickering ::: Tolerate discourtesy ::: Do ::: Build the organization around information and communication instead of around hierarchy ::: Delegation ::: Standard setting, placement, appraisal ::: Standards ::: Placement ::: Appraisal ::: The outside focus ::: Force you people, and especially your executives, to be on the outside often enough to know what the institution exists for ::: Get out in the field and actually work there again and again ::: Try to simulate being a customer ::: Don’t let people stay forever in a staff position in the office ::: The effective decision #PDFs ::: Everything comes together in the decision ::: Make or break point of the organization ::: Either make decisions effectively or render themselves ineffective ::: On decisions ::: What is the decision really about? ::: The most important part of the effective decision ::: Very rarely is a decision about what it seems to be about. That’s usually a symptom ::: Examples ::: Opportunity and risk ::: Opportunity: If this works, what will it do for us? ::: Risk ::: The need for dissent ::: They should be controversial ::: Acclamation means that nobody has done the homework ::: What is right? Not who is right? ::: Each see a different reality ::: Instead of arguing what is right, assume that each faction has the right answer. But which question is each trying to answer? ::: Creates mutual respect ::: Honest disagreement ::: Any organization needs a nonconformist ::: Enables NPO to brush aside the unnecessary, the meaningless, the trivial conflict ::: Enable #concentration on the real issues ::: Conflict resolution ::: You use dissent and disagreement to resolve conflict ::: Ask the two most vocal opponents to sit down and work out a common approach ::: Defusing the argument ::: From decision to action ::: Causes for decisions that remain pious intentions ::: Follow up ::: Decisions will turn out to be wrong more often than right. At least they will have to be adjusted ::: How to make the schools accountable — interview with Albert Shanker (American Federation of Teachers) ::: A leader in the crusade to ::: improve performance in the classroom ::: make teachers and schools accountable for performance ::: build the school around the classroom teacher ::: Performance in the school ::: What kind of human being are we trying to produce? ::: Performance dimensions ::: Assess achievement ::: longer range ::: Learning ::: Not memorization & instant forgetting ::: Something that becomes part of you ::: Teaching ::: Should be done on an adult level ::: Public may have given up on many of our public institutions ::: The employees have ::: They are just doing … whether it works or not ::: Summary: the action implications ::: Performance is the ultimate test of any institution ::: Exists for the sake of performance in changing people and society ::: The temptation to downplay results ::: To say … is not enough ::: Wasting resources on non-results ::: Results ::: How well are you doing in terms of the resource you spent? ::: What return do you get? ::: Parable of the Talents in the New Testament: Our job is to invest the resources we have — people and money — where the results are manifold. And that’s quantitative term ::: Kinds of results ::: Defining results in such a way that one can ask ::: Results are always outside the organization, not inside ::: The right allocation of resources to the mission, to goals, to results ::: Start with the mission (That is exceedingly important) ::: What do you want to be remembered for as an organization—but also as an individual? ::: The mission transcends today, but guides today, informs today ::: From the mission, one goes to very concrete goals ::: Only when a nonprofits’s key performance areas are defined can it really set goals ::: In a nonprofit institution, where people want to serve a cause, you always have the challenge of getting people to perform so that they grow on their own terms. They are then accomplished and fulfilled, and that makes its way down to the performance of the organization. ::: Results are achieved by #concentration, not by splintering ::: The courage to say (strength concentration analysis) ::: Need alone does not justify our moving in. We must match our strength, our mission, our concentration, our values ::: Good intentions, good policies, good decisions must turn into effective actions ::: This is what we are here for ::: This is how we do it ::: This is the time span in which we do it ::: This is who is accountable ::: This is the work for which we are responsible ::: The ultimate question, people in NPO should ask again and again, and again (major feedbacks) ::: What should I hold myself accountable for by way of contribution and results? ::: What should this institution hold itself accountable for by way of contribution and results? ::: What should both this institution and I be remembered for? ::: People and relationships (your staff, your board, your volunteers, your community) ::: People decisions (hire, fire, place, promote, develop, teams, personal effectiveness) ::: Introduction ::: People decisions are the ultimate—perhaps the only—control of an organization ::: People determine the performance capacity of an organization ::: No organization can do better than the people it has ::: Can only hope to recruit and hold the common run of humanity (unless it is a very small organization—a string quartet) ::: Effective NPO executive must try to get more out of the people he or she has. ::: The yield from the human resource really determines the organizations performance ::: That’s decided by the basic people decisions ::: The quality of these human decisions largely determines whether … rather than just public relations and rhetoric ::: Rules for making good people decisions (Objective: To place people who perform in assignments that match their strengths) ::: See measuring “Management Performance” ::: Not judges of people ::: A diagnostic process ::: The selection process ::: 90 days later (A reminder) ::: How to develop people ::: Introduction ::: Developing people ::: Building the team ::: The more successful an organization becomes, the more it needs to build teams ::: Teams don’t develop themselves—they require systematic hard work. They require a team approach to management ::: Team Building Process ::: Personal effectiveness on the job ::: Once the right match is made between key activities and strengths. ::: Enable ::: As the organization grows ::: The tough decision ::: A competent staff wherever performance is needed ::: Repotting the bored executive ::: The succession decision (at the top) ::: Most #critical, hardest to undo ::: What not to do ::: Positive ways ::: The key relationships ::: NPOs have a multitude of constituencies and has to work out the relationship with each of them ::: The board ::: To be effective, a NPO needs a strong board, but a board that does the board’s work ::: Board duties ::: Board must ::: CEO ::: A nominating process is the best way to get people on the board. See p 158 ::: Membership on this board in not power, it is responsibility ::: Age limit ::: The badly split board ::: Two-way relationships ::: Only two way relationships work ::: Bringing out problems into the open ::: Relations with the community ::: NPOs serve one specific community interest ::: Have to maintain relations with ::: Not PR (but you need good PR). Requires the service organization live its mission ::: From volunteers to unpaid staff — interview with Father Leo Bartel (Social ministry of the Catholic Diocese) ::: From “helpers” to “colleagues” or “unpaid staff” ::: Now in leadership positions in the Church and in Church work ::: Formal training program ::: Quality control ::: The biggest difficulty in asking people to serve is that they are painfully aware of their lack of experience and lack of preparation ::: We must ::: Management and development of people ::: Inspiration. How to excite and motivate folks who are apathetic ::: Organization: Getting board and council members to do the sort of paperwork, the sort of planning work, they really must do in order to be effective in their roles on councils or boards? ::: Guiding principle you have in managing a heterogeneous group of volunteers, and a rapidly growing one? ::: The effective board — Interview with Dr. David Hubbard (Fuller Theological Seminary) ::: The functions of the board ::: A partnership between the board and the professional staff ::: Organization chart ::: Board’s role ::: Active board members ::: Time commitment ::: Creating the partnership ::: The way the mission of the institution is stated ::: Need people who are open to that mission ::: The investment of the CEO and the staff in servicing the trustees ::: Making the board effective and keeping it effective: A priority task ::: CEO’s two primary areas of service ::: Care for the vice-presidents ::: Care for the trustees ::: Balancing board involvement with the possibility of board meddling ::: Meddling ::: Playing games with the board ::: Don’t ::: Share the bad news first at 110 percent ::: Share the good news at 90 percent ::: No surprises ::: Getting the board to change its position ::: To adopt a change in an old, outmoded, but cherished policy ::: Work for a win situation ::: Try to help the trustees change their minds or to expand their vision without feeling that they are letting go of their cherished goals. ::: Avoiding the board splitting into factions (p 176) ::: Working with outside boards ::: Don’t try to be clever & outsmart them ::: What do we all have in common ::: Summary ::: It is to the benefit of an institution to have a strong board ::: Summary: The action implications ::: Complexity of relationships ::: Paid staff and “volunteers” ::: Donors ::: Board ::: People (volunteers, board, employed staff) need clear assignments for which they themselves take responsibility ::: Need to know what the institution expects of them ::: The responsibility for developing the work plan, the job description, and the assignment should always be on the people who do the work ::: Think through their contribution ::: Evolve by joint discussion ::: Must be information based ::: Structured around information ::: Learning organization? ::: Emphasis on managing people should always be on performance (They owe performance, and the executive owes them compassion.) ::: Must also be compassionate (People work for nonprofits because they believe in the cause) ::: Learning and teaching responsibilities ::: Learning (CEO only?) ::: Aspirations, opportunities, threats, good & bad performance, improvements (for executives) ::: How I help or hamper you? (for executives) ::: May need clear information about the results of your organization’s work ::: Take responsibility for making it easy for people to… ::: Do their work ::: Have results ::: Enjoy their work ::: Make sure that people get results. ::: Developing yourself (as a person, as an executive, as a leader) ::: You are responsible ::: First priority for the NPO executive is to strive for excellence ::: Brings satisfaction & self-respect ::: Workmanship counts ::: Without craftsmanship there is neither ::: Be remembered for being a first-rate … (occupation) ::: Avoid the temptation to just get by and hope nobody notices ::: Self-development ::: Deeply meshed in with… ::: Pay serious attention to self-development — your own and that of everyone in the organization (is not a luxury for NPO executive) ::: Well-run, results-oriented organization ::: The key to building an organization with such a spirit is organizing work so everyone feels essential to a goal they believe in ::: Goal is that everyone work at the equivalent level of a minister in the church ::: The letter ::: To make a difference ::: The person with the most responsibility for an individual’s development is the person himself. ::: Encourage everyone to ask themselves: ::: Creating a record of performance ::: Review what you have done once or twice a year ::: PFD’s review. Focusing on where he can make a difference ::: Making Personal Vision productive ::: Self-development summary ::: Setting an example ::: A constant relationship between the performance and achievement of the leaders, the record setters, and the rest ::: Executives lead by example ::: What do you want to be remembered for? ::: To develop yourself, you have to be doing the right work in the right kind of organization. ::: Where do I belong as a person? Where right becomes wrong ::: “Repotting” yourself ::: Sometimes a change—a big change or a small change—is essential in order to stimulate yourself again. ::: 10–12 years with one organization is enough for many volunteers ::: The switch ::: When you begin to fall into a pleasant routine, its time to force yourself to do something different. ::: “Burnout” often is just boredom ::: Perhaps all that is needed is a small shift ::: The excitement is not the job—it is the result ::: To build learning into your work, and keep it there, build in organized feedback from results to expectations. ::: Summary to this point. It’s up to you to: ::: Manage your job and your career. ::: Doing the right things well ::: Effectiveness ::: Self-renewal ::: Work on your own self-renewal ::: Create the excitement, the challenge, the transformation that makes an old job enriching over and over again ::: Three most common forcing tools for sustaining the process of self-renewal ::: Focus efforts to have the greatest ability for self-renewal. ::: What do you want to be remembered for? ::: Early exposure to the question will make all the difference, although you aren’t likely to really understand that until you are in your forties ::: At age 25, some began trying to answer it, foolishly ::: If you still can’t answer it by the time you’re fifty, you will have wasted your life ::: Keep asking the question over and over ::: Pushes you to see yourself as a different person—the person you can become ::: Nonprofits: the second career — interview with Robert Buford (Leadership network & PFD Foundation for Nonprofit Management) ::: Learning required to make the transition from business to NPO ::: Reallocate sense of identity ::: Same values. But major change in proportions and behavior ::: Real sense of clarity about mission and goals and about what comes first ::: Do same things but to a different purpose and to a different drummer ::: Need self-knowledge ::: Experiences that helped you either to do the right things or avoid doing the wrong ones? ::: An outside interest ::: Avoid becoming a victim of own organization ::: Self-development ::: Stay in touch with your constituency ::: The woman executive in the nonprofit institution — interview with Roxanne Spitzer-Lehmann (St. Joseph Health System) ::: Keeping track of progress ::: List major undertakings that I have to do ::: List things that are in process ::: Differences between NPO & business ::: Bottom line oriented ::: Self-development ::: Developing others ::: Summary: The action implications ::: Joshua Abrams ::: Start all over again ::: I don’t learn anything anymore ::: I’ve done all I can do ::: I’m still young enough so that I understand … and old enough to have experience with most of the things they are going through. ::: I’m no longer young enough… ::: Decide then act two years later ::: You are responsible for allocating your life. Nobody else will do it for you ::: Self development means two things & two quite different tasks: Developing the person. Developing the skill, competence, and ability to contribute. ::: What will you do tomorrow as a result of reading this book? And what will you stop doing? continue
The Definitive Drucker — Endorsements ::: Title and copyright info ::: Contents ::: Foreword by A.G. Lafley Chairman, President, and CEO P&G ::: Introduction ::: A call from Peter Drucker ::: An already full schedule ::: Twenty-first century realities ::: The shaping and creation of this book ::: Peter Drucker’ liberating impact ::: Drucker Ideas ::: Book contents ::: Drucker’s declarations ::: Drucker Philosopy ::: Efficiency vs. Effectiveness ::: On Money ::: On Management ::: On Knowledge ::: On the Individual ::: Doing Business in the Lego World (#wgobcd) ::: The Silent Revolution ::: Embracing The Future ::: The Primacy Of Knowledge ::: The Lego World ::: A New Solution Space ::: Implications For Managers ::: Conclusion ::: The Customer: Joined at the Hip ::: Medtronic ::: Connecting With Your Customer: Four Drucker Questions ::: Who Should Be Considered A Customer? ::: Ideas In Action: Shadow Customers ::: Customer Versus Competitor? ::: Who Is Not Your Customer? ::: Which Of Your Current Noncustomers Should You Be Doing Business With? ::: What Does Your Customer Consider Value? ::: Does Your Customer’s Perception Of Value Align With Your Own? ::: How Do Connectivity And Relationships Influence Value? ::: Which Customer Wants Remain Unsatisfied? ::: What Are Your Results With Customers? ::: How Are Outsiders Measuring And Sharing Results And Information About Your Products And Services? ::: Are You Fully Leveraging The Information Your Results Provide? ::: Are You Honest And Socially Responsible In Presenting Your Results? ::: Does Your Customer Strategy And Your Business Strategy Work Together? ::: Procter & Gamble ::: The Grandfather Of Marketing ::: Conclusion ::: Innovation and Abandonment ::: Creating Your Tomorrow: Four Drucker Questions ::: What Do You Have To Abandon To Create Room For Innovation? ::: If You Weren’t In This Business Today, Would You Invest The Resources To Enter It? ::: What Unconscious Assumptions Limit Your Innovative Thinking? ::: Are Your Highest-Achieving People Assigned To Innovative Opportunities? ::: Do You Systematically Seek Opportunities ::: Do You Look For Opportunities As If Your Survival Depended On It? ::: Are You Looking At The Seven Key Sources Of Opportunities? ::: The Unexpected ::: Industry Disparities across Time or Geography ::: Incongruities ::: Process Vulnerabilities ::: Demographic Changes ::: Perception and Priority Changes That Shift Buying Habits ::: New Knowledge ::: Do You Use A Disciplined Process For Converting Ideas Into Practical Solutions? ::: Do You #Brainstorm Effectively? ::: Do You Match Up Ideas With The Opportunity? ::: Do You Test And Refine Ideas Based On The Market Response? ::: Do You Deliver The Results? ::: Does Your Innovation Strategy Work With Your Business Strategy? ::: What Is Your Company’s Target Role In Defining New Markets? ::: Do Your Opportunities Fit With Your Business Strategy? ::: Are You Allocating Resources Where You Want To Be Making Bets? ::: How Innovation Enables Ge’s Longevity And Valuation ::: Making Innovation Everyone’s Business ::: In Contrast To Ge: Siemens Ag ::: Different Cultures ::: Differing Results ::: Conclusion ::: Collaboration and Orchestration ::: The Power Of Collaboration ::: Collaboration And Orchestration: Three Drucker Questions ::: What Are The Goals Of Your Collaboration? ::: How Should The Collaboration Be Structured? ::: How Can You Orchestrate Your Collaboration to... ::: Create A Living Business Plan ::: Structure Communications For Agile Decision Making ::: Track Progress As Measured By Expected Results ::: In one of our conversations, Bill Pollard ::: Conclusion ::: People and Knowledge ::: Alcoa And People ::: Investing In People And Knowledge: Five Drucker Questions ::: What Is The Task? ::: What Knowledge And Working Style Will Help An Individual Win? ::: Drucker listed five rules for making hiring decisions: ::: Are You Accessing The Full Diversity Of The Population? ::: Is There A Clear Mission And Direction That Builds Commitment? ::: Are People Given Autonomy And Support? ::: Are You Playing To People’s Strengths Rather Than Managing Around Their Problems? ::: Do You Systematically Match Strengths With Opportunities? ::: Do Your Structure And Processes Maximize The Knowledge Worker’s Contribution And Productivity? ::: Do You Systematically Develop Employees? ::: Using Talent Management To Accelerate Strategic Change ::: Background ::: A Changing World ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Customer Connection? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Innovation Process? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your Collaborations? ::: Is Knowledge Built Into Your People And Knowledge Management? ::: How People Make The Difference At Edward Jones ::: Google’s 10 Golden Rules For Knowledge Workers ::: Conclusion ::: Decision Making: The Chassis That Holds the Whole Together #PDFs ::: Decision Making: The Right Risks ::: Decision Making: Four Drucker Questions ::: Is Action Required? ::: Who Should Make The Decision? ::: What’s The Real Issue? ::: What Specifications Must The Solution Meet? ::: Have You Fully Considered All The Alternative Solutions? ::: Have You Gained Commitment And Capacity Of The Implementers? ::: Do You Have Mechanisms That Provide Tracking And Feedback? ::: The Decision Process ::: How Toyota Gets Its Edge ::: The Origins Of The Toyota Way ::: How Toyota Makes Decisions ::: Do the Homework First ::: Look at All Solutions, Build Consensus among Stakeholders, and Set Sights High ::: Implement Rapidly ::: Decision Making By Alfred Sloan ::: Conclusion ::: The Twenty-First-Century CEO ::: Field Of Vision ::: On my first meeting with Frances Hesselbein ::: The CEO Brand ::: When Frank Weise became the CEO of Cott Beverage ::: Influence On People--Collectively And Individually ::: Each Of Us As CEO ::: Endnotes ::: Books By Peter F. Drucker ::: Acknowledgments continue
And that brought us to management, or what he called “ knowledge-based management.”
He spent the better part of the next two hours defining and pulling this idea apart: the importance of accessing, interpreting, connecting, and translating knowledge.
He spoke about how critical it is to find and manage knowledge in new places like pharmaceutical companies as they move beyond chemistry to nanotechnology and software.
How would this search and application
Knowledge-based management is also critical to old multinationals like GE as they begin to build infrastructure for the developing countries, with the caveat that they first need to fully understand those countries.
See Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown
Essentially, GE has to access information about the developing world and its infrastructure, interpret this information, and connect it with the rest of GE.
The educated person
Drucker commented that #information will be infinite; the only limiting factor will be our ability to process and interpret that information.
That is what he meant when he emphasized the importance of the productivity of the knowledge worker.
Peter had a way of looking at something and teasing out both the positive and the negative.
“On the one hand, it’s important to specialize,” he said.
“On the other hand, it’s dangerous to overspecialize and be isolated.”
The ability to access specializations while cutting across them — that’s what I’d seen at the headquarters of the Myelin Repair Foundation only a few hundred miles away.
Finally, Peter was answering my questions — finding a way to specialize enough, but not too much, and without isolation.
“That,” he said, “is what should keep managers up at night.” continue
Management’s New Paradigm #mnp
The Effective Executive — GETTING THE RIGHT THINGS DONE ::: Preface ::: Introduction: What Makes An Effective Executive? ::: Get The Knowledge You Need ::: Write An Action Plan ::: Act ::: Take responsibility for decisions ::: Take responsibility for communicating ::: Focus on opportunities ::: Make meetings productive ::: Think And Say “We” ::: Rule: Listen first, speak last. ::: Effectiveness can be learned and must be earned ::: 1. Effectiveness Can Be Learned ::: Why We Need Effective Executives ::: Who Is An Executive? ::: Executive Realities ::: The Promise Of Effectiveness ::: But Can Effectiveness Be Learned? ::: 2. Know Thy Time ::: The Time Demands On The Executive ::: Time-Diagnosis ::: Pruning The Time-Wasters ::: Consolidating “Discretionary Time” ::: 3. What Can I Contribute? ::: The Executive’s Own Commitment ::: How To Make The Specialist Effective ::: The Right Human Relations ::: The Effective Meeting ::: 4. Making Strength Productive ::: Staffing From Strength ::: How Do I Manage My Boss? ::: Making Yourself Effective ::: 5. First Things First ::: Sloughing Off Yesterday ::: Priorities And Posteriorities ::: 6. The Elements of Decision-making #PDFs ::: Two Case Studies In Decision-Making ::: The Elements Of The Decision Process ::: 7. Effective Decisions ::: Decision-Making And The Computer ::: Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned ::: Index continue
The Effective Executive in Action — Contents ::: Foreword ::: Introduction: How to Use The Effective Executive in Action ::: 1 Effectiveness Can Be Learned ::: Introduction ::: Getting the Right Things Done ::: The Authority of Knowledge ::: Executive Realities ::: The Effective Personality ::: 2 Know Thy Time ::: Introduction ::: Time: The Limiting Factor to Accomplishment ::: Time Management: The Three Steps ::: Recording Time ::: Activities Involved in Managing Time ::: Eliminate Time-Wasters ::: Delegate Activities ::: Wasting Time of Other People ::: Prune Activities Resulting from Poor Management ::: Overstaffing ::: Malorganization ::: Malfunction in Information ::: Create and Consolidate Blocks of Discretionary Time ::: Effective Use of Discretionary Time ::: 3 Focus on Contribution ::: Introduction ::: Focus on Contribution: Results, Values, and Developing People ::: Focus on Results ::: Contribution of Knowledge Workers ::: Three Key Performance Areas ::: Direct Results ::: For What Does the Organization Stand? ::: Executive Succession ::: Focus on Contribution and People Development ::: Challenges and Contribution ::: Executive Failure ::: Communicating Knowledge ::: Good Human Relations ::: Communications ::: Teamwork ::: Individual Self-Development ::: Develop Others ::: Make Meetings Productive ::: Effective Meetings ::: 4 Making Strength Productive ::: Introduction ::: Purpose of the Organization ::: Staff from Strength ::: Weaknesses in People ::: Look for Outstanding Strength ::: Make Each Job Demanding and Big ::: Make Weaknesses Irrelevant ::: Jobs Structured to Fit Personalities ::: Decision Steps for Effective Staffing Decisions ::: Think Through the Assignment ::: Consider Several Qualified People ::: Study the Performance Records of Candidates ::: Discuss Candidates with Former Colleagues ::: Appointee Should Understand the Assignment ::: Five Ground Rules for Effective Staffing Decisions ::: Responsibility for Failed Placements ::: Responsibility for Removing Non-Performers ::: Right People Decisions for Every Position ::: A Second Chance ::: Place Newcomers in Established Positions ::: Appraise Based on Strengths ::: Character and Integrity ::: How Do I Manage My Boss? ::: A Boss List ::: Input from Bosses ::: Help Bosses Perform ::: Build on Bosses' Strengths ::: Keep Bosses Informed ::: No Surprises ::: Common Mistakes in Managing the Boss ::: Managing Oneself ::: Steps for Managing Oneself ::: Identify Your Strengths ::: Recognize Your Work Style ::: Determine How to Best Make Your Contribution ::: Take Responsibility for Work Relationships ::: Develop Opportunities for the Second Half of Your Life ::: 5 First Things First ::: Introduction ::: #Concentration ::: Abandonment ::: Where Abandonment Is Always Right ::: An Abandonment Process ::: Concentrate on a Few Tasks ::: Priorities and Posteriorities ::: Postponing the Work of Top Management ::: Deciding on Posteriorities ::: Rules for Priority Setting ::: 6 Effective Decisions ::: Introduction ::: Decision Making ::: Is a Decision Really Necessary? ::: Elements of Effective Decision Making ::: Classifying the Problem ::: Defining the Problem ::: Specifications of a Decision ::: Deciding on What Is Right ::: The Right Compromise ::: Building Action into the Decision ::: Testing the Decision Against Actual Results ::: The Effective Decision ::: Start with Untested Hypotheses ::: Opinions Rather Than Facts ::: Develop Disagreement ::: The Decision ::: Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned ::: Best Hope to Make Society Productive ::: Authors' Note continue
Managing Oneself — History’s great achievers ::: Learning to manage oneself ::: What Are My Strengths? ::: Feedback analysis ::: Action implications ::: How Do I Perform? ::: Am I a reader or a listener? ::: How do I learn? ::: Alone or with others—in what relationship? ::: Decision maker or advisor ::: What kind of work environment? ::: Conclusion ::: What Are My Values? ::: Where Do I Belong? ::: What Should I Contribute? ::: Responsibility For Relationships ::: Accepting others as individuals ::: Responsibility for communications ::: The Second Half of Your Life ::: The boredom challenge ::: Three ways to develop a second career ::: Starting a new one ::: The parallel career ::: The social entrepreneur ::: Those who manage themselves are the leaders and models for the rest of society ::: Starting early—a prerequisite ::: Serious setbacks—another motivator ::: Summary—A revolution in human affairs ::: About The Author continue
Managing in Turbulent Times — Introduction ::: Managing the Fundamentals which pertain to TODAY's enterprise ::: Introduction ::: Adjusting for Inflation ::: Managing for liquidity & financial strength ::: Managing the productivities of all resources (PIMS) ::: Earning today the cost of staying in business. ::: Managing for TOMORROW ::: Tomorrow is being made today ::: Concentrating resources on results ::: Sloughing off yesterday ::: Managing Growth ::: Managing Innovation & Change ::: Business Strategies for Tomorrow ::: Management Performance: preparing today's business for the future ::: Managing the Sea-Change : The New Population Structure and the New Population Dynamics ::: Introduction ::: The New Population Realities—Labor forces and customers ::: Institutional affects ::: From "Labor Force" to "Labor Forces" ::: The End of Mandatory Retirement Age ::: The "Double-Headed Monster" ::: Job Needs ::: The Need for Redundancy Planning ::: Managing in Turbulent Environments ::: In three related facets of its environment management faces new realities, challenges, uncertainties ::: Economic ::: Social ::: Political ::: The challenge to Management ::: Management is now being stridently attacked ::: Management will survive ::: Management is the organ of institutions ::: The form which management will take may be quite different tomorrow continue
The Changing World of The Executive — A Society of Organizations ::: Executive Agenda ::: Inflation-Proofing the Company ::: A scorecard for managers ::: Helping Small Business Cope ::: Is Executive Pay Excessive? ::: On Mandatory Executive Retirement ::: The Real Duties of A Director ::: The Information Explosion ::: Learning From Foreign Management ::: Business Performance ::: The Delusion of Profits #profit ::: Aftermath of a Go-Go Decade ::: Managing Capital Productivity ::: Six durable Economic Myths ::: Measuring Business Performance ::: Why Consumer's Aren't Behaving ::: Good Growth and Bad Growth ::: The Re-Industrialization Of America ::: The Danger of Excessive Labor Income ::: The Nonprofit Sector ::: Managing the Nonprofit Institution ::: Managing the Knowledge Worker ::: Meaningful Government Reorganization ::: The Decline of Unionization ::: The Future of Health Care ::: The Professor as Featherbedder ::: The Schools in 1990 ::: People at Work ::: Unmaking the Nineteenth Century ::: Retirement Policy ::: Report on the Class of 68 ::: Meaningful Unemployment Figures ::: Baby Boom Problems ::: Planning for Redundant Workers ::: Job as a Property Right ::: The Changing Globe ::: The rise of Production Sharing ::: Japan's Economic Policy Turn ::: The Battle Over Co-Determination ::: A troubled Japanese Juggernaut ::: India & appropriate Technolgy ::: Toward a New Form of Money? ::: How Westernized Are the Japanese? ::: Needed: A Full-Investment Budget ::: A return to Hard Choices ::: The Matter of Business Ethics continue
Frontiers of Management — The Future is Being Shaped Today ::: Interview ::: Economics ::: The Changed World Economy ::: America's Entrepreneurial Job Machine ::: Why OPEC Had to Fail ::: The Changing Multinational ::: Managing Currency Exposure ::: Export Markets and Domestic Policies ::: Europe's High-Tech Ambitions ::: What We Can Learn from the Germans ::: On Entering the Japanese Market ::: Trade with Japan: The Way It Works ::: The Perils of Adversarial Trade ::: Modern Prophets: Schumpeter or Keynes? ::: People ::: Picking People: The Basic Rules ::: Measuring White Collar Productivity ::: Twilight of the first-Line Supervisor? ::: Overpaid Executives: The Greed Effect ::: Overage Executives: Keeping Firms Young ::: Paying the Professional Schools ::: Jobs and People: The Growing Mismatch ::: Quality Education: The New Growth Area ::: Management ::: Management: The Problems of Success ::: Getting Control of Staff Work ::: Slimming Management's Midriff ::: The Information-Based Organization ::: Are Labor Unions Becoming Irrelevant ::: Union Flexibility: Why Its Now a Must ::: Management as a Liberal Art ::: The Organization ::: The Hostile Takeover and Its Discontents ::: Five Rules of Successful Acquisitions ::: Innovative Organization ::: The No-Growth Enterprise ::: Why Automation Pays Off ::: IBM's Watson: Vision for Tomorrow ::: The Lessons of the Bell Breakup ::: Social Needs and Business Opportunities ::: Social Innovation—Management's New Dimension ::: Priorities continue
Managing For The Future — Preface ::: Interview: Notes on the Post-Business Society ::: Economics ::: The futures already around us ::: The poverty of economic theory ::: The transnational economy ::: From world trade to world investment ::: The lessons of the U.S. export boom ::: Low wages: no longer a competitive edge ::: Europe in the 1990s: Strategies for survival ::: U.S.-Japan trade needs a reality check ::: Japan’s great postwar weapon ::: Misinterpreting Japan and the Japanese ::: Help Latin America and help ourselves ::: Mexico’s ace in the hole: the maquiladora ::: People ::: The New Productivity Challenge ::: The mystique of the business leader ::: Leadership: ::: People, work, and the future of the city (Social impacts of information) ::: The fall of the blue-collar worker ::: End work rules and job descriptions ::: Making managers of communist bureaucrats ::: China’s nightmare: ::: Management ::: Tomorrow’s managers: the major trends ::: How to manage the boss ::: What really ails the U.S. auto industry ::: The new Japanese business strategies ::: Manage by walking around—Outside! ::: Corporate culture: Use it, don’t lose it ::: Permanent cost cutting: permanent policy ::: What the nonprofits are teaching business ::: Nonprofit governance: lessons for success (for nonprofits) ::: The Nonprofits’ outreach revolution ::: The organization ::: The governance of corporations ::: Four marketing lessons for the future ::: Tomorrow’s company: dressed for success ::: Company performance: five telltale tests ::: R&D: the best is business driven ::: Sell the mailroom: Unbundling in the’90s ::: The 10 rules of effective research ::: The trend toward alliances for progress ::: A crisis in capitalism: Who’s in charge? ::: The emerging theory of manufacturing ::: Afterword: 1990s and beyond ::: The changing world economy ::: Innovation and entrepreneurship ::: Personal effectiveness continue
Management Challenges for the 21st Century Introduction
Conditions for survival
One thing is certain for developed countries —and probably for the entire world:
We face long years of profound changes. #lter
The Second Curve by Charles Handy
The changes are not primarily economic changes.
They are not even primarily technological changes.
… the real pattern of economic activity
larger composite view ↑ ::: Economic & content and structure ::: Adoption rates: one & two
The Forces Creating a New Geography of Opportunity?
Move: The Forces Uprooting Us
They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in #worldview.
... snip, snip...
Thus it can be confidently predicted that a large number of today’s leaders in all areas, whether business, education or health care, are unlikely still to be around thirty years hence, and certainly not in their present form.
... snip, snip...
But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful.
These changes are not predictable.
The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future.
… → continue
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Knowledge workers are likely to outlive their employing organization
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The actual results of action are not predictable.
Indeed, if there is one rule for action, and especially for institutional action, it is that the expected results will not be attained.
The unexpected is practically certain.
But are the unexpected results deleterious? Read more
The future that has already happened
The unexpected success
Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Those who do work on these challenges today, and thus prepare themselves and their institutions for the new challenges, will be the leaders and dominate tomorrow.
Those who wait until these challenges have indeed become “hot” issues are likely to fall behind, perhaps never to recover.
… snip, snip …
These challenges are not arising out of today.
… snip, snip …
In most cases they are at odds and incompatible with what is accepted and successful today.
We live in a period of PROFOUND TRANSITION and the changes are more radical perhaps than even those that ushered in the “Second Industrial Revolution” of the middle of the 19th century, or the structural changes triggered by the Great Depression and the Second World War.
… snip, snip …
For in many cases— … — the new realities and their demands require a REVERSAL of policies that have worked well for the last century and, even more, a change in the MINDSET of organizations as well as of individuals.
Management’s new paradigms #mnp
Strategy: The new certainties
Introduction Why Strategy?
The Collapsing Birthrate
The Distribution of Income
Industries, whether businesses or nonbusinesses, have to be managed differently depending on whether they are growth industries, mature industries or declining industries
… snip, snip …
In conclusion, institutions—businesses as well as nonbusinesses—will have to learn to base their strategy on their knowledge of, and adaptation to, the trends in the distribution of disposable income and, above all, to any shifts in this distribution. And they need both quantitative information and qualitative #analysis.
Competition on the road S ahead : … “One consequence of this is that every business must become globally competitive, even if it manufactures or sells only within a local or regional market. The competition is not local anymore—in fact, it knows no boundaries. Every company has to become transnational in the way it is run. … But in e-commerce there are neither local companies nor distinct geographies. Where to manufacture, where to sell, and how to sell will remain important business decisions. But in another twenty years they may no longer determine what a company does, how it does it, and where it does it” … source
All institutions have to make global competitiveness a strategic goal.
No institution, whether a business, a university or a hospital, can hope to survive, let alone to succeed, unless it measures up to the standards set by the leaders in its field, anyplace in the world.
One implication: It is no longer possible to base a business or a country’s economic development on cheap labor.
However low its wages, a business—except for the smallest and most purely local one, for example, a local restaurant—is unlikely to survive, let alone to prosper, unless its workforce rapidly attains the productivity of the leaders of the industry anyplace in the world.
This is true particularly in manufacturing.
For in most manufacturing industries of the developed world the cost of manual labor is rapidly becoming a smaller and smaller factor—one-eighth of total costs or less.
Low labor productivity endangers a company’s survival.
But low labor costs no longer give enough of a cost advantage to offset low labor productivity.
This (as already said in Chapter One) also means that the economic development model of the 20th century—the model first developed by Japan after 1955 and then successfully copied by South Korea and Thailand—no longer works.
Despite their enormous surplus of young people qualified only for unskilled manual work, emerging countries from now on will have to base growth either on technological leadership (as did the United States and Germany in the second half of the 19th century), or on productivity equal to that of the world leaders in a given industry, if not on themselves becoming the world’s productivity leaders.
The same is true for all areas: Design, #Marketing, Finance, Innovation—that is, for management altogether.
Performance below the world’s highest standards stunts, even if the costs are very low and even if government subsidies are very high.
And “Protection” no longer protects, no matter how high the custom duties or how low the import quotas.
Still, in all likelihood, we face a protectionist wave throughout the world in the next few decades.
For the first reaction to a period of turbulence is to try to build a wall that shields one’s own garden from the cold winds outside.
But such walls no longer protect institutions—and especially businesses—that do not perform up to world standards.
It will only make them more vulnerable.
The best example is Mexico, which for fifty years from 1929 on had a deliberate policy of building its domestic economy independent of the outside world.
It did this not only by building high walls of protectionism to keep foreign competition out.
it did it—and this was uniquely Mexican in the 20th century world—by practically forbidding its own companies to export.
This attempt to create a modern but purely Mexican economy failed dismally.
Mexico actually became increasingly dependent on imports, both of food and of manufactured products, from the outside world.
It was finally forced to open itself to the outside world, since it simply could no longer pay for the needed imports.
And then Mexico found that a good deal of its industry could not survive.
Similarly, the Japanese tried to protect the bulk of their business and industry by keeping the foreigners out while creating a small but exceedingly competitive number of export industries—and then providing these industries with capital at very low or no cost, thus giving them a tremendous competitive advantage.
That policy too has failed.
The present (1999) crisis in Japan is in large part the result of the failure to make the bulk of Japanese business and industry (and especially its financial industries) globally competitive.
Strategy, therefore, has to accept a new fundamental.
Any institution—and not just businesses—has to measure itself against the standards set by each industry’s leaders anyplace in the world.
The Growing Incongruence Between Economic Reality and Political Reality
The change leader #pdf
One cannot manage change
“One can only be ahead of it.
We do not hear much anymore about “overcoming resistance to change,” which ten or fifteen years ago was one of the most popular topics of management books and management seminars.
Everybody has accepted by now that “change is unavoidable.”
But this still implies that change is like “death and taxes”: It should be postponed as long as possible, and no change would be vastly preferable.
But in a period of upheavals, such as the one we are living in, change is the norm.
To be sure, it is painful and risky, and above all it requires a great deal of very hard work.
But unless it is seen as the task of the organization to lead change, the organization whether business, university, hospital and so on will not survive.
In a period of rapid structural change, the only ones who survive are the Change Leaders.
It is therefore a central 21st-century challenge for management that its organization become a change leader.
A change leader sees change as opportunity.
A change leader looks for change, knows how to find the right changes and knows how to make them effective both outside the organization and inside”
A-10 Warthog → YouTube ::: Wikipedia
Reports and meetings ::: staffing opportunities
The last policy for the change leader to build into the enterprise is a systematic policy of INNOVATION, that is, a policy to create change.
It is the area to which most attention is being given today.
It may, however, not be the most important one—organized abandonment, improvement, exploiting success may be more productive for a good many enterprises.
And without these policies—abandonment, improvement, exploitation—no organization can hope to be a successful innovator.
But to be a successful change leader an enterprise has to have a policy of systematic innovation .
And the main reason may not even be that change leaders need to innovate—though they do.
The main reason is that a policy of SYSTEMATIC INNOVATION produces the mindset for an organization to be a change leader.
It makes the entire organization see change as an opportunity.
Windows of opportunity
- Unexpected successes ::: unexpected failures ::: unexpected events
- Process needs
- Changes in industry and market structures
- Changes in demographics
- Changes in meaning and perception
- New knowledge
This requires a systematic policy to look, every six to twelve months, for changes that might be opportunities
The unexpected success was Drucker’s favorite
… but if innovation is based on exploiting what has already happened —in the enterprise itself, in its markets, in knowledge, in society, in demographics and so on—it is far less risky
And this work should be organized as a regular part of every unit within the enterprise, and of every level of management.
Important to harvest and apply Dense reading and Dense listening and Thinking broad and Thinking detailed
What not to do
The change leader’s two budgets
Change and continuity
Making the future
“One thing is certain for developed countries—and probably for the entire world:
We face long years of profound changes.
The changes are not primarily economic changes.
They are not even primarily technological changes.
They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in #worldview.
Economic theory and economic policy are unlikely to be effective by themselves in such a period.
And there is no social theory for such a period either.
Only when such a period is over, decades later, are theories likely to be developed to explain what has happened.
But a few things are certain in such a period.
It is futile, for instance, to try to ignore the changes and to pretend that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.
This, however, is the position that existing institutions tend to adopt in such a period—businesses as well as nonbusinesses.
It is, above all, the policy likely to be adopted by the institutions that were most successful in the earlier period before the changes.
They are most likely to suffer from the delusion that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.
Thus it can be confidently predicted that a large number of today’s leaders in all areas, whether business, education or health care, are unlikely still to be around thirty years hence, and certainly not in their present form. #ptf
But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful.
These changes are not predictable. #ptf
The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future.
Changes of course have to fit the certainties (which this book attempted to outline in the preceding chapter).
Within these restraints, however, the future is still malleable.
It can still be created.
To try to make the future is highly risky.
It is less risky, however, than not to try to make it.
A goodly proportion of those attempting to do what this chapter discusses will surely not succeed.
But, predictably, no one else will.” (survive?)
Creativity — making the future II (#mtf #ptf)
“The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades.
The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.
And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened, the social transformations of the twentieth century” — A Century of Social Transformation
Knowledge worker productivity
Managing oneself (a revolution in human affairs)
Introduction: Tomorrow's "Hot" Issues ::: How to use the book? ::: Management's New Paradigms ::: Introduction: Why Assumptions Matter ::: Management Is Business Management ::: The One Right Organization ::: The One Right Way to Manage People ::: Technologies and End-Users Are Fixed and Given ::: Management's Scope Is Legally Defined ::: Management's Scope Is Politically Defined ::: The Inside Is Management's Domain ::: Conclusion ::: Strategy—The New Certainties ::: Introduction Why Strategy? ::: The Collapsing Birthrate ::: The Distribution of Income ::: Defining Performance ::: Global Competitiveness ::: The Growing Incongruence Between Economic Reality and Political Reality ::: The Change Leader ::: One Cannot Manage Change ::: One can only be ahead of it ::: In a period of rapid structural change, the only ones who survive are the Change Leaders ::: A change leader sees change as opportunity ::: I Change Policies ::: Making an organization more receptive to innovation is not nearly enough to be a change leader ::: To be a change leader requires the willingness and ability to change what is already being done in addition to new and different things ::: It requires policies to make the present create the future ::: Organized Abandonment ::: In three cases the right action is always outright abandonment ::: Abandonment is the right action if a product, service, market or process “still has a few good years of life” ::: “It’s fully written off” ::: The old which is stuntin the new ::: GM & the United Automobile Workers Union (UAW) ::: Abandonment may take different forms ::: In the GM cases ::: The right answer may even be to do more of the same but to do it differently ::: The publishing backlist example ::: How to act on abandonment is thus the second question ::: In a period of rapid change the “How?” is likely to become obsolete faster than the “What?” ::: The change leader must therefore also ask of every product, service, market or process ::: Needs to be asked of both the successful and unsuccessful ... ::: This applies to all areas of the enterprise ::: Distributors and distribution channels ::: American university example ::: HMOs ::: So far, we can only speculate on the impact the Internet will have on distribution ::: American automobile market ::: “To Abandon What” and “To Abandon How” have to be practiced systematically ::: Here is an example of how successful abandonment policies can be organized ::: Organized Improvement ::: Whatever an enterprise does internally and externally needs to be improved systematically and continuously ::: And it needs to be improved at a preset annual rate ::: What constitutes “performance” in a given area? ::: One example ::: What is “quality” in a product? ::: Even more difficult very often is the definition of performance in services ::: Another example: a major commercial bank ::: Continuous improvements in any area eventually transform the operation ::: Exploiting Success ::: Monthly problem report ::: Problems cannot be ignored. ::: An additional “first page” to the monthly report ::: Enterprises that succeed in being change leaders make sure that they staff the opportunities ::: The way to do this ::: Exploit one’s own successes and to build on them ::: The best example, perhaps, is the Japanese company Sony ::: Another example is the medical electronics group of the American General Electric Company ::: Exploitation will, sooner or later, lead to genuine innovation ::: II Creating Change ::: Windows of Opportunity ::: A systematic policy to look, every six to twelve months, for changes that might be opportunities ::: A change in any one of these areas raises the question ::: Innovation can never be risk-free ::: Innovation work should be organized as a regular part of every ... ::: What Not to Do ::: There are Three Traps to avoid ::: Not in tune with the strategic realities discussed in Chapter Two of this book ::: Confuse “novelty” with “innovation.” ::: Confusing motion with action ::: Attempting to reorganize first ::: Reorganization comes after the “what” and the “how” have been faced up to ::: By itself reorganization is just “motion” and no substitute for action ::: Every change leader can expect to fall into one of them—or into all three—again and again ::: There is only one way to avoid them, or to extricate oneself ::: to organize the Introduction of Change, that is, to PILOT ::: III Piloting ::: One cannot market research the truly new ::: Nothing new is right the first time ::: Unexpected everything ::: James Watt steam engine ::: Neither studies nor market research nor computer modeling are a substitute for the test of reality ::: Everything improved or new needs therefore first to be tested on a small scale ::: The way to do this — find a champion ::: This need not even be somebody within the organization ::: If the pilot test is successful ::: The Change Leader's Two Budgets ::: Successful change leadership requires appropriate accounting and budget policies ::: It requires TWO separate budgets ::: In most enterprises ::: The change leader’s first budget is an operating budget ::: And then the change leader has a second, separate budget for the future ::: The most common, but also the most damaging, practice ::: But the right argument is ::: We tend to manage according to the reports we receive and see ::: IV Change and Continuity ::: The traditional institution is designed for continuity ::: Change leaders are, however, designed for change ::: And yet they still require continuity ::: But continuity is equally needed outside the enterprise ::: The enterprise also has to have a “personality” that identifies it among its customers and in its ma ::: Change and continuity are thus poles rather than opposites ::: The more an institution is organized to be a change leader, the more it will need continuity ::: But we do know already a good deal about how to create it ::: One way is to make partnership in change the basis of continuing relationships ::: This is what the Japanese “Keiretsu” has done ::: Economic-Chain Accounting ::: Continuing relationships between manufacturer and distributor ::: Relationships within the enterprise ::: Balancing change and continuity requires continuous work on information ::: More important for these people to get together ::: V Making the Future ::: We face long years of profound changes ::: They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in worldview ::: Theories ::: It is futile, for instance, to try to ignore and pretend ::: But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful ::: These changes are not predictable ::: The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future ::: Within these restraints, however, the future is still malleable ::: Information Challenges ::: Introduction: The New Information Revolution ::: From the "T" to the "I" in "IT" ::: Greatest and earliest impacts on business policy, business strategy and business decisions ::: The revolutionary impacts so far have been where none of us then anticipated them: on OPERATIONS ::: Not one of us, for instance, could have imagined the truly revolutionary software now available to a ::: Not one of us could then have imagined the equally revolutionary software available to today’s surgical residents ::: Half a century ago no one could have imagined ::: The new Information Revolution began in business and has gone farthest in it ::: In education and health care, the emphasis thus will also shift from the “T” in IT to the “I,” as it is shifting in business ::: The Lessons of History ::: History's Lesson for the Technologists ::: The New Print Revolution ::: The Information Enterprises Need ::: From Cost Accounting to Result Control ::: From Legal Fiction to Economic Reality ::: Information for Wealth Creation ::: Foundation Information ::: Productivity Information ::: Competence Information ::: Resource Allocation Information ::: Where the Results Are ::: The Information Executives Need for Their Work ::: Organizing Information ::: No Surprises ::: Going Outside ::: Knowledge-Worker Productivity ::: Introduction ::: The Productivity of the Manual Worker ::: The Principles of Manual-Work Productivity ::: The Future of Manual-Worker Productivity ::: What We Know About Knowledge - Worker Productivity ::: What Is the Task? ::: The Knowledge Worker as Capital Asset ::: The Technologists ::: Knowledge Work as a System ::: But How to Begin? ::: The Governance of the Corporation ::: Managing Oneself ::: Introduction ::: What Are My Strengths? ::: How Do I Perform? ::: Am I a Reader or a Listener? ::: How Do I Learn? ::: What Are My Values? ::: What to Do in a Value Conflict? ::: Where Do I Belong? ::: What Is My Contribution? ::: Relationship Responsibility ::: The Second Half of Your Life ::: There are three answers ::: Start a second and different career ::: The Parallel Career ::: Social entrepreneurs ::: People who manage the "second half" may always be a minority only ::: Begin creating it long before one enters it ::: No one can expect to live very long without experiencing a serious setback ::: A society in which success has become important ::: A revolution in human affairs
Managing in the Next Society (#sda)
PART I: THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
Beyond the Information Revolution
The Exploding World of the Internet
We need to measure knowledge workers’ productivity (#sda)
The following is for topic search: How do we do that?
We begin by asking even lower-level knowledge workers three things:
What are your strengths and what should you put work into?
What should this company expect from you and in what time span?
And what information do you need to do your work and what information do you owe?
What about American health care, which seems mired in contradictions? Hospitals
Furthermore, as more and more services by government agencies will be outsourced, it will make little difference whether the organization which gets a contract to clean the streets is for #profit or not for profit nonprofit.
It won't be in the market economy.
Yet I think the greatest e-commerce impact may be in higher education and health care.
However, attempts to put ordinary college courses on the Internet are a mistake.
Marshall McLuhan was correct.
The medium not only controls how things are communicated, but what things are communicated.
On the Web, you must do it differently.
What about on-line education's potential in the developing world?
That's a tremendous obstacle in Indian provinces like Orissa, say, where the upper castes would bitterly fight admission of lower-class children.
Market forces cannot be the cure-all for health care.
The idea that American health care is in particularly bad shape is nonsense.
They're all in total disarray.
The reason is that they're based on the #facts of 1900.
The worst is either the German or the Japanese.
Medical advances since antibiotics have had no impact on life expectancy.
They are wonderful for tiny groups, but statistically insignificant.
The great changes have been in the workforce.
When I was born, 95 percent of all people worked in manual jobs — most of them dangerous, debilitating jobs.
You've heard of Franz Kafka, haven't you?
The Canadian system doesn't administer health care.
It pays fixed rates, that's all.
What we do now, the Canadian system doesn't.
It doesn't tell any doctor what to do.
It just says, for this you get X dollars in Ontario and Y dollars in Saskatchewan.
So the UAW killed it with help from the American Medical Association
In the developed countries, with the exception of the U.S., the number of young people is already going down sharply.
In the U.S., it will begin diminishing in fifteen or eighteen years.
Since 1700, we've tacitly assumed that population grows, and the foundation grows faster than the top.
So this is unprecedented.
We have no idea what it means.
There are indications.
Also, when you say young people, in the developed countries that will mean, very heavily, immigrants, not children.
They're immigrants, whether a Mexican entering southern California, a Nigerian entering Spain, or a Ukrainian entering Germany.
These will be young, in that the average age of an immigrant into the developed countries is between eighteen and twenty-eight.
They represent a very heavy capital investment in their upbringing, yet aren't adequately educated.
We don't know what that means.
Perhaps tremendous additional productive power and tremendous demand for additional educational expenses.
We don't know, we've never been there.
But it is predictable that today's youth culture will not last forever.
It's an old insight that the prevailing culture is made by the fastest-growing population group.
That will not be young people.
From Computer Literacy to Information Literacy
E-Commerce: The Central Challenge
The New Economy Isn’t Here Yet
The CEO in the New Millennium
PART II: BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
Entrepreneurs and Innovation
They’re Not Employees, They’re People
Financial Services: Innovate or Die
Moving Beyond Capitalism?
PART III: THE CHANGING WORLD ECONOMY
The Rise of the Great Institutions
The Global Economy and the Nation-State
It’s the Society, Stupid
On Civilizing the City
PART IV: THE NEXT SOCIETY
The Next Society
The New Demographics
The New Workforce
The Manufacturing Paradox
Will the Corporation Survive?
The Future of Top Management
The Way Ahead
Preface ::: I did once believe in a New Economy ::: Some of the chapters in this book deal with traditional "management" topics ::: All the chapters in this book were written before the terrorist attacks ::: The Information Society ::: Beyond the Information Revolution ::: The Railroad ::: Routinization ::: The Meaning of E-Commerce ::: Luther, Machiavelli, and the Salmon ::: The Gentleman versus the Technologist ::: Bribing the Knowledge Worker ::: The Exploding World of the Internet ::: Giving knowledge workers stock options amounts to nothing more than bribing them ::: I understand you were an investment banker in London ::: So companies can no longer drive knowledge workers with stock options? ::: Important knowledge workers will have to be made full partners ::: We need to measure knowledge workers' productivity ::: What about American health care, which seems mired in contradictions? ::: Was this that hospital's only problem? ::: How so? ::: What about on-line education's potential in the developing world? ::: Let's return to health care ::: Of course ::: Did you know that Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts employs ::: Apples and oranges? ::: What should happen with American health care? ::: You've talked about demographic changes, with more old people in the developed nations ::: Today we can buy for $10 a wristwatch ::: Coming to America during the Great Depression ::: These aren't just children of affluence looking for a focus? ::: From Computer Literacy to Information Literacy ::: Most CEOs still believe ::: When we talk about the global economy, I hope nobody believes it can be managed ::: Although this country today has a merchandise trade deficit ::: We need outside information, and we will have to learn ::: Let's take a look at that endangered species, the American department store ::: E-Commerce: The Central Challenge ::: Cars by E-Mail ::: The New Economy Isn't Here Yet ::: Many of the newer Internet companies are struggling to keep their businesses afloat ::: Is it too late to pull out of the tailspin? ::: The argument that many of the start-ups pose is that they are simply buying land while land is cheap ::: Does that ten-year beginnings-to-boom timetable still apply? ::: If so, many new Net companies are stock market gambles, what about the established old-line companies? ::: Is it important to be a multi-brand organization? ::: Are there new metrics for success in an Internet company? ::: What are the most important numbers you'd look at to value a dot-com? ::: What do you think the corporation of the future looks like? ::: Will this ongoing quest for continuing education affect the structure of the corporation? ::: Today you need an organization that is a change leader, not just an innovator ::: An organization should be involved in the process of creative destruction ::: Any thoughts on the Microsoft antitrust trial? ::: The Age of Discontinuity ::: How does one manage successfully in this time of dramatic change? ::: How do you turn transition to an advantage? ::: What do you believe is the future of business on the Internet? ::: The CEO in the New Millennium ::: Transforming Governance ::: New Approaches to Information ::: Command and Control ::: The Rise of Knowledge Work ::: Tying It Together ::: Business Opportunities ::: Entrepreneurs and Innovation ::: Do you agree that we in the United States are the best practitioners of entrepreneurship ::: Who's number one? ::: If Korea is number one, and we're not number two, who is? ::: Okay, so third is still respectable, no? ::: America's entrepreneurial "delusion" is dangerous ::: Why do you think this is happening? ::: Is there any one key to that discipline? ::: The Four Entrepreneurial Pitfalls ::: Are there typical mistakes entrepreneurs make but could avoid? ::: So, often the entrepreneur is actually succeeding but doesn't realize it? ::: Good story, but is the rejection of success really all that common? ::: Why do entrepreneurs reject unexpected success? ::: Why do you think entrepreneurs have such a hard time grasping the concept of cash flow? ::: Why is that? Is it a product of our business schools? ::: And he doesn't see that he's outgrowing his management base ::: What's the one symptom an entrepreneur cannot afford to ignore ::: To really begin to work together as a team? ::: That's a hard decision for an entrepreneur to make, especially if Tom was there at the start ::: If you start out with them, you invariably end up killing yourself and the business ::: Do you think entrepreneurs today are smarter about avoiding the pitfalls ::: Can Large Companies Foster Entrepreneurship? ::: Can large companies really foster entrepreneurship? ::: How was that period of innovation different from today's? ::: What does that mean for entrepreneurship in large companies? ::: But can large companies foster entrepreneurship? ::: What are some examples of companies that have been successful at internal entrepreneurship? ::: The Rise of Social Entrepreneurship ::: Could you step back and summarize your views about social entrepreneurship? ::: You've said that more and more community jobs are being handled by local institutions ::: But so many people in business are leery of nonprofits because they see them as nonprofessional ::: What about innovation and entrepreneurship in government? ::: They're Not Employees, They're People ::: Strangled in Red Tape ::: The Splintered Organization ::: Companies Don't Get It ::: The Key to Competitive Advantage ::: Free Managers—to Manage People ::: Financial Services: Innovate or Die ::: A Wider Transformation ::: Time for Innovations ::: Moving Beyond Capitalism? ::: What is your critique? ::: Have we arrived at mass capitalism or post-capitalism? ::: How does society, then, manage in the long term? ::: Why is the social sector growing in Japan, where the community has been so strong? ::: The size of the social problems means they just can't be taken care of by voluntary associations ::: Why does the US. have such a large and vital third sector when compared to other countries ::: The Asian Crisis ::: On Japan ::: How can Japan as a nineteenth-century European state make it in the hypercompetitive 21st century ::: On China ::: A breakdown of the globalization process? ::: Will technological unemployment … ::: What, then, will be the "basic disturbance" of the twenty-first century as you see it? ::: The Changing World Economy ::: The Rise of the Great Institutions ::: Control over the Fief ::: Needed Autonomy ::: The Global Economy and the Nation-State ::: A True Survivor ::: The Nation-State Afloat ::: Virtual Money ::: Breaking the Rules ::: Selling to the World ::: War After Global Economics ::: It's the Society, Stupid ::: A Heretic's View ::: Descending from Heaven ::: Elites Rule ::: A Policy About Nothing ::: The Social Contract ::: It's the Society, Stupid ::: On Civilizing the City ::: Reality of Rural Life ::: The Need for Community ::: The Only Answer ::: The Next Society ::: The Next Society ::: Knowledge Is All ::: The New Protectionism ::: The Future of the Corporation ::: The New Demographics ::: Needed but Unwanted ::: A Country of Immigrants ::: The End of the Single Market ::: Beware Demographic Changes ::: The New Workforce ::: His and Hers ::: Ever Upward ::: The Price of Success ::: The Manufacturing Paradox ::: Smaller Numbers, Bigger Clout ::: Will the Corporation Survive? ::: Everything in Its Place ::: Knowledge workers provide “capital” just as much as does the provider of money ::: A growing number of people who work for an organization will not be full-time employees ::: The most productive and most profitable way to organize is to disintegrate ::: The customer now has the information ::: There are few unique technologies anymore ::: Who Needs a Research Lab? ::: The Next Company ::: From Corporation to Confederation ::: The Future of Top Management ::: Life at the Top ::: Impossible Jobs ::: The Way Ahead ::: The Future Corporation ::: People Policies ::: Outside Information ::: Change Agents ::: And Then? ::: Big Ideas
The Effective Executive (#worldview #impact)
EFFECTIVENESS: GETTING THE RIGHT THINGS
Making knowledge productive
To be reasonably effective it is not enough for the individual to be intelligent, to work hard or to be knowledgeable.
Effectiveness is something separate, something different.
The realities of the executive’s situation
effectiveness from him
and make effectiveness
exceedingly difficult to achieve.
Indeed, unless executives work at becoming effective,
the realities of their situation
will push them into futility.
what exists is getting old ↓
Working in the wrong time dimension
Misdirected efforts — three stonecutters
Take a quick look at the realities of a knowledge worker outside an organization to see the problem.
A physician has by and large no problem of effectiveness.
The patient who walks into his office brings with him everything to make the physician’s knowledge effective.
During the time he is with the patient, the doctor can, as a rule, devote himself to the patient.
He can keep interruptions to a minimum.
The contribution the physician is expected to make is clear.
What is important, and what is not, is determined by whatever ails the patient.
The patient’s complaints establish the doctor’s priorities.
And the goal, the objective, is given: It is to restore the patient to health or at least to make him more comfortable.
Physicians (doctors) are not noted for their capacity to organize themselves and their work.
But few of them have much trouble being effective.
The executive in organization is in an entirely different position.
In his situation there are four major realities over which he has essentially no control.
Every one of them is built into organization #pdf and into the executive’s day and work.
The Three Stonecutters
He has no choice but to “cooperate with the inevitable.”
But every one of these realities ↓ exerts pressure toward nonresults and nonperformance.
The executive’s time tends to belong to everybody else
Executives are forced to keep on “operating” unless they take positive action
The fundamental problem is the reality around the executive.
Unless he changes it by deliberate action, the flow of events will determine what he is concerned with and what he does.
Being within an “organization” pushes the executive toward ineffectiveness
Finally, the executive is “within” an organization
Explore → Executive realities
Organizational and executive realities
“Men of high effectiveness are conspicuous by their absence in executive jobs.
High intelligence is common enough among executives.
Imagination is far from rare.
The level of knowledge tends to be high.
But there seems to be little correlation between a man’s #effectiveness and his #intelligence, his imagination, or his knowledge.
Brilliant men are often strikingly ineffectual; they fail to realize that the brilliant insight is not by itself achievement. #intelligence
They never have learned that insights become effectiveness only through hard systematic work.
Conversely, in every organization there are some highly effective plodders.
While others rush around in the frenzy and busyness which very bright people so often confuse with ‘ creativity,’ the plodder puts one foot in front of the other and gets there first, like the tortoise in the old fable.”
The Effective Executive in Action
What executives should remember (Audible)
“Follow effective action with quiet reflection.
From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action.” — Peter Drucker
“Success always obsoletes the very behavior that achieved it.
It always creates new realities.
It always creates, above all, its own and different problems …” continue
“The last twenty years have been very unsettling.
Executives really don’t understand the world they live in” — PFD Forbes
What Makes An Effective Executive?
… a brief introduction from Peter F. Drucker’s work
An effective executive does not need to be a leader in the sense that the term is now most commonly used.
Harry Truman did not have one ounce of charisma, for example, yet he was among the most effective chief executives in US. history.
Similarly, some of the best business and nonprofit CEOs I’ve worked with over a 65-year consulting career were not stereotypical leaders.
They were all over the map in terms of their personalities, attitudes, values, strengths, and weaknesses.
They ranged from extroverted to nearly reclusive, from easy-going to controlling, from generous to parsimonious.
What made them all effective is that they followed the same eight practices:
1. They asked, “ What needs to be done? ”
“I’ve seen a great many people who are exceedingly good at execution, but exceedingly poor at picking the important things.
They are magnificent at getting the unimportant things done.
They have an impressive record of achievement on trivial matters” — PFD
main brainroad continues ↓
The answer to the question “What needs to be done?” almost always contains more than one urgent task.
But effective executives do not splinter themselves.
They concentrate on one task if at all possible.
If they are among those people—a sizable minority—who work best with a change of pace in their working day, they pick two tasks.
I have never encountered an executive who remains effective while tackling more than two tasks at a time.
Hence, after asking what needs to be done, the effective executive sets priorities and sticks to them.
For a CEO, the priority task might be redefining the company’s mission.
For a unit head, it might be redefining the unit’s relationship with headquarters.
Other tasks, no matter how important or appealing, are postponed.
However, after completing the original top-priority task, the executive resets priorities rather than moving on to number two from the original list.
He asks, “What must be done now?”
This generally results in new and different priorities.
… But Welch also thought through another issue before deciding where to concentrate his efforts for the next five years.
He asked himself which of the two or three tasks at the top of the list he himself was best suited to undertake.
Then he concentrated on that task; the others he delegated.
Effective executives try to focus on jobs they’ll do especially well.
They know that enterprises perform if top management performs—and don’t if it doesn’t.
2. They asked, “What is right for the enterprise?”
Effective executives’ second practice—fully as important as the first—is to ask, “Is this the right thing for the enterprise?”
They do not ask if it’s right for the owners, the stock price, the employees, or the executives.
Of course they know that shareholders, employees, and executives are important constituencies who have to support a decision, or at least acquiesce in it, if the choice is to be effective.
They know that the share price is important not only for the shareholders but also for the enterprise, since the price/earnings ratio sets the cost of capital.
But they also know that a decision that isn’t right for the enterprise will ultimately not be right for any of the stakeholders.
3. They developed action plans.
4. They took responsibility for decisions.
People decisions — the true control of an organization
5. They took responsibility for communicating.
6. They were focused on opportunities rather than problems.
7. They ran productive meetings.
8. They thought and said “we” rather than “I.”
The first two practices gave them the knowledge they needed.
The next four helped them convert this knowledge into effective action.
The last two ensured that the whole organization felt responsible and accountable.
We’ve just reviewed eight practices of effective executives.
I’m going to throw in one final, bonus practice.
This one’s so important that I’ll elevate it to the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last.
Managing the Nonprofit Organization and part-one summary
Beware of good intentions
Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations
Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution
How to guarantee nonperformance
No one can guarantee the performance of a public service program.
But we know how to ensure non-performance with absolute certainty.
Part I : Have a Lofty Objective ::: Try to Do Several Things at Once :::
Believe That "Fat is Beautiful" ::: Don't experiment, be dogmatic :::
Make sure that you will not learn from experience ::: Inability to Abandon :::
Part II : Avoiding These Six Deadly Sins is the Prerequisite for Performance and Results → What Results Should You Expect? — A Users' Guide to MBO :::
Part III : The Lack of Concern With Performance in Public Administration Theory :::
Have a lofty objective = To use such statements as “objectives” thus makes sure that no effective work will be done. For work is always specific, always mundane, always focused. Yet without work there is non-performance. To have a chance at performance, a program needs clear targets, the attainment of which can be measured, appraised, or at least judged.
What results should you expect? — a user’s guide to MBO
Organization actions: creating change to abandonment
Mojo: How to Get It, How to Keep It, How to Get It Back if You Lose It by Marshall Goldsmith
How to Win Friends & Influence People
Winning: The Answers
What thinking is needed — now or later?
Edward de Bono thinking books by category and book
Note the distinction between Edward de Bono’s take on decisions and the approaches in Peter Drucker’s writing
de Bono book search
Intelligence Information Thinking contents page ::: Amazon ::: INTELLIGENCE ::: The Intelligence Trap ::: Pieces of the Puzzle ::: Intelligence as Potential ::: Develop Potential ::: INFORMATION ::: Search Not Think ::: School and Information ::: Necessary but not Enough ::: THINKING ::: By and large, however, most schools do not teach thinking explicitly ::: 1. Thinking is not necessary ::: 2. Information is enough ::: 3. We already teach thinking ::: 4. Thinking cannot be taught ::: Our Software for Thinking ::: They were not interested in ::: Creative thinking ::: Constructive thinking ::: Operational thinking ::: Perceptual Thinking ::: Critical Thinking ::: Attitudes and Tools ::: Creativity ::: Argument ::: Parallel Thinking ::: Range ::: Love It pdf
Think! Before It's Too Late contents page ::: Amazon Contents ::: About the Book ::: Also by Edward de Bono ::: In Praise of Edward De Bono ::: Author's Note ::: Introduction ::: Why Do We Need This Book? ::: Think grey not green ::: Emotion vs. thought ::: Thinking Software ::: The Renaissance and the Church ::: The Renaissance and the Church-1 ::: The mechanism of mind ::: We Have Such Excellent Thinking! ::: Different ::: Excellent but not enough ::: My Thinking ::: How new thinking has worked ::: Boasting ::: 1 Creativity ::: Why We Need Creativity ::: Commodities And Values ::: Language Problem ::: Idea creativity ::: Reasons ::: Brainstorming For Creativity ::: Creativity: Talent Or Skill? ::: Behavior ::: The Logic Of Creativity ::: Patterns ::: What is a pattern? ::: Asymmetry ::: Humor And Creativity ::: The Random Word Tool For Creativity ::: Process ::: Logic ::: Shaping ::: The Random Word Effect ::: Exercise ::: Summary: Creativity ::: 2 The Formal Tools of Lateral Thinking ::: Challenge ::: Focus ::: Concepts ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Summary: The Formal Tools Of Lateral Thinking ::: 3 Judgement Not Design ::: Judgement And Recognition ::: The Dog Exercise Machine ::: Operacy ::: Design And Conflicts ::: 4 Knowledge and Information ::: China ::: Computers ::: Corporations ::: Alternatives and Possibilities ::: Argument ::: Alternatives to Argument ::: Excellent — but Not Enough ::: Summary: Knowledge and Information ::: 5 Language ::: Judgement And Boxes ::: Complex Situations ::: Language And Perception ::: Summary: Language ::: 6 Democracy ::: Other And Preceding Systems ::: Advantages Of Democracy ::: Limitations Of Democracy ::: Summary: Democracy ::: 7 Universities ::: Truth, Knowledge And Scholarship ::: Thinking ::: Design ::: The Six Value Medals ::: Argument ::: Examinations ::: Skills ::: Summary: Universities ::: 8 Schools ::: Schools in the European Union ::: Thinking ::: Other Subjects ::: Summary: Schools ::: 9 The Media ::: Negative ::: What Can The Media Do? ::: Summary: The Media ::: 10 Perception ::: Logic Vs. Perception ::: Perception In The Real World ::: Possibilities And Alternatives ::: What Can We Do? ::: Summary: Perception ::: 11 Critical Thinking and Criticism ::: Criticism And Complaint ::: Problem-Solving ::: Defects ::: Summary: Critical Thinking And Criticism ::: 12 Art and Thinking ::: Negative Is Real ::: Different ::: Creativity And Art ::: Music ::: Summary: Art And Thinking ::: 13 Leadership and Thinking ::: Complacency ::: New Directions ::: The Codes ::: Septines ::: Recognition ::: 14 Conflicts and Disagreements ::: Perception ::: Exploration ::: Design ::: Tools Of Lateral Thinking ::: Summary: Conflicts And Disagreements ::: 15 Twenty-three Reasons Why Thinking Is So Poor ::: Success In Science And Technology ::: No Faculty Or Classification ::: Left To Philosophers And Psychologists ::: Ignorance Of How The Brain Works ::: The Greek Gang Of Three ::: Perception Ignored ::: Religion ::: Truth And Possibility ::: Critical Judgement Not Design ::: Language ::: Argument ::: Democracy ::: Courts Of Law ::: The Media ::: Knowledge And Information ::: Universities ::: Computers ::: The Right Answer ::: Schools And Exams ::: Art ::: Leadership ::: Continuity ::: Right/Wrong ::: Summary: Twenty-Three Reasons ::: 16 What Can I Do? ::: The Palace Of Thinking ::: Summary: What Can ::: 17 What Can You Do? ::: Individuals ::: Parents ::: Educators ::: Business Executives ::: Formal Programs ::: 18 What Can Society Do? ::: Creativity And Education ::: Creativity And Government ::: Creativity And Business ::: Creativity And The Home ::: 19 Values ::: Truth ::: Vague ::: The Six Value Medals ::: Search, Recognition And Assessment ::: Why Six? ::: 20 The Right to Think ::: Instruction ::: Permission To Think ::: Absurd ::: Epilogue
Parallel Thinking contents page ::: Amazon Contents ::: About the Book ::: About the Author ::: Also in the Series ::: Title Page ::: Preface ::: 1 The Wrong Tackle ::: 2 Order Out Of Chaos ::: 3 Order ::: 4 The Doubters ::: 5 The Socratic Method ::: 6 How The Socratic Method Worked ::: 7 The Search ::: 8 Criticism And Removing ‘Untruth’ ::: 9 Adversaries, Argument And Debate ::: 10 Parallel Thinking ::: 11 Problem-Solving ::: 12 The Evolution of Ideas ::: 13 The Search For The Truth ::: 14 The Truth ::: 15 Questions ::: 16 Definitions, Boxes, Categories And Generalizations ::: 17 The Value Of Boxes ::: 18 The Problem Of ‘IS’ ::: 19 The Tyranny Of Judgement ::: 20 Possibility vs. Certainty ::: 21 Exploration vs. Judgement ::: 22 Design vs. Analysis ::: 23 Information vs. Ideas ::: 24 Movement vs. Judgement ::: 25 Create vs. Discover ::: 26 Inner World vs. Outer World ::: 27 Alternatives ::: 28 Parallels ::: 29 Possibilities ::: 30 Designing a Way Forward ::: 31 Wisdom vs. Cleverness ::: 32 Dialectic vs. Parallels ::: 33 Action vs. Description ::: 34 Value vs. Truth ::: 35 Water Logic and Parallel Thinking ::: 36 Overlap ::: 37 Change vs. Stability ::: 38 New Language Devices ::: Summary 1: Parallel Thinking vs. Western Thinking ::: Summary 2: The Failure of Western Thinking ::: Action Epilogue
Water Logic contents page ::: Amazon ::: Foreword ::: Introduction ::: Stucture of the book ::: Outer world—inner world ::: Water logic ::: 'TO' ::: Dance of the jellyfish ::: Stability ::: Self-Organizing ::: How the Brain Flows Into Perception ::: Self-Organizing ::: The Behaviour of Perception ::: Recognition ::: Centring ::: Preparedness ::: Discrimination ::: Meaning ::: The Importance of Words ::: Myths and 'Why?' ::: Closure ::: Shift ::: Levels of Organization ::: Broad Principles of System Behaviour ::: Flowscapes ::: Stream of Consciousness List ::: Examining the Flowscape ::: Collectors ::: Stable Loops ::: Links ::: Further Examples ::: Faithful and Loyal Secretary ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Petrol Pump Price War ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Absenteeism From Work ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Sectarian or ethnic violence ::: List ::: Flowscape ::: Inner and Outer World ::: Practical Technique ::: Stream of Consciousness—Base List ::: CAF on the Choice of a Pet ::: The Stream of Consciousness List Is Not an Analysis of the Situation ::: Analysis ::: Stream of Consciousness ::: Problem Solving ::: More Complex Flowscapes ::: Choosing a Holiday ::: Choosing a Career ::: Rapidly Escalating Health Care Costs ::: Complexity ::: Concepts ::: Concepts, Categories and Aristotle ::: Lumping and Splitting ::: Concepts and Flexibility ::: Pre-Concepts and Post-Concepts ::: Blurry Concepts ::: Working Backwards and the Concept Fan ::: Concepts and Flow ::: Interventions ::: Juvenile Crime ::: Old Church Which Is Standing in the Way of a Major Road Development ::: Racism ::: Action ::: Context, Conditions and Circumstances ::: Creating Contexts ::: Accuracy and Value ::: Flowscapes for Other People ::: From Written Material Etcetera ::: Guessing ::: Discussion ::: Hypothesis ::: Attention Flow ::: 'Isness' ::: Tension ::: Triggering ::: Directing Attention ::: Difficulties ::: Example: Looking Around for a New Job ::: Errors ::: Summary
Atlas of Management Thinking ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Introduction ::: Confrontation ::: 1 Clash, Confrontation, Argument Or ... ::: 2 A Sort of Ritual Dance ::: 3 Trumping With a Fact ::: 4 Different Values ::: 5 Different Objectives ::: 6 Different Perceptions ::: 7 Both Sides Are Right ::: 8 Arguing About a Matter of Principle ::: 9 Destructive Arguments ::: 10 Doctrinaire Argument ::: 11 Constructive Argument ::: 12 Cross-Purposes ::: Productivity ::: 13 Efficiency ::: 14 Effectiveness ::: 15 Waste ::: 16 Flurry ::: 17 Detail ::: 18 Structural Fault ::: 19 No Flexibility ::: 20 Difficult ::: 21 Structural Improvement ::: 22 Diversion ::: Decision ::: 23 Yes Decision ::: 24 No Decision ::: 25 The Effortless ‘No’ ::: 26 The Yes Effort ::: 27 An Easy Decision ::: 28 A Difficult Decision ::: 29 A Decision That Is Not Obvious ::: 30 A Weak Decision ::: 31 Decision For Choice ::: 32 Coping With An Obstacle ::: 33 Refusal To Make A Decision ::: 34 Indecisiveness ::: 35 A Counter-Productive Decision ::: 36 Consultation For A Decision ::: 37 Dilemma ::: 38 A Political Decision ::: Getting There ::: 39 On Target ::: 40 Poor Aim ::: 41 Short-Fall ::: 42 Collapse ::: 43 Recovery ::: 44 Shifting Target ::: 45 Intermediate Targets ::: 46 Guidelines ::: 47 Bring The Target Nearer ::: 48 Broaden The Target ::: Problem Solving ::: 49 Information And Problem Solving ::: 50 The Factors Involved ::: 51 Combining Elements ::: 52 Define The Problem ::: 54 Confusion ::: 54 Contradiction ::: 55 Solving The Wrong Problem ::: 56 Diversion ::: 57 An Approximate Solution ::: 58 Break Down The Problem ::: 59 Working Backwards ::: 60 Self-Created Problems ::: 61 Opportunities ::: 62 Hidden Opportunity ::: 64 Crowded Opportunity Space ::: 54 The Shallow Opportunity ::: 65 False Opportunity ::: 66 Sensing An Opportunity ::: 67 False Entry ::: 68 Delayed Reward ::: People ::: 69 Approval ::: 70 Disapproval ::: 71 Leadership ::: 72 Instruction ::: 73 Demand ::: 74 Coaxing ::: 75 Blocking ::: 76 Turn-off ::: 77 Motivation ::: 78 Organization ::: Change ::: 79 Sign-Posts ::: 80 Bell-Wethers ::: 81 Block The Old Route ::: 82 Atrophy ::: 83 Temptation ::: 84 Staged Transition ::: 85 Transition Channel ::: 86 New Entry Point ::: Objectives ::: 87 Setting An Objective ::: 88 Momentum ::: 89 Rear-End Objectives ::: 90 Shopping ::: 91 Vague Objectives ::: 92 Alternative Objectives ::: 93 Short-Term And Long-Term Objectives ::: 94 Contradictory Objectives ::: Fit ::: 95 Wrong Fit ::: 96 Inadequate Fit ::: 97 Excess ::: 98 Complicated ::: 99 Pre-Emption ::: 100 Combined Fit ::: 101 Standard Units ::: 102 Adaptive Reception ::: Future Forecasts ::: 103 Wide Uncertainty ::: 104 Extrapolation ::: 105 Degrees Of Gloom ::: 106 Accelerating Disaster ::: 107 Stable States ::: 108 Optimism ::: 109 Bumpy Ride ::: 110 Base-Line Drift ::: 111 Wilder Fluctuations ::: 112 Multiple Scenarios ::: 113 Discontinuity ::: Planning ::: 114 Planning ::: 115 Sub-Plan ::: 116 Incomplete Plan ::: 117 Patchy ::: 118 Unnatural ::: 119 Dislocation ::: 120 Friction ::: 121 Unbalanced ::: 122 Top-Down ::: 123 Bottom-Up ::: 124 Conflicting Plans ::: Information ::: 125 Thrust ::: 126 General Exploration ::: 127 Broad Front ::: 128 Linking-Up ::: 129 Finding Support ::: 130 Challenge ::: 131 Disbelief ::: 132 Exchange ::: 133 Come Together ::: 134 Putting A Question ::: 135 Detail ::: 136 Consolidation ::: 137 Confusion ::: 138 Survey ::: Communication ::: 139 No Communication ::: 140 Communication ::: 141 Selling ::: 142 Different Languages ::: 143 Barrier ::: 144 Pseudo-Communication ::: 145 Polarization ::: 146 Ambiguity ::: 147 Field of Communication ::: Risk ::: 148 Stability ::: 149 Vulnerability ::: 150 Bankers’ Risk ::: 151 Investors’ Risk ::: 152 Speculators’ Risk ::: 153 Broadway Risk ::: 154 Insurance Risk ::: 155 Inevitable ::: Group Decisions ::: 156 Compromise ::: 157 Consensus ::: 158 Leadership ::: 159 Power ::: 160 Voting ::: New Venture Investment ::: 161 Steady and Predictable ::: 162 Front-End Investment ::: 163 Ravine ::: 164 High Technology ::: 165 Deceptive ::: 166 Hidden Costs ::: 167 Cut-off ::: Priorities ::: 168 Total Fit ::: 169 Sloppy ::: 170 Almost Suitable ::: 171 Modification ::: 172 Tolerance ::: 173 Design ::: Organization Structure ::: 174 Pyramid ::: 175 Layers ::: 176 Tree ::: 177 Network ::: 178 GoIf Tee ::: 179 Mutual Support ::: Failure ::: 180 Growth ::: 181 Edge Problems ::: 182 Sag ::: 183 Snap ::: 184 Split ::: 185 Disintegration ::: 186 New Roots ::: Basic Thinking ::: 187 Explore ::: 188 Search ::: 189 Posing a Question ::: 190 Project ::: 191 Other Viewpoint ::: 192 Analysis ::: 193 Extract ::: 194 Compare ::: 195 Alternatives ::: 196 Select ::: 197 Synthesis ::: 198 Design ::: 199 Processing ::: 200 Provocation ::: Conclusion
Happiness Purpose contents page ::: Amazon ::: The proposed #religion ::: Introduction ::: Nature ::: Religion and Change ::: Meta-Systems ::: Meta-System definition ::: Examples ::: Suicides (lack of a meta-system) ::: A device for reacting ::: Gödel's theorem ::: The use of meta-systems ::: Explanation ::: Origin and destiny ::: Purpose ::: Value ::: Decision ::: Judgement ::: Action ::: Achievement ::: Simplicity ::: The hump effect ::: The community as a meta-system ::: Internalized meta-systems ::: Astrology ::: Ping-pong ball ::: Elements of a New Meta-System ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Positive aspects of man's nature ::: Life-enhancing ::: Involvement in the world ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Self-enhancing ::: Humour ::: Balance ::: A god of man's mind ::: New thinking system ::: Truth ::: Respect ::: Activity and achievement ::: Structure ::: System cheats ::: Organization ::: New words ::: Details in following sections ::: Only a framework ::: God, Belief and Meta-Systems ::: God as creator ::: Self-organizing systems ::: God and self-organizing systems ::: Belief and the new meta-system ::: Truth ::: The need for absolute truth ::: Types of absolute truth ::: Mathematical truth ::: Logical truth ::: Scientific truth ::: Mystic truth ::: Revealed truth ::: Dogmatic truth ::: The process of truth ::: Proof and truth ::: The #consequences of absolute truth ::: Proto-truth ::: Proto-truths and absolute truths ::: Practical varieties of truth ::: Absolute truth ::: Proto-truth ::: Hypothesis ::: Pragmatic truth ::: Proto-truth and hypothesis ::: Proto-truth and pragmatism ::: The #consequences of proto-truth ::: Defence ::: Persecution and intolerance ::: Man's mind ::: The practical use of proto-truths ::: The Mind of Man as God ::: Perception as a self-organizing system ::: Towel and gelatine systems ::: The towel model ::: The gelatine model is different ::: The gelatine model and the brain ::: The importance of patterns ::: Alternative patterns ::: Changing patterns ::: Influencing patterns ::: Thinking ::: Purpose of thinking ::: Misconceptions about thinking ::: Ignorance and information ::: Beauty and feeling ::: Mistakes ::: The ego and thinking ::: Unsolved problems ::: Wisdom and cleverness ::: Exlectics ::: Exlectics and dialectics ::: The process of exlectics ::: Exploration stage ::: Extract a key-point from the situation ::: 'Re-clothing' of the key-point ::: Modification and development of the new idea to make it workable ::: The lump effect ::: Changing ideas ::: Humour ::: Humour and perception ::: Negative aspect of humour ::: The Biodic Symbol (Biodos) ::: What the biodic symbol means ::: Sequence of experience ::: Humour and the biodic symbol ::: Possibility of perceptual change ::: Hope ::: Different ways of looking at things ::: Moving away ::: Going back ::: The lump effect ::: The edge effect ::: The hump effect ::: Functional symbol ::: Stable patterns ::: Use of the biodic symbol ::: Self ::: Christianity and self ::: Buddhism and self ::: Marxism and self ::: The abdication of self ::: The deep self ::: Burden or joy ::: Life-Space and Self-Space ::: Life-space ::: Self-space ::: The gap ::: Pressure and opportunity ::: Self-improvement ::: Different life-spaces ::: Dignity and happiness ::: Happiness ::: Deliberate happiness ::: Types of happiness ::: Pleasure ::: Excitement ::: Enthusiasm ::: Joy ::: Interest ::: Relief ::: Peace ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Balance ::: Action ::: Ups and downs ::: Limitations ::: Activity and Achievement ::: Apathy and activity ::: Boredom ::: Action activity ::: Awareness activity ::: Achievement ::: Achievement and life-space ::: Oasis of competence ::: Confidence ::: Ratio-effect ::: Direction ::: Helping other people ::: Hobbies and special interests ::: Work ::: Organization and community work ::: Inner-world activity ::: Reactive activity and projective activity ::: High-achievers and competition ::: World involvement ::: Dignity ::: The value of self-space ::: Plurality ::: Self-improvement ::: Increasing control ::: Detachment ::: Actual change ::: Perceptual change ::: Discipline ::: Oscillations ::: Dignity and happiness ::: Respect ::: The three respects ::: Positive respect ::: Ordinary interaction ::: Competition ::: Conflict ::: Bullying ::: Help ::: Responsibility ::: Size of respect ::: Mood ::: Holiday mood ::: Other beliefs ::: Positive ::: Constructive ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Self ::: Respect ::: Humour ::: Tolerance ::: Plurality ::: Gentle ::: Sensitivity ::: Effectiveness ::: Focus ::: Activity ::: Achievement ::: Involvement ::: System sins ::: Control ::: Practical and realistic ::: Opportunity ::: Day-to-day ::: Balance ::: Wisdom ::: Simplicity ::: Summary ::: Belief ::: Man's mind ::: Proto-truths ::: Biodic symbol ::: Self ::: Life-space ::: Self-space ::: Cope/demand ratio ::: Dignity ::: Respect ::: Happiness ::: Activity ::: Key elements ::: Application ::: Application ::: Avoid ::: Negativity ::: Criticism ::: Opposition ::: Put-downs ::: Sneer ::: Superiority ::: Pretension ::: Egotism ::: Bullying ::: What you can get away with ::: Violence ::: Cynicism ::: World-weariness ::: Boredom ::: Apathy ::: Drift ::: Self-pity ::: Props ::: Passivity ::: Applied Thinking ::: The purpose of thinking ::: Enjoyment ::: Problem-solving ::: Review ::: Perceptual change ::: Preceding overlap each other ::: Starting-point ::: Scan ::: Focus ::: Analysis ::: Framework ::: TEC-PISCO framework ::: TEC ::: PISCO ::: The above framework is only an example ::: Such a framework is not a restricting structure but a liberating one ::: Being wrong ::: Instant judgement ::: Inadequate scan ::: Magnitude effect ::: Point-to-point ::: Being right ::: Error-free ::: Emotional rightness ::: Unique rightness ::: Decision ::: Priorities ::: Review ::: Consequences ::: Alteration ::: Prepared to give up ::: Lateral thinking ::: The three basic processes of lateral thinking ::: Stepping-stone ::: Concept-challenge ::: Random juxtaposition ::: There are many other techniques and processes in lateral thinking ::: Exlectics ::: Practical problems with thinking ::: Life-Space Care ::: Content of the life-space ::: Expectations ::: Pressures ::: Tensions ::: Action processes ::: Ignore them ::: Discard them ::: Flee them ::: Change them ::: Tools ::: Focus ::: Thinking ::: Discipline ::: Cut-off ::: Convenience ::: Abilities and talents ::: Sources of unhappiness ::: Maps ::: Caution ::: Self-Space Care ::: Activity of awareness ::: The moment ::: Activity of action ::: Forms of action activity ::: Hobbies ::: Craft ::: Organizing ::: Involvement ::: Work ::: Helping others ::: Interest ::: Sport ::: Television ::: Achievement ::: Intensity ::: Plurality ::: Stone-cutters' religion ::: Happiness Profiles ::: Ingredients of happiness ::: In setting up a happiness profile it is useful to keep certain things in mind ::: Distraction ::: Counter-effective ::: Effort-expensive ::: Continuity ::: Green-field ::: Sensitization ::: Trade-off ::: Cut-off ::: Happiness audit ::: Happiness foundation ::: Balance ::: Types of balance ::: The spectrum type of balance ::: The mix type of balance ::: The alternation type of balance ::: Dealing with balance ::: Recognition and audit ::: Middle-place concepts ::: Personality ::: Counter-effective ::: Trade-off ::: Cut off ::: Sequence ::: Artificial proportions ::: Balance areas ::: Adjustment and change ::: Involvement and drop-out ::: Now-care and future-care ::: Ignore and react ::: Inner world and outer world ::: Awareness activity and action activity ::: Projective and reactive action ::: Excitement and peace ::: Stability and change ::: Prejudice and doubt ::: Lateral and logical thinking ::: Self and society ::: Structure and freedom ::: Perfect balance ::: Relationships ::: Respect ::: Positive respect ::: The three respects ::: Relationship between individuals ::: Non-intrusion ::: Relationship between individual and society ::: Regulation ::: Modification ::: Replacement ::: Positive respect and the soda! system ::: Priorities ::: Attention ::: Conflict ::: Action ::: Dialectic ::: Failure of respect ::: Action ::: Action Steps ::: 1 Mood and attitude ::: Positive and constructive ::: Anti-negative ::: Happiness and enjoyment ::: Self ::: Respect ::: Anti-passivity ::: Summary ::: 2 Review and audit ::: Life-space maps ::: Happiness-profile and audit ::: EPA ::: Recognize ::: Identify ::: 3 Focus and #objectives ::: Problems ::: Tasks ::: Activity ::: Balance ::: Priorities ::: Conflict ::: Summary ::: 4 Self-space examination ::: 5 Life-space examination ::: 6 Shrinking ::: 7 Expanding ::: Coping ::: Activity ::: 8 Practice and training ::: Being positive ::: The shrug ::: Awareness activity ::: Decision and problem-solving ::: Thinking ::: 9 Understanding ::: 10 Organization ::: Transition Steps ::: 1 The positive mood ::: 2 Improvement ::: 3 Dignity ::: 4 Space-care ::: 5 Role-playing ::: Summary ::: Network ::: Network ::: Purpose and nature of the Network ::: Structure ::: The importance of thinking ::: Group and individual ::: Thinking as a craft ::: Tone ::: Academy and gymnasium ::: Qualifications ::: Motivation ::: Involvement ::: Positive attitude ::: Tolerance ::: Plurality ::: Operating ::: Organizers ::: Information compilers ::: Detectives ::: Researchers ::: Idea generators ::: Synthesizers ::: Reactors ::: Explainers ::: Communicators ::: Salesmen ::: Group organizers ::: Diplomats ::: Leaders ::: Effectors ::: Thinking ::: Logic ::: Analysis ::: Criticism ::: Description ::: Assessment ::: Observation ::: Lateral thinking ::: System design ::: Problem-finding ::: Problem-solving ::: Evaluation ::: Decision ::: Coping ::: Initiative ::: Operation ::: Construction ::: Activity ::: Group and individual ::: Exploration of thinking ::: Thinking practice ::: Problem-solving ::: Task forces ::: Think-tank ::: Communication medium ::: Thinking strategies ::: Network operation and organization ::: Principles ::: Definite ::: Effective ::: Tolerance ::: Respect ::: Organization ::: Problems ::: Lack of consideration ::: Crispness ::: Flavours ::: Eccentrics ::: Involvement ::: Endorsement ::: Contribution ::: Spread ::: Organizing work ::: Funds ::: Thinking ::: Start ::: Symbol ::: Summary
Handbook for the positive revolution contents page ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Note on the Author ::: Author's Note ::: Introduction ::: The Positive Revolution ::: The Principles ::: Constructive ::: Design ::: Contribution ::: Circles of Concern ::: Special Talent and Positions ::: Selfishness ::: Effectiveness ::: The Joy of Effectiveness ::: Education ::: Self-improvement ::: Increasing the Positive ::: Reducing the Negative ::: Better at What You Are Doing ::: New Skills ::: Emotions ::: Respect ::: Human Dignity and Human Rights ::: Methods ::: Perception ::: Crude Perceptions ::: Humour ::: Information ::: Naming ::: People ::: Situations ::: Symbols ::: Organization ::: Members of the Positive Revolution ::: Groups ::: Education Groups ::: Spread ::: Enemies ::: Uniformity ::: Education ::: The New Education ::: Leadership and Effectiveness ::: Self-help ::: Thinking ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: Power ::: The Power of Positive and Constructive Attitudes ::: The Power of the Best People ::: The Power of Perception ::: The Power of Thinking and of Information ::: The Power of Co-ordination and Alignment ::: The Power of Support ::: The Power of Spreading ::: The Power of Water ::: Sectors of Society ::: Women ::: Older People ::: Younger People ::: Media ::: Business ::: Art ::: Labour Unions ::: Political Parties ::: Other Revolutionary Groups ::: Problems ::: Summary ::: Appendix: How To Run An E-Club
H+ contents page ::: Amazon ::: Is H+ a #religion? ::: Belief ::: Compatible ::: Different ::: A Way Of Life ::: Positive And Negative ::: Human+ ::: Happiness+ ::: Adjust and change ::: Thinking and happiness ::: Habit ::: Humour+ ::: Attitude ::: Help+ ::: Hope+ ::: Health + ::: Cool ::: Warm form ::: Waffo ::: Waffo and H+ ::: 'Pons' ::: Agenda ::: Pontoon ::: Beggars ::: Charities and good works ::: H+ recruitment ::: Being asked for help ::: Thinking Up Pons ::: Boasting And Showing-Off ::: Failure, Fines And Achievement ::: Projects ::: Rituals ::: Signals ::: Organization ::: Energizers ::: Fines ::: Communication ::: Registration ::: Headquarters ::: Central headquarters ::: Operational headquarters ::: Summary ::: About The Author ::: The Edward de Bono Foundation
Sur/petition contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction ::: Sur/petition ::: Integrated values ::: Concepts and creativity ::: Valufacture ::: The age of contraction ::: Format of this book ::: A new perspective ::: Summary ::: What Is Wrong with the Fundamentals? ::: Efficiency ::: Problem Solving ::: Information Analysis ::: Competition ::: Recent Fashions in Business Thinking ::: Cost-cutting ::: Restructuring ::: Quality Management ::: People Care ::: Environmental Concerns ::: Complacency ::: Types of Complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Cozy complacency ::: Arrogant complacency ::: Lack-of-vision complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Comfortable complacency ::: Evolution ::: Nominated Champions ::: Unused Potential ::: The Four Wheels of Human Thinking ::: Procedures and Routines ::: Information ::: Analysis and Logic ::: Creativity ::: Concepts and Information ::: Forming Concepts ::: Concept and Context ::: Sur/petition versus Competition ::: Value Monopolies ::: Protection or Plus ::: The Source of Sur/petition ::: Words, Traps, and Dangers ::: Competition ::: Lumpers and Splitters ::: The Same As ... ::: Integrated Values ::: Benefits of Focus ::: The Three Stages of Business ::: The Stage of Production ::: The Stage of Competition ::: The Stage of Integrated Values ::: Examples ::: The auto industry ::: Airlines ::: Computers ::: Banks ::: Food retailing ::: Integrated Values ::: The Limits of Competition ::: Double Integration ::: Sur/petition ::: Values and Valufacture ::: Opportunities ::: Value Drivers ::: Convenience ::: Quality of life ::: Self-importance ::: Distraction ::: Types of Value ::: Perceived value ::: Real value ::: Gateway value ::: Context value ::: Synergy value ::: Security value ::: Appeal value ::: Fashion value ::: Function value ::: Convenience value ::: Yellow and Green Hats ::: People and Values ::: Nature of the Values ::: Multiple values ::: Focused values ::: By-product values ::: Value Notation ::: Serious Creativity ::: The Use of Creativity in an Organization ::: Does It Work? ::: Motivation ::: Attitudes ::: Focus ::: Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Asymmetric Patterns ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Not Crazy ::: Concept Design ::: Level of Concept ::: Defined Needs ::: The Asset Base ::: Concept Extraction ::: Sur/petition ::: Improving Concepts ::: Concept R&D ::: Cataloging ::: Generating ::: Developing ::: Testing ::: Structure ::: The People ::: Summary (Key Points) ::: Housekeeping ::: Sur/petition ::: Integrated Values ::: Serious Creativity ::: The Importance of Concepts ::: Concept R&D ::: Index
Tactics contents page ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Introduction ::: Lucky ::: A Little Mad ::: Very Talented ::: Rapid Growth Field ::: Tactics ::: Alphabetical list of interviewees ::: Part I Success ::: Styles and characteristics of success ::: Creative Style ::: Management Style ::: Entrepreneurial Style ::: Characteristics of Typically Successful Styles ::: Energy, Drive and Direction ::: Ego ::: 'Can-do' ::: Confidence ::: Stamina and Hard Work ::: Efficiency ::: Ruthlessness ::: Ability to Cope with Failure ::: Tactics ::: What stimulates success ::: Negative Stimulants ::: Anxieties ::: Positive Stimulants Power and Money ::: Image Improvement ::: Status ::: Making Things Happen ::: Doing Something Worthwhile ::: Tactics ::: How far is success within our control? ::: Early Environment ::: Born to Succeed ::: Key Factors ::: Expectation ::: Can You Copy a Style and Become a Success? ::: Learning by Copying ::: What Can We Learn from Images? ::: Role-playing to Success ::: Role-living and Success ::: Spot the Phony ::: When is Artificial Phony? ::: Does Luck Leave Success Outside our Control? ::: Is There Such a Thing as Luck? ::: Good Luck or Good Judgment? ::: Looking for Opportunity in Time and Place ::: Tactics ::: Part II Prepare For Success ::: Focus I ::: Self-knowledge ::: Strengths/Weaknesses ::: Self-awareness and Self-correction ::: Tactics ::: Focus II ::: Choice of Field ::: How They Chose What to Do ::: Does the Perfect Job Exist? ::: Be Ready to Change Targets ::: Tactics ::: Part III Make It A Success ::: Thinking and doing ::: How to Generate Ideas ::: Create New Ideas ::: The Creativity of Innocence ::: The Creativity of Escape ::: Tactics ::: Strategy ::: Design a Strategy ::: General Strategy ::: Detailed Strategy ::: How Rigid Should a Strategy Be? ::: Why Strategy Is More Than a Plan ::: How Strategy can Create the Culture of an Organization ::: Tactics ::: Decision-making ::: How to Make a Decision ::: Category Thinkers ::: Intuition Magic of the Muse? ::: Tactics ::: Opportunity ::: No Standing Still ::: Types of Opportunity ::: Opportunity Building ::: Opportunity Seeking ::: Assessing Opportunity. ::: Is Technical Advancement Always an Opportunity? ::: New Technology as Opportunity, A High-risk Area? ::: Opportunism ::: The 'Me-too' Philosophy ::: Niche Strategy ::: Play Your Own Game ::: Tactics ::: Risk ::: Are Successful People Risk-takers? ::: Gambler's Risk ::: The Risk of Innovation ::: Courage to Be at Risk ::: The Difference between Risk and Adventure ::: Risk Reduction ::: Work to Make a Decision Work ::: Learn to Wriggle ::: Tactics ::: Strategy for people as resources ::: How to Choose the Best People ::: How to Construct a Balanced Team ::: Team Motivation ::: Use People Wisely ::: Create a Sense of Involvement ::: Display a Sense of Involvement ::: You Don't Have to be Liked ::: Communicate Goals ::: How to Communicate ::: Getting Rid of People ::: Tactics ::: Tactical play ::: Tactics, Communication and Negotiation ::: How Far Should You Go? ::: The Game's the Thing ::: Image ::: Illusion and Bluff in Negotiation ::: Thinking on Your Feet ::: The Merit of Surprise ::: Gamesmanship ::: Psyching Your Opponent ::: The Proper Place of Tactics? ::: Tactics ::: Epilogue ::: The Lessons ::: New Horizons ::: Index
Textbook of Wisdom contents page ::: Amazon ::: Authors note ::: # 1 Preventing someone from getting from Point A to B ::: # 2 Provide an easy path to C ::: # 3 Deciding which path to pursue ::: # 4 Wisdom is much concerned with the richness of ‘possibility’ ::: Introduction ::: Perception ::: Now and then the 'edge effect' ::: Truth, certainty and arrogance ::: The power of possibility ::: Values ::: Contrary and Contradiction ::: Hostage, Slave, Prisoner and Puppet ::: I, We and Identity ::: Contribute ::: The beach and the road ::: Wise about wisdom ::: # 165 A wisdom learning curve ::: The richer and more complex the world in which you ::: # 166 Traditionally, wise people have lived very simple lives ::: # 167 Far better to think of wisdom as a ‘pair of super-spectacles’ ::: A fear that conscience like a nagging aunt is forever ::: # 168 Working with this book ::: Go through this book picking out the points that make ::: You are supposed to integrate what you read here with ::: # 169 About things to avoid and things to seek out ::: # 170 Awareness ::: Wisdom is about awareness and possibilities: awareness ::: # 171 Perception ::: Perception is a matter of picking out the patterns ::: #172 Broad ::: Wisdom is about breadth of perception. There are three ::: # 173 Logic Bubble ::: A logic bubble is that bubble of perceptions and values ::: # 174 Possibly ::: Possibility is the key to wisdom. Possibility is the ::: # 175 Alternatives ::: Richness of perception and design are based on alternatives ::: # 176 Plurality ::: Wisdom encourages different thoughts and different ::: # 177 Parallel Thinking ::: Parallel thinking is the opposite of traditional adversarial ::: # 178 Choice ::: Because wisdom encourages alternatives and possibilities ::: # 179 Values ::: If we determine our values then those values can determine ::: # 180 Emotions and Feelings ::: If our emotions come first then they determine our ::: #181 Judgement ::: We need judgement to find our way through life. The ::: # 182 Design ::: # 183 A New Super-pattern → What would Merlin do? ::: Design is a matter of putting things together to achieve ::: Wisdom comes with growth
Teach Your Child How to Think contents page ::: Amazon ::: Part One ::: This Book is Not For You If … ::: Introduction: Why We Need New Thinking About Thinking ::: Information and Thinking ::: Intelligence and Thinking ::: Cleverness and Wisdom ::: Does Thinking Have to Be Difficult? ::: How to Be an Intellectual ::: Reactive and Pro-Active Thinking ::: The New Word 'Operacy' ::: Critical Thinking ::: The Adversarial System ::: Challenge And Protest ::: The Need To Be Right ::: Analysis and Design ::: Creative Thinking ::: Logic and Perception ::: Emotions, Feelings and Intuition ::: Summary ::: Note About the Author ::: Education ::: Business ::: Public Affairs ::: International ::: Publications ::: Think About Thinking ::: Experience ::: Summary ::: How to Use This Book ::: Age ::: Teaching From the Book ::: Motivation ::: Hobby or Sport ::: Teaching Style ::: Discipline ::: Necklace Structure of the Book ::: Sequence ::: Formal Practice ::: Informal Practice ::: Exercises ::: There are four types of practice items ::: 1. Fun Items ::: 2. Remote Items ::: 3. Backyard Items ::: 4. Heavy Items ::: There should always be a mix of items ::: If I had to give a percentage of the mix of items, this would be as follows ::: Stage of building up thinking skills ::: Stage of application of skills already acquired ::: Performance ::: Demonstration ::: Joint ::: Request ::: Parallel ::: Group ::: Written ::: Nature of This Book ::: Age and Ability ::: Simplify ::: Groups ::: Young Group ::: Middle Group ::: Older Group ::: Further Use and Repeat Use ::: Thinking Behaviour ::: You WANT TO THINK ::: You HAVE TO THINK ::: Routine and Non-Routine ::: Focus, Situation and Task ::: Changing Gears ::: Practical Thinking ::: Casual ::: Discussion ::: Applied ::: Automatic and Deliberate (de Bono's Thinking Course) ::: Summary ::: The Nature of Thinking ::: The Nature of Mind (I Am Right — You Are Wrong (From this to the New Renaissance: from Rock Logic to Water Logic) ::: Self-Organizing ::: What Can We Do? ::: Attention-Directing Tools ::: Training ::: Summary ::: Part Two ::: Carpenters and Thinkers ::: Basic Operations ::: Tools ::: Structures ::: Attitudes ::: Principles ::: Habits ::: Summary ::: Attitudes ::: Bad Attitudes ::: Good Attitudes ::: First of all there are attitudes towards the skill of thinking itself ::: Now we can consider some attitudes about the nature of your thinking ::: Exercises for Attitudes ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The six thinking hats is a method for doing one sort of thinking at a time ::: Why Hats? ::: Role-Playing ::: Use of the Hats ::: 1. Yourself ::: 2. Someone Else ::: 3. Group ::: The Six Thinking Hats in Use ::: Attention Directing ::: Exercises on the Six Thinking Hats ::: White-Hat Thinking and Red-Hat Thinking ::: White Hat ::: Missing Information ::: Getting the Information We Need ::: Information and Feeling ::: Challenge ::: Red Hat ::: Justification ::: At This Moment ::: Mixed Feelings ::: Summary ::: Exercises on White-Hat and Red-Hat Thinking ::: Black-Hat Thinking and Yellow-Hat Thinking ::: Black Hat ::: Is It True? ::: Does It Fit? ::: Will It Work? Will the idea work? ::: What are the weaknesses in the idea? ::: Over-Use ::: Yellow Hat ::: What Are the Benefits? ::: Why Should It Work? ::: Over-use ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Black-Hat and Yellow-Hat Thinking ::: Green-Hat Thinking and Blue-Hat Thinking ::: Green Hat ::: Exploration ::: Proposals and Suggestions ::: Alternatives ::: New Ideas ::: Provocations ::: Action and Energy ::: Blue Hat ::: Where are We Now? ::: What is the Next Step? ::: Program for Thinking ::: Summary ::: Observation and Comment ::: Over-use ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Green-Hat and Blue-Hat Thinking ::: Six Thinking Hats in Sequence ::: Occasional Use ::: Systematic Use ::: Sequence Use ::: Seeking an Idea ::: Reacting to a Presented Idea ::: Short Sequences ::: Summary ::: Exercises on the Sequence Use of the Six Hats ::: Outcome and Conclusion ::: Three types of outcomes ::: Better Map ::: Pin-Pointing Needs ::: Specific Answer ::: Summary ::: The Five-Minute Thinking Format ::: One Minute (Purpose, Focus, Outcome, Situation) ::: Next Two Minutes (Explore) ::: Next One Minute (Choosing or Deciding) ::: Final One Minute (Outcome) ::: Output ::: Exercises on the Five-Minute Thinking Format ::: Forward or Parallel ::: LOGIC AND PERCEPTION ::: CAF: Consider All Factors ::: Exercises on CAF ::: APC: Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices ::: Exercises On APC ::: Values ::: Exercises on Values ::: OPV: Other People's Views ::: Two Sides in an Argument ::: Exercises on OPV ::: C&S: Consequence and Sequel ::: Time Scale ::: Immediate ::: Short-Term ::: Medium-Term ::: Long-Term ::: Risk ::: Certainty ::: Exercises on C&S ::: PMI: Plus, Minus and Interesting ::: Interesting ::: Scan ::: Exercises on PMI ::: Focus and Purpose ::: Key Questions ::: Setting the Focus ::: Type of Thinking ::: Exploring ::: Seeking ::: Choosing ::: Organizing ::: Checking ::: Type of thinking as a part of focus & purpose ::: Exercises on Focus and Purpose ::: AGO: Aims, Goals and #Objectives ::: Alternative Definitions of the Objective ::: Sub-Objectives ::: Exercises On AGO ::: FIP: First Important Priorities ::: Include and Avoid ::: How Many Priorities? ::: Exercises on FIP ::: First Review Section ::: Tools and Habits ::: The Thinking Habits ::: Focus and Purpose ::: Forward and Parallel ::: Perception and Logic ::: Values ::: Outcome and Conclusions ::: Summary ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Thinking Tools ::: AGO: Aims, Goals and Objectives ::: CAF: Consider All Factors ::: OPV: Other People's Views ::: APC: Alternatives, Possibilities and Choices ::: FIP: First Important Priorities ::: C&S: Consequence and Sequel ::: PMI: Plus, Minus and Interesting ::: Use of the Tools ::: Habits and Tools ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Part Three ::: Broad and Detail ::: Generating Alternatives ::: Extracting the Broad Idea ::: Concept and Function ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Broad and Detail ::: Basic Thinking Operations ::: Carpenter Model ::: The Cutting Operation ::: Focus ::: Extract a Feature ::: Analysis ::: Expansion ::: The Sticking Operation ::: Connections ::: Recognition ::: Synthesis ::: Construction ::: Design ::: The Shaping Operation ::: Judgement ::: Matching ::: Hypothesis ::: Comparison ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Basic Thinking Operations ::: Truth, Logic and Critical Thinking ::: Game Truth ::: Reality Truth ::: 1. Checkable truth ::: 2. Personal experience ::: 3. Second-hand experience ::: 4. Generally accepted ::: 5. Authority ::: Consider the following statements about cows ::: Thinking Habit ::: Logic ::: Logic, Information and Creativity ::: Critical Thinking ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Truth, Logic and Critical Thinking ::: Under What Circumstances? ::: Thinking Habit ::: Exercises on Circumstances ::: Hypothesis, Speculation and Provocation (Serious Creativity) ::: Jump Ahead ::: Levels of Speculation ::: Certain ::: Reasonably Sure ::: Good Guess ::: Possible ::: Tentative ::: Provocation ::: Action and Change ::: Creative Attitude ::: Scientific Thinking ::: Business Thinking ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Hypothesis, Speculation and Provocation ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Is creativity a mysterious talent possessed by a few people? ::: Creating ::: Art ::: Genius ::: Changing Ideas and Perceptions ::: Origin ::: Use of Lateral Thinking ::: Definition ::: General and Specific ::: Patterns ::: Humour ::: Hindsight ::: Provocation and Po ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: Received Provocations ::: Reversal ::: Escape ::: Wishful Thinking ::: Outrageous ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Provocation and Po ::: Movement ::: Introduction ::: Ways of Getting Movement ::: Attitude ::: Moment-to-Moment ::: Extract a Principle ::: Focus on the Difference ::: Search for Value ::: Interesting ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Movement ::: The Random Word ::: Introduction ::: Getting the Random Word ::: List of Random Words ::: Why It Works ::: Use of the Technique ::: Summary ::: Exercises on the Random Word ::: Second Review Section ::: The first review covered many specific thinking tools plus attention-directing ::: This second review section is concerned with some of the fundamental thinking operations ::: Truth and Creativity ::: Critical Thinking ::: Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Basic Operations ::: Cutting ::: Sticking ::: Shaping ::: Further Thinking Habits ::: Circumstances ::: Broad and Detail ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Principles for Thinking ::: 1. Always be constructive ::: 2. Think slowly and try to make things as simple as possible ::: 3. Detach your ego from your thinking and be able to stand back to look at your thinking ::: 4. At this moment, what am I trying to do? What is the focus and purpose of my thinking? ::: 5. Be able to 'switch gears' in your thinking ::: 6. What is the outcome of my thinking--why do I believe that it will work? ::: 7. Feelings and emotions are important parts of thinking but their place is after exploration ::: 8. Always try to look for alternatives, for new perceptions and for new ideas ::: 9. Be able to move back and forth between broad-level thinking and detail-level thinking ::: 10. Is this a matter of 'maybe' or a matter of 'must be'? ::: 11. Differing views may all be soundly based on differing perceptions ::: 12. All actions have #consequences and an impact on values, people and the world around ::: Summary ::: Part Four ::: Structures and Situations ::: Structures ::: Situations ::: Summary ::: TO/LOPOSO/GO (Teach Yourself To Think) ::: TO ::: LO ::: PO ::: SO ::: GO ::: Visual Structure ::: Interaction ::: Summary ::: Exercises On TO/LOPOSO/GO ::: Arguments and Disagreements ::: Emotions and Feelings ::: Use of the Red Hat ::: Words ::: Perceptions ::: Values ::: Logic ::: Specific Structure ::: Declaration ::: Comparison ::: Design ::: Trading ::: Power Disputes ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Arguments and Disagreements ::: Problems and Tasks ::: Tasks ::: Guessing and Estimating ::: The Problink Method ::: 'Link' ::: Route ::: Detail ::: Selection of Alternatives ::: Objective ::: Feasibility ::: Priorities ::: Values ::: General Assessment ::: Action ::: New Problems or Tasks ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Problems and Tasks ::: Decisions and Choices ::: Emotions ::: Greed ::: Fear ::: Laziness ::: Emotional contribution check ::: Minor Decisions and Choices ::: The Six-Hats Structures ::: Attention-directing Tools ::: Major Decisions and Choices ::: Objective and Priorities ::: Benefits ::: Feasibility ::: Difficulties and Dangers ::: Impact ::: Consequences ::: Cost ::: Risk ::: Short-Fall ::: Harm and Danger ::: Cost-Overrun ::: Circumstance Change ::: Fall-Back Position ::: Risk awareness and minimization ::: Trial and Testing ::: Selection ::: Four Choices ::: The Ideal Choice ::: The Emotional Choice ::: The Practical Choice ::: The Minimal Choice ::: Making the Choice ::: Design ::: Analysis Paralysis ::: Summary ::: Exercises on Decisions and Choices ::: Third Review Section ::: General-Purpose Structure ::: Argument and Disagreement ::: Problems and Tasks ::: Decisions and Choices ::: Summary ::: Review Exercises ::: Part Five ::: Newspaper Exercises ::: 1. The Tower ::: 2. The Adjectives ::: 3. The Bridge ::: 4. Headline Story ::: 5. the Chain ::: 6. Picture and Story ::: The Ten-Minute Thinking Game ::: The Drawing Method ::: Words and Pictures ::: Operacy ::: Discussion ::: Summary ::: Exercises With Drawing ::: Final Word ::: Appendix: Thinking Clubs ::: Purpose of the Thinking Clubs ::: Activities of the Thinking Clubs ::: Principles ::: Practical Matters ::: Discipline ::: Duration of Meetings ::: Frequency of Meeting ::: Organizer ::: Place of Meetings ::: Number of People ::: Log Book ::: Activities During a Meeting of a Thinking Club ::: 1. Formal matters ::: 2. Thinking task catalogue ::: Practice Items ::: Personal Items ::: Local Items ::: Project Items ::: World Affairs ::: 3. Skills learning and practice ::: 4. Comment upon thinking skill ::: 5. Application to personal matters ::: 6. Application to local matters ::: 7. Project report and thinking ::: 8. World affairs ::: 9. Final matters ::: Total Timing ::: Material ::: Training ::: Register of Thinking Clubs ::: Summary
de Bono’s Thinking Course contents page ::: Amazon ::: Note on Author ::: The leading authority in the world on the direct teaching of thinking as a skill ::: “Thinking about thinking” ::: Lessons widely used in ::: Education ::: Leading corporations ::: Governments ::: Background ::: Rhodes Scholar ::: Medicine ::: Psychology ::: Invented lateral thinking ::: Author’s note ::: Most people think their thinking is pretty good ::: Improving thinking skill ::: Wisdom vs. cleverness ::: Thinking is the ultimate human resource ::: The quality of our future will depend entirely on the quality of our thinking ::: Applies on a personal level, a community level and on the world level ::: Summary ::: On the whole our thinking is rather … ::: poor ::: short-sighted ::: egocentric ::: We have come to believe that judgement and argument are sufficient ::: In a rapidly changing world we are finding that our thinking is adequate to meet the demands put upon it ::: Thinking as a skill ::: Introduction ::: Thinking is a matter of intelligence vs. a skill that can be improved ::: Intelligence and genes ::: We can do a great deal more about the operating skill with which intelligence is used—the skill of thinking ::: Intelligence and education ::: Assumptions ::: Thinking is the operating skill with which intelligence acts upon experience (for a purpose) ::: Not interested in measuring intelligence or thinking skills ::: More interested in designing thinking tools and training methods ::: The intelligence trap ::: Many people who consider themselves to be highly intelligent are not necessarily good thinkers. They get caught in the intelligence trap ::: Aspects ::: Take a view of a subject and then use intelligence to defend that view ::: Don’t seek alternative ::: Don’t listen to anyone else ::: Satisfaction factor ::: Prove someone else wrong ::: Critical ::: Destructive ::: Being constructive is much less rewarding ::: Takes years to show that a new idea works ::: Depend on the listener liking your idea ::: Practice ::: Surely all the “practice” is thinking should make people better thinkers? ::: Two finger typists ::: If you practice poor thinking for years you will become an extremely skilled poor thinker ::: Education ::: Doesn’t teach thinking ::: Certain fundamental processes that cut across all fields ::: Assessing priorities ::: Seeking alternatives ::: Forming hypotheses ::: Generating new ideas ::: As little as 7 hours can have a powerful effect ::: Critical thinking ::: Inadequate on its own ::: Gang of three ::: Analysis ::: Judgement ::: Argument ::: World problems ::: because traditional education ::: Our success in science and technology ::: Not from critical thinking ::: From the “possibility” system ::: Moves ahead of our information to create hypothesis and visions ::: A framework through which to look at things ::: Also something to work towards ::: Critical thinking’s part ::: If you know your hypothesis is going to be criticized ::: Then you seek to make it stronger ::: But critical destruction of one hypothesis has never produced a better one ::: It is creativity that produces the better hypothesis (???) ::: Perception ::: Outside highly technical matters, perception is by far the most important part of thinking ::: Perception is … ::: how we look at the world ::: what things we take into account ::: how we structure the world ::: In real life logical errors are quite rare ::: Garbage In Garbage Out ::: If your perception is limited then flawless logic will give you an incorrect answer ::: Bad logic makes for bad thinking. But the opposite is not true at all ::: This is a book about perception ::: It now seems very likely that perception works as a “self-organizing information system” ::: See ::: The Mechanism of Mind ::: I Am Right You Are Wrong ::: The tool method ::: Know which tool to use at any point in order to get the desired effect ::: Tools are really “attention-directing tools” ::: We can now direct attention at will ::: Without attention-directing tools attention follows the patterns laid down by experience and we remain trapped ::: Sales job on the method ::: CoRT Thinking Lessons ::: Perfection Learning ::: 10520 New York Avenue ::: Des Moines, Iowa 50322 ::: 515 278-0133 ::: Deleted headlines ::: Learning thinking and teaching thinking ::: The thinker ::: Self-image ::: Think slowly ::: The PMI ::: Scan ::: Interesting ::: Use of the PMI ::: Two steps ::: Practice ::: Alternatives ::: Introduction ::: A deliberate search for alternatives counteracts the natural tendency of mind ::: certainty, security, and arrogance ::: arise from the pattern-making and pattern-using system ::: The tool is the APC ::: About alternatives ::: Easy alternatives ::: Because there are few constraints (as to practicality, cost, mess) ::: More difficult alternatives ::: The “L-Game” ::: The real difficulty ::: is to set out to look for alternatives in the first place ::: Beyond the adequate ::: Contentment with an “adequate” solution or approach is the biggest block there is to any search for a better alternative ::: Change the idiom (see page # 28) ::: The APC ::: Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices ::: Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at that particular point ::: Situations in which we may want to “do an APC” ::: Explanation (alternative explanations) ::: Hypothesis ::: Perception ::: Problems ::: Review ::: Design ::: Decision ::: Courses of action ::: Forecasting ::: Practicality ::: Alternatives and creativity ::: Exercises for APC ::: Perception and patterns ::: Perception ::: Crossing the road ::: Pattern making ::: How patterns are formed ::: The use of patterns ::: Recognition ::: Getting it wrong ::: Abstraction ::: Grouping ::: Analysis ::: Awareness ::: Art ::: Exercise ::: Lateral thinking ::: Progress ::: Pattern changing ::: Humor ::: Hindsight and insight ::: Creativity and lateral thinking ::: Lateral thinking as process ::: Judgement and provocation ::: The word “po” ::: The steppingstone method ::: The escape method ::: The random stimulation method ::: General use of lateral thinking ::: The logic of lateral thinking ::: Information and thinking ::: Operacy ::: Experience scan ::: CAF ::: C & S ::: Dense reading and dense listening ::: Logic ::: Getting more information ::: Questions ::: Experiments ::: Selecting information ::: FI-FO ::: Two uses ::: Other people ::: Most thinking has to do with other people ::: The problem of the clash system ::: Need to outline so I can name the game ::: You can criticize anything at all by choosing a frame different from what you see ::: We need to make a great effort to develop … ::: Design thinking ::: Constructive thinking ::: Creative thinking ::: Exlectics ::: The constructive part. The alternative to the clash system ::: Has to do with … ::: Map reading ::: Creative design ::: Seek to “lead out” or “pull out” of the situation what is of value ::: No matter on which side it is to be found ::: Much more that compromise or consensus ::: Compromise is still within the clash system ::: Consensus means staying with that part of a proposal on which everyone is agreed ::: It is passive ::: A lowest common denominator type approach ::: More like the “osmosis” method used by the Japanese ::: No opposing or varying ideas to begin with ::: There is joint listening and joint exploration ::: Later the ideas begin to emerge ::: “Views” begin to gel after many meetings ::: A matter of dealing with the “terrain” ::: Not a matter of dealing with “views” ::: The sort of difference that was to be found between the intelligence trap and the PMI ::: The CoRT tools that are used for exlectics are … tools ::: exploratory ::: mapping ::: EBS (Examine Both Sides) ::: “What really is the other point of view…” ::: Not just as it is expressed in argument form but the “terrain” behind it? ::: This exploration is neutral ::: EBS does not preclude the holding of … But this comes after the exploration not, before it ::: a point of view ::: a value system ::: a preference ::: An attention-directing tool ::: More difficult to do that it seems ::: Similar to doing a thorough reconnaisance of the enemy’s territory during wartime ::: Except you are examining the territory for a constructive purpose ::: Not easy to sustain this difference of attitude ::: Need the detachment of the committed mapmaker ::: ADI (Agreement, Disagreement, Irrelevance) ::: The EBS mapping exercise leads almost directly into the ADI ::: The two maps are compared (from examination of both sides) ::: The areas of agreement are noted ::: The areas of disagreement are noted ::: Finally the areas of irrelevance ::: Often shows that the areas of disagreement might be quite small ::: But appear very much larger in the argument situation because neither side dare concede a point for fear that this will be used ::: At the end of an effective ADI both parties should be able to point directly at the area of disagreement ::: What we are really in disagreement about is this point here ::: Usually be quite a lot on which there is agreement ::: This can be used as a base for trying to design a way around the disagreement ::: In any case there is a stronger negotiating base ::: Isolating the area of disagreement also means that it can be further examined in order to find out how basic the disagreement may be ::: ADI can be done … ::: separately by both parties ::: or it can be done as a cooperative undertaking (the best) ::: Logic-bubbles ::: Someone does not agree with you or does not do what you think he ought to do ::: He is … ::: stupid ::: cantankerous ::: obstinate ::: or He is … ::: highly intelligent ::: and acting intelligently within his own logic-bubble ::: His logic bubble happens to be different from yours ::: The logic bubble is that bubble of perception within which a person is acting ::: The bubble included perception of … ::: circumstance ::: structure ::: context ::: relationships ::: Too often we put intelligent people into certain situations and then complain when they act intelligently ::: Innovation example ::: Strike example ::: It is probably quite far from the truth that everyone is acting very logically within his or her logic-bubble ::: As a practical way of looking at things ::: Direct attention to the circumstances in which the behavior is quite logical ::: The logic bubble includes … ::: The actual circumstances surrounding a person ::: His perception of the situation ::: It is useful to map out the logic bubbles of the other people involved ::: This is especially important in the area of motivation ::: Management always regards motivation as vital ::: Motivation depends on the logic-bubbles of those who are to be motivated, not on the logic bubble of management. ::: OPV ::: Another of the CoRT tools ::: Overlaps with EBS and the logic bubble ::: Stands for other people’s views ::: Tries to put himself in the other person’s shoes in order to look at the world from that position ::: Identify the other people who are really part of the situation ::: Getting into the shoes of all these other people ::: See format on page 96 ::: Doing an OPV ::: Doesn’t mean … ::: Putting into the mouths of all parties sane and rational arguments of the sort one might hold oneself ::: Putting into their mouths complaints and irrationality in order to condemn their point of view ::: It means ::: Objectively trying to look at the world from that point of view ::: and perhaps adding what is thought to be the actual point of view ::: It is a blend between “position” point of view and the “actual” point of view ::: Constructive Design ::: The mapping techniques mentioned in this section (EBS, ADI, logic-bubble, and OPV) are intended to give a broader and clearer view of the situation: a better map ::: Maybe they don’t want to resolve the dispute ::: Maybe the dispute is of value to them ::: Allow the dispute to continue on a ritual or cosmetic level ::: While the real issues are resolved in a constructive manner ::: Where necessary, the second part of the exlectic process might be the constructive design of an outcome or course of action ::: Maybe a solution ::: Maybe just a way of living or a way of getting on with things ::: Design questions ::: What are the ingredients? ::: What is to be achieved? ::: What are the constraints? ::: Design process may go through … ::: Several stages ::: Several alternative approaches ::: Several rejections ::: A design is judged satisfactory when it is judged to be satisfactory by those who are to use it ::: Negotiation ::: In it’s true sense — a specialized form of constructive design ::: Involves … ::: Thorough mapping of the areas as suggested in this section ::: And then a stage of constructive design ::: In its “pressure bargaining” sense it is a form of the clash system ::: “Variable value” ::: An important part of negotiation ::: Value can differ much according to the person and the situation ::: What one party wants very much may cost the other party little ::: There is a trading in values ::: There is also a trade-off ::: In order to achieve one thing there ma have to be acceptance of another ::: All this is very much helped by thorough mapping and the attitude of constructive design ::: Values—and especially perceived values—are the most important ingredient in the design ::: Communication ::: Useful communication must always be in the language of the receiver ::: The mapping methods listed in this section should be used to map out the terrain in terms of … ::: position ::: history ::: mood ::: value ::: concepts available ::: The logic-bubble of the listener includes the concepts and perceptions available to him or her ::: Simple concepts may be very complicated and subtle ::: Such as those held by children ::: Complex concepts are often broken down into subconcepts ::: Whereas simple concepts have to embrace a great deal with one concept ::: Adults always tend to think that children have simple adult concepts: but children have complicated child concepts ::: Emotions and values ::: Gut feeling and thinking ::: Emotions at three points ::: Changing feelings ::: Values ::: HV and LV ::: Value-laden words ::: Awareness ::: Making decisions ::: Introduction ::: Size of a decision … ::: is always proportional to the inadequacy of the reason for making it ::: If information is sufficient to make the decision for us ::: then we, as humans, are superfluous ::: We are only called in to make decisions when ::: an analysis of information is insufficient ::: when we have to ::: speculate or guess ::: or apply human values and emotions ::: In the end all decision are emotional ::: This chapter deals with quite ordinary decisions ::: Not the type that requires running various factors through an econometric model ::: The L-game ::: The value of the decision can be checked ::: In almost all decision situations the difficulty is that the value of the decision can only be checked in the future—after the decision has been made ::: The number of alternatives is only limited by our imaginations ::: Decision preframe ::: This is the setting for the decision ::: Context ::: What is the context? ::: What is the situation in which the decision is to be made? ::: calm, panic, conflict, competitive pressure, or what? ::: Need ::: Why is there a need to make a decision at all? ::: Why is there a need to make it now? ::: If the decision is put off will the matter resolve itself or will an opportunity be lost? ::: Is there pressure to make the decision? ::: Is this pressure self-imposed, imposed by others or imposed by the advice of friends? ::: Time frame ::: What is the time frame of the decision? ::: To making of the decision ::: Today, this month, this year, within the next decade ::: To the effects ::: When will the effects of the decision become apparent? ::: Next week ::: In 20 years’ time ::: Type ::: The “type” of decision ::: Is it an adjustment or change in direction ::: Or is it a major switch? ::: Is it a decision to stop doing something or to start doing something? ::: Is it the sort of decision that depends very much on other people for its implementation ::: Or is it one that can be make directly by the deciders? ::: Is it irrevocable or can it be reversed if it does not work out? ::: Is it one among many decisions or one which sets the course for all that follows? ::: Is it a decision that the people making the decision are capable of making? ::: Generation of alternatives ::: Obvious alternatives ::: (Some) alternatives that have to be discovered ::: Should be a practical cutoff when a decision has to be made ::: To hope for the ultimate alternative is unrealistic ::: When a decision is difficult to make … ::: It is always worth going back to try to generate further alternatives ::: Values and priorities ::: These can be spelled out in advance ::: Priorities may sometimes … ::: appear as values ::: and sometimes as subobjectives ::: Values and priorities are interwoven in the ten decision methods which follow ::: Decision methods ::: The dice method ::: List the alternatives and just throw a die to decide which one is to be followed ::: Is it more important to make the right decision or to be happy with the decision ::: People tend to get to like and justify decisions after they have been made ::: Make the decision ::: Get to like ::: In some situations making a decision work is even more important that choosing the right decision ::: The easy way out method ::: Decisions not only have to be made, they have to be acted upon ::: Some alternatives are much easier to choose and to act upon than others ::: What is the easiest alternative to choose? ::: Then the effort is made to build up and justify this decision ::: this is a conscious positive effort ::: If at the end of this effort the choice seems an acceptable one it can be made ::: The spell-out method ::: Imagine having chosen each alternative in turn ::: Describe to a friend why he has made that decision ::: Put forward all the reasons ::: Why it is a good choice ::: Why it suits him ::: Write down the reasons ::: Read through in their own right ::: Which one sounds best? ::: Which one makes the most sense? ::: Sometimes the best stand out very clearly ::: At other times some of the justifications are so feeble that those alternatives disappear from the list ::: The spell out is an extension of the “easy way out” method ::: Balaam’s ass method ::: When the alternatives are equally attractive ::: The difficulty lies in bringing ourselves to give up an attractive alternative ::: Do the very best you can to “knock” or make unattractive each alternative in turn ::: If you succeed then there is no pain in giving them up and the best decision emerges ::: The ideal solution method ::: The alternatives are listed—and then ignored ::: An “ideal solution” is fashioned for the situation ::: The general “shape” of this solution is considered ::: It should not be detailed but the characteristics should be noted ::: The list of alternatives should be uncovered and examined to see which of them approached the nearest to the ideal solution ::: The best home method ::: The best “home” for an idea is that … in which the idea would thrive ::: situation ::: context ::: For each alternative we find the best home ::: For what type of person in what type of circumstances would that choice of alternative be the best? ::: You then compare that “home” to actuality ::: The “what if …?” method ::: Different “what if …?” type changes are made in the circumstances to see at what point an alternative suddenly stops being attractive ::: When you hit on a “what if” that makes the choice unattractive then you have isolated the real reason behind making that particular choice ::: The process is really a focusing one ::: The simple matrix method ::: Grid ::: List the alternatives along the side ::: List the qualities you are looking for along the top ::: In the boxes you indicate how a particular alternative relates to that particular quality ::: Attempt to pick out the few crucial qualities that would be required for any decision ::: A way of screening out those alternatives which are totally unsuitable ::: The remaining alternatives can be treated with another decision method, or else a further “crucial” quality can be tested ::: This can go on with the application of further qualities until only one alternative survives ::: What alternative survives the crucial demands? ::: The full matrix method ::: The laziness method ::: Decision postframe ::: Personal style and self-image is vary important factor here ::: Is it the sort of decision that one can see oneself making? ::: If the decision is a ruthless one ::: Can the person making it see themselves carrying it through? ::: Decisions need to be objective but the personal style of the decider is part of that objectivity ::: The people involved need a lot of consideration ::: They may have to agree to the decision ::: They may have to carry it through ::: They may be affected by it ::: At this point such techniques as the OPV or logic-bubble need to be applied ::: The #consequences of the decision have to be examined in the different time frames by doing a C&S ::: Immediate ::: Short-term ::: Medium-term ::: Long-term ::: Then there is the implementation of the decision ::: Who is going to implement it? ::: How is it going to be implemented? ::: Are the channels available or must they be set up? ::: What are the stages of implementation? ::: What are the likely problems and sticking points? ::: What are the risks and dangers? ::: All these points apply to any course of action ::: What is the terrain? ::: This is a “map” of the circumstances or environment in which the decision is going to be carried out ::: Competitors ::: Rivals ::: The state of the world (both on a large scale and a small scale) ::: The “fall-back” position ::: What if the decision proves to be wrong? ::: What if it cannot be implemented? ::: What if circumstances change? ::: Can the decision be resersed? ::: Is rescue possible? ::: Can there be a switch to a reserve position? ::: It sometimes feels as though the decision of a fall-back position weakens the confidence with which a decision is made ::: If you are sure it is the right decision why design an escape route? ::: But all decisions are speculative—otherwise they would not be decisions ::: There is a difference between being unwilling to take risks and making provision for things not turning out as hoped ::: Emphasis on fit ::: In many of the methods suggested the emphasis is not directly on the value of the alternatives but on how they fit the actual circumstances ::: We need to change difficult decisions into easy decisions first ::: In the end all decision must be emotional, but the clearer the picture the more suitable the application ::: The future ::: Thinking and doing ::: Operacy ::: Three ways of doing things ::: Setting #objectives ::: AGO ::: Targets ::: Strategy and tactics ::: Course of action ::: If-box method ::: Planning ::: The terrain ::: People ::: Risks ::: Constraints ::: Resources ::: Future ::: Business and daily life ::: Deliberate thinking ::: What can one do about developing thinking as a usable skill? Make it … ::: Deliberate ::: Turn on thinking at will ::: Direct thinking to any subject or any aspect of a subject ::: There are general aspects of thinking which apply at all times ::: Focused ::: The thinking tools are a means for being focused in thinking ::: You can set out to do a PMI or OPV ::: The first step is to determine to do it ::: The second step is to do it ::: It is like giving a definite instruction to oneself ::: The focus can be as tight as you wish ::: Confident ::: Thinking should be confident ::: Not arrogant ::: To be sure that you are right ::: To be sure that your thinking is better than anyone else’s ::: To be sure that there can be no alternatives ::: Arrogance is a major sin in thinking ::: Not necessarily brilliant ::: Has nothing to do with value ::: It is the way something is done ::: Knows the limits of his skills ::: Exercises it with confidence ::: A confident thinker … ::: Does not have to prove himself right ::: and the other person wrong ::: He or she see the thinking as an operating skill ::: not an ego-achievement ::: Is willing to listen to others ::: Is willing to improve his thinking by acquiring … ::: a new idea ::: or a new way of thinking ::: Is willing to set out to think about something ::: Is able to acknowledge that an answer has not been found ::: Is able to make mistakes and to learn from them ::: Enjoyable ::: If you only do it when there is a problem, it won’t be enjoyable ::: Not talking about puzzles, games, and brainteasers ::: It is more a matter of being able to think about different things ::: Having ideas ::: Working things out ::: Engaging in “thinking” type discussion ::: Boring type ::: Each party is trying to put across a particular point of view ::: Enjoyable type ::: Each is exploring the subject ::: Self-image ::: The most important point of all ::: “I am a thinker” ::: I can try to think about things ::: I enjoy thinking about things ::: I am interested in developing more skill at thinking ::: The techniques, understanding, and methods are of secondary importance to this ::: Time discipline (two to four minutes for thinking about an item) ::: Strict time discipline enhances not only the effectiveness of thinking but also the enjoyment ::: Should be very short ::: 30 seconds ::: One minute ::: Five minutes ::: Reasons ::: More deliberate and more focused ::: Switch on thinking and operates it ::: Focuses directly on the task ::: Freedom ::: Takes burden and stress out ::: Can stop at the end of the time ::: Don’t have to solve the problem or gotten a wonderful answer ::: Just have to think for two minutes ::: For the alloted time they should have been using their thinking—whatever the result ::: Harvesting ::: Another very important point ::: “Harvesting” is the other side of the coin to “time-discipline” ::: It is a matter of making oneself aware of what has been achieved, even in a very brief thinking session ::: Perhaps some point has become more clear? ::: Perhaps there is an actual suggestion? ::: Perhaps some alternatives have been spelled out? ::: Perhaps some point has been identified as problem area that needs further thinking attention? ::: Sensitive harvesting means being acutely aware of just what has been achieved ::: There will always be something that has been achieved ::: It is a matter of being aware of it ::: “I just keep going round in circles” is a considerable achievement: as an identification of a “locked-in” situation ::: Exercises ::: Later he discusses “setting thinking tasks” ::: Thinking about thinking ::: A skilled thinker can do two things ::: Think about the subject (performing the thinking task) ::: Think about the thinking used in performing the thinking task ::: Not a common habit ::: Look … ::: back at the thinking he used in performing a thinking task ::: at the thinking he is using at the moment ::: at the thinking he feels he is going to use ::: at the thinking used by other people ::: Not doing so with the aim of criticizing it or attacking it ::: The intention is to watch what thinking is being applied ::: Just as bird watchers watch birds ::: The better one gets at it, the more the fascination grows ::: In looking at thinking ::: Areas of observation ::: Blockages ::: The recurrence of certain ideas ::: Emotional points ::: Possible difficulties in generating more alternatives ::: Blank spots ::: Other ways of looking at things ::: The likelihood of a conclusion ::: The identification of any sticking points ::: Difficulties in getting going ::: Finding a starting point ::: Exercise ::: Write down a repertoire of these observations ::: Stocking your mind with such concepts ::: Becomes possible to “observe” thinking ::: The concept of “value-laden” words ::: Allow your to search for ::: Pick out ::: Aware of the various uses. Stand out more obviously ::: Look at the thinking used “in general about a particular subject” ::: Thinking structures ::: A simple structure ::: The TEC framework ::: A very simple structure for … ::: focusing thinking ::: and making of it a deliberate task ::: It will be incorporated in the “five-minute think” ::: For the time being it will be treated in a more general sense ::: T stands for “Target” and “Task” ::: The “target” is the precise focus of the thinking ::: May be as tight or general as you wish ::: The “task” is the thinking task that is to be performed ::: Review ::: Look at the way something is being done with an eye to improvement ::: Fault finding and fault correction ::: Problem solving ::: Problem finding ::: A creative exercise ::: Any of the thinking tools mentioned in this book (or in the CoRT lessons) ::: Doing a C & S or AGO ::: Both should be defined precisely ::: E stands for “Expand” and “Explore” ::: This is the opening-up phase ::: We could … ::: use lateral thinking techniques ::: do a CAF ::: and consider all factors ::: scan our experience ::: analyze the situation ::: try to abstract familiar patterns ::: We are … ::: opening up the field ::: filling in the map ::: exploring the territory ::: A certain amount of wandering is permissible ::: Write all you know about … ::: The expansion is positive and free-flowing ::: Not trying to exercise judgement of find the best ideas at this stage ::: We are pulling in information and concepts ::: “Richness” is all important ::: C stands for “Contract” and “Conclude” ::: This is the narrowing down phase ::: We are trying to make sense of what we have ::: We are trying to come to a definite conclusion ::: This may be … ::: A solution ::: A creative idea ::: An additional alternative or an opinion ::: We can now use design, shaping and judgement ::: The conclusion is the outcome of our thinking, not just a summary of it. ::: What does it boil down to? ::: What does it add up to? ::: What is the outcome? ::: What is the result? ::: Three levels at which the conclusion can be set ::: A specific answer, idea, or opinion ::: A full harvesting of all that has been achieved, including for example a listing of ideas considered ::: An objective look at the “thinking” that has been used ::: Even in the absence of anything at level 1 there should be an output at levels 2 and 3 ::: TEC can be applied at any point ::: Focus ::: Set task ::: Open up ::: Narrow down ::: Conclude ::: The 5-minute think (also see Teach your child how to think) ::: The time allocation ::: 1 minute for Target and Task ::: 2 minutes for Expand and Explore ::: 2 minutes for Contract and conclude ::: Strict adherence to the time allocation. No rushing ahead ::: A sample 5 minute think ::: There should be no sense of rush ::: If there is, then the target has been pitched too widely ::: It is also possible to repeat a 5 minute think with the same target ::: There is a temptation to turn a 5 minute think into a 30 minute think through a succession of sessions on the same subject ::: This destroys the whole point of the exercise ::: Symbolic TEC (see drawing) ::: Could be placed in the margin of a report ::: A fuller structure ::: PISCO ::: A rather fuller framework is provided by PISCO ::: Both TEC and PISCO are more fully described in section VI of the CoRT Thinking Program ::: P stands for Purpose ::: What is the purpose of the thinking? ::: What is expected as the end product? ::: Why is the thinking being done? ::: Similar to the T of TEC ::: More emphasis on why the thinking is being done at all ::: I stands for Input ::: This is the input information, experience and all the ingredients that need to go into the thinking ::: Tools such as … can be used to develop a rich map ::: CAF ::: C & S ::: OPV ::: This is somewhat similar to the E part of TEC ::: S stands for Solutions ::: These are alternative solutions, ideas, or approaches to the matter ::: In this sense the S is a narrowing down not unlike the C of TEC ::: C stands for Choice ::: This is the choice between the alternatives that have been offered at the previous stage ::: A decision and an evaluation is made at the end of which there is but one surviving alternative ::: The section on decision making could be of help here ::: O stands for Operation ::: This is the action stage ::: What are the steps to be taken? ::: How is the matter to be staged” ::: The implementation of the idea is focused upon at this point ::: Symbolic PISCO (see drawing) ::: TEC-PISCO ::: The two frameworks can be combined ::: TEC is the more general framework ::: PISCO ::: spreads out the stages ::: can be more useful if there is an actual problem or matter that has to be thought about ::: there is not particular time limit on the stages ::: just a consciousness of whichever stage is being used ::: At any point in the PISCO process an area that needs more thinking can be identified and the TEC frame can then be applied directly at that spot ::: For … the TEC framework is sufficient and there is not need to go for the more elaborate PISCO ::: general purpose ::: the exercise of thinking skill ::: Deliberate practice of thinking ::: Thinking clubs ::: General thinking skills ::: These are the second nature skills ::: Need both deliberate and general thinking (second nature) ::: The general thinking skills as second nature ::: The ability to focus formally upon a matter ::: The formal stage is essential before the second nature stage develops ::: General thinking skills ::: An understanding of the importance of perception and the nature of perception as a pattern-making and pattern-using system ::: An instinctive tendency to search for alternatives not only when there is a clear need for this, but also when there is not alternative in sight ::: A dislike of arrogance in thinking ::: A dislike of negative thinking and a preference for exlectics over dialectics. A disdain for negative thinking as one of the easier and cheaper forms of thinking ::: A willingness to listen to the ideas of others. The habit of doing an OPV and examining logic-bubbles ::: In an argument situation, the habit of doing both an EBS and an ADI. The ability to clarify values in such situations ::: An overall view of the importance of emotions, feelings and values in thinking, but an effort to do some perceptual thinking before finally applying the emotions ::: A broad scan of situations before coming to a conclusion ::: This might include things like a PMI, CAF, and C & S ::: The ability to make decisions ::: The ability to set up objectives and subobjectives and to design courses of action ::: The ability to use ideas for the “movement value” and also to set up and use deliverate provocation ::: An understanding of lateral thinking and the willingness to change perceptions ::: even if this is not successful ::: the courage to use such techniques as the random word stimulation when ideas are needed ::: The ability to switch into formal, focused thinking ::: A liking for effectiveness. An appreciation of “operacy” ::: A clear appreciation of thinking as a skill and a self-image as a “thinker” ::: Formal and informal ::: Summary ::: Matters of understanding, appreciation, putting things in perspective, undoing misconceptions and attempting to trigger insights into thinking ::: We need … ::: To remove certain misconceptions and undo certain habits ::: To think of thinking as a skill ::: An awareness of the intelligence trap ::: To encourage the self-image of “I am a thinker” ::: To appreciate the domination of Western thinking habits by the negative idiom ::: Clash ::: Criticism ::: Dialectics ::: To put negative thinking in its proper place as a part of thinking ::: To put creative, constructive and design thinking before negative thinking ::: To change our conceptions about thinking and action ::: A concept such as operacy ::: Give status to the thinking involved in doing ::: To appreciate effectiveness and not just intellectual games ::: To understand the major role of perception in thinking ::: How perception works as a self-organizing patterning system with all that follows ::: Lateral thinking then follows directly and logically ::: To place emotions, feelings, and values in the proper perspective ::: In the end they are the most important part of thinking ::: But only if used in the end rather than at the beginning ::: To understand the practical value of being formal and deliberate about thinking instead of just waffling about ::: ::: The biggest enemy of thinking is the feeling that our thinking is pretty good anyway and we do not need to do anything about it. ::: Creation of new words ::: Descriptive phrases ::: Specific tools ::: Practice ::: Reference ::: How to set up a thinking club
Practical thinking contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction ::: Knowing What to Do ::: Three basic know-all processes ::: Instinct ::: Learning ::: First-hand learning ::: Second-hand learning ::: Understanding ::: Thinking in practice ::: Why bother? ::: Basic thinking process ::: Understanding is thinking ::: The Black Cylinder Experiment ::: Experimental subjects ::: Relevance ::: Process not content ::: Raw thinking ::: Results ::: The Five Ways to Understand ::: L-1 Simple description ::: Impossible to say nothing ::: Pass it on ::: A Valid First-Level Explanation of What Happened ::: L-2 Porridge words ::: Very useful meaningless words ::: L-3 Give it a name ::: Magic and magnets ::: Modern magic ::: Minor magic ::: Names mean a lot ::: L-4 The way it works ::: Cause and effect ::: Name or process ::: Follows on ::: L-5 Full details ::: How full are full details? ::: Combination of third and fourth levels ::: Summary of levels of understanding ::: Levels used everywhere ::: The Use of Understanding ::: How much detail ::: Scientific analysis ::: Everyday thinking ::: Doing something ::: Need and use ::: Detail danger ::: Usefulness is what matters ::: Black boxes ::: Press the right button ::: Spells and special gods ::: More primitive but more advanced ::: Automation age ::: Ignorance tools ::: Leap-frog ::: To use a black box one has first to recognize it in order to know which is the right button to press ::: Named-ideas and bundle-ideas ::: Contents ::: Movement ::: Requirements ::: Requiron ::: Modification ::: Named-ideas and action ::: Trapped ::: Stock ::: 1. Precise named-ideas ::: 2. Vague named-ideas (porridge words) ::: 3. Interaction named-ideas ::: The vague ideas and the interaction ideas are the ones used to make up bundle-ideas ::: Third and fourth level of understanding ::: Bundle-ideas tend to correspond to the fourth level ::: Named-ideas on the other hand correspond to the third level ::: Precise principles and vague general ideas ::: Ignorance or knowledge ::: Summary ::: The Basic Thinking Processes ::: Carry-on ::: Connect-up ::: Movement ::: Problems and questions ::: Jump ahead ::: Known and unknown destinations ::: Porridge words ::: Man is stupider than animals ::: The short-sighted hen ::: The dog with a cold ::: Cabbages and kings ::: Cross-links ::: Tortoises win races ::: Summary of porridge words ::: The Five Ways to be Wrong ::: M-1 The monorail mistake ::: Lean against it ::: Weight to one side ::: Top-heavy ::: Top-heavy and to one side ::: Shift in centre of gravity ::: Monorail mistake is easy to make ::: M-2 The magnitude mistake ::: Abstract ideas ::: Measurement ::: Names not measurement ::: M-3 The misfit mistake ::: Goodness of fit ::: Easy to make ::: M-4 The must-be mistake ::: Stops evolution ::: Shuts out alternatives ::: Culture and personality ::: M-5 The miss-out mistake ::: The whole picture ::: Selection ::: Attention area ::: Summary ::: Correcting mistakes ::: Mistakes arise directly from the way the mind handles information ::: The Four Ways to be Right ::: The need to be right ::: Understanding the unknown ::: Education and being right ::: Being right is a feeling ::: Four ways of being right ::: R-1 Emotional rightness (currant cake) ::: Gut feeling ::: Limitations ::: The time-scale is likely to be the shortest possible one ::: The ideas it supports may clash with the interests of others ::: Summary ::: R-2 Logical rightness (jig-saw puzzle) ::: Funny-shaped pieces ::: Choose your own pieces ::: Make the pieces fit ::: Using the wrong pieces ::: Which bowl is more contaminated … ::: Increasing the ratio of boys to girls ::: Reaching the wrong conclusions ::: Limitations ::: 1. Incorrect basic ideas are … properly fitted into a logical structure ::: 2. Conclusions can never be more valid than the ideas one starts with ::: 3. A clever person can prove just about anything by skillfully fitting together … ::: 4. Incorrect basic ideas at the bottom … ::: 5. Arrogance and a belief in the absolute rightness ::: 6. Being right at each step is the essence of logical rightness ::: Main limitations of logical rightness can be summed up as the arrogance … ::: R-3 Unique rightness (the village Venus) ::: de Bono's 2nd law ::: Soft sciences ::: Outside science ::: Limitations ::: 1. Can quickly become dogmatic certainty ::: 2. Uniqueness achieved not by lack of imagination but by demolition of alternatives ::: 3. Refusal to accept alternative explanations ::: R-4 Recognition rightness (measles) ::: Immediate recognition ::: Worked-up recognition ::: Enough ::: Limitations ::: 1. The feeling of certainty is almost inversely related to the accuracy of the recognition ::: 2. You can never be sure … ::: 3. Different people see different features ::: 4. The diagnosis names or patterns have to have been established beforehand ::: 5. Diagnosis name you use has the same meaning for other people ::: 6. You have to exclude other diagnoses which are fairly close ::: 7. Recognition rightness does not in any way prove that the basic picture is itself right ::: Recognition rightness summary points ::: The YES / NO System ::: Limitations ::: 1. Adequate is good enough ::: 2. Permanent labels ::: 3. Sharp polarization ::: 4. Arrogance of righteousness ::: The arrogance of being right ::: Ideas first ::: Intellectual tradition based on arrogant righteousness ::: Types of arrogance ::: Arrogance, effectiveness and fanaticism ::: Arrogance and stupidity ::: Justified arrogance ::: Arrogant righteousness and the thinking process ::: The arrogance mistake ::: Doubt ::: Retardant doubt ::: Propellant doubt ::: Anti-arrogance ::: Summary ::: Humour, Insight and PO ::: Humorous explanations for cylinder falling over ::: Escape from the YES/NO system ::: Half right ::: Push ahead ::: Intermediate impossible ::: Right at each step ::: Insight ::: Problem ::: de Bono's 1st law ::: Discontinuity ::: 'PO' the new word ::: Two uses of PO ::: First use: liberation ::: Second use: provocation ::: Change and new ideas ::: Summary ::: Imagination ::: Aspects of imagination ::: 1. Picture vividness ::: 2. Number of alternatives ::: 3. Different ways of looking at something ::: 4. Creative imagination ::: Imagination in the black cylinder experiment ::: Timing devices ::: Raising weight to the top ::: Impact on side wall ::: Alterations to base ::: Reverse approach ::: Unstable to start with ::: Bent to start with ::: Turning a process off ::: The use of imagination ::: Imagination and unique rightness ::: Imagination and basic thinking processes ::: Imagination and creativity ::: Summary ::: Creativity ::: Black cylinder experiment: lack of multiple possible explanations and reasons ::: 1. No time ::: 2. Satisfied ::: 3. Thrown out ::: 4. Too detailed ::: 5. Too general ::: 6. No knowledge ::: 7. No ideas ::: Lateral thinking (the process); Creativity (the result) ::: Purpose of creativity ::: Escape old ideas ::: Generation of new ideas ::: Satisfaction and creativity ::: Change ::: Knowledge and creativity ::: Being wrong and creativity ::: Techniques and time in creativity ::: Summary ::: Attention and Clues ::: Area of attention ::: Carving out areas of attention ::: Different attention areas ::: Clues ::: Generating clues ::: Purpose of clues ::: 1. To suggest ideas ::: 2. To confirm ideas ::: 3. To exclude ideas ::: Shuttle ::: Danger ::: Science tries to be wrong ::: Practical man has to be right ::: Bandwidth analysis ::: Distortion ::: Think-2 ::: Starting place ::: Disagreement ::: Summary ::: Conclusion ::: The most important rules of everyday thinking ::: Summary Notes ::: Back cover
Edward de Bono’s Effective Thinking Course contents page ::: Amazon ::: Part 1: Basic Thinking Tools ::: 1. Are you a thinker? This section looks at your self image as a thinker and at thinking skills ::: 2. P.M.I. ::: Analysis of Plus, Minus and Interesting points. ::: This is a powerful tool for considering new ideas ::: 3. A.G.O. ::: The examination of Aims, Goals and Objectives. ::: A.G.O. is used to clarify thinking , for example, when considering new initiatives ::: 4. CAF ::: CAF involves a structured process to the Consideration of All Factors. ::: It is often used when considering situations prior to developing ideas. ::: CAF helps ensure that no possibilities have been overlooked. ::: 5. O.P.V. ::: O.P.V. is an extension of CAF that gets you to consider Other People’s Views. ::: Almost any thinking activity involves other people, at least indirectly: choices, decisions, plans, and so forth. ::: O.P.V. tries to get the thinker inside the heads of those involved. ::: 6. FIP ::: FIP is a basic tool like the others. ::: It provides a deliberate instruction to you (or to others) to focus directly on priorities (in general or at a particular moment). ::: FIP stands for First Important Priorities. ::: 7. A.P.C. ::: A.P.C. is another of the convenience tools that we can use with ourselves or with others in order to direct our minds to carry out some task. ::: A.P.C. involves looking for the Alternatives, Possibilities or Choices (whichever is appropriate) in that situation. ::: 8. C.&S. ::: " C" stands for #Consequences, ::: " S" stands for Sequel. ::: Doing a " C&S" means focusing upon and spelling out the #consequences that might arise from a decision, course of action or change of any sort. ::: Part 2: Thinking Situations ::: 1. Plan and action: ::: Getting things done, making something happen, implementation, carrying something out. ::: Thinking is involved not only in arriving at a decision but also in carrying it out. ::: Planning is usually an essential part of getting something done. ::: 2. Decision and evaluation: ::: Judging the value of an option. ::: Is this worth doing? etails ::: Making decisions and making choices. ::: Why decision making can be so difficult. ::: Decision-making as necessity and opportunity. ::: 3. Problem-solving and design: ::: Finding solutions to problems, and designing solutions to problems. ::: In a sense any design task is also a problem-solving task because there is something to be achieved and no obvious way of achieving it ::: 4. Coping and organising: ::: Coping with confusion and mess. ::: Creating order out of chaos. ::: Organising different elements so that the whole works- a common enough real-life situation. ::: 5. Negotiation and conflict: ::: Two party situations. ::: Each side trying to get what it wants. ::: This extends from win/win or mutual benefit negotiation to argument and conflict. ::: 6. Communication and persuasion: ::: The transfer of information. ::: The transfer of perceptions. ::: Getting other people to see what you want them to see. ::: Clarity of communication. ::: Opening up perceptions in persuasion. ::: 7. Exploration and discussion: ::: Making a map of the situation. ::: Getting as much information as possible. ::: Investigation, hypothesis and hypothesis testing. ::: Explanation: what is going on? ::: Discussion with the purpose of exploring a situation: different information and different views. ::: 8. Opportunity and initiative: ::: "Greenfield" thinking. ::: Much of our thinking is reactive: we are forced to think about something. ::: In this Section we look at initiatives: we set out to think about something because we want to. ::: Looking for opportunities. ::: Part 3: Creativity and Lateral Thinking ::: 1. The need for lateral thinking: ::: Realising the need to improve the quality of our thinking. ::: Application of thinking to different areas. ::: 2. Basic level creativity: ::: The cure for arrogance and the deliberate search for alternatives: concepts and explorations. ::: The mechanics of new routes. ::: 3. Judgement and movement: ::: The difference between perception and processing. ::: Patterning systems, and the concept of idiom, humour, logic and lateral thinking. ::: 4. Escape: ::: The first technique of lateral thinking. ::: 5. Stepping stone: ::: The second technique. ::: 6. Random juxtaposition: ::: The third technique. ::: 7. The treatment of ideas: ::: Constraints, shaping, using and harvesting. ::: 8. Focus: ::: How to define the creative thrust. ::: The creation of idea sensitive areas for the generation of creative thinking.
The Five-Day Course in Thinking contents page ::: Amazon ::: Insight Thinking ::: Sequential Thinking ::: Strategic Thinking
Serious Creativity contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction ::: The Need for Creative Thinking ::: Take-Away Value ::: The Theoretical Need for Creativity ::: The Practical Need for Creativity ::: Information and Creativity ::: Misperceptions About Creativity ::: Sources of Creativity ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Perception and Processing ::: Design and Analysis ::: The Uses of Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking Tools And Techniques ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Creative Pause ::: Focus ::: Challenge ::: Alternatives ::: The Concept Fan ::: Concepts ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: The Random Input ::: Sensitizing Techniques ::: Application of the Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Harvesting ::: The Treatment of Ideas ::: Formal Output ::: Group or Individual ::: The Application of Creative Thinking ::: Application ::: Everyday Creativity/Specific ::: Creativity ::: The Creative Hit List ::: Introduction of Creativity ::: Responsibility ::: Structures and Programs ::: Training ::: Formats ::: Evaluation ::: Summary ::: Appendixes ::: The Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Notes on the Use of the Lateral Thinking Techniques ::: Harvesting Checklist ::: Treatment of Ideas Checklist
Teach Yourself To Think pdf contents page ::: Amazon ::: Why ... Because ... What about feelings and values ::: Foreword ::: This book offers a simple approach ::: Who will read this book? ::: Non interested in improving thinking ::: Introduction ::: This section is only for a few readers ::: A frame for the rest of the book ::: Perception provides the ingredients for thinking ::: Over-reliance on logic ::: Foresight and hindsight ::: The Gang of Three ::: Socrates ::: Plato ::: Aristotle ::: Limitations of the traditional thinking system ::: What about the progress in science and technology? ::: Argument vs. Parallel Thinking ::: Inadequacies of the traditional thinking system summary ::: Illustrations ::: The Five Stages of Thinking ::: TO symbol ::: LO symbol ::: PO symbol ::: SO symbol ::: GO symbol ::: The symbols used in conjunction with the words ::: Later sections in the book ::: Thinking situations differ greatly ::: Some Basic Processes in Thinking ::: Broad/Specific, General/Detail ::: Projection (running something forward in your mind, imaginings, or visualizing) ::: Attention Directing ::: Recognition and Fit ::: Movement and Alternatives ::: Frameworks ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The White Hat ::: The Red Hat ::: The Black Hat ::: The Yellow Hat ::: The Green Hat ::: The Blue Hat ::: Use Of The Hats ::: Single or occasional usage ::: Sequential usage ::: The CoRT Thinking Programme ::: CoRT 1 ::: The tools are used explicitly and directly ::: TO Where Do I Want to Go To? ::: Thinking Action ::: Define ::: Redefine ::: Alternative Definitions ::: Smaller Definition ::: Larger Definition ::: Breaking It Down ::: Change ::: The 'right' definition ::: The Concept Fan ::: Working Forwards ::: The Dog-leg Approach ::: Constraints and Qualifiers ::: Problems ::: Different Thinking Situations ::: Problem ::: Task ::: Achieve A Dream ::: Invention ::: Design ::: Improve In A Defined Direction ::: Negotiation ::: Get This Information ::: Carry Out A Task ::: Plan ::: Organize ::: Choice ::: Decision ::: Judge ::: Communicate ::: Explore ::: General Improvement ::: Opportunity ::: Change (think about it) ::: Peace, Excitement Or Happiness ::: Cope With Change ::: Formulate A Dream ::: Initiative ::: Outcome, Review And Summary ::: Neutral-area Focus ::: Blank-sheet Creativity ::: Explanation ::: Looking Into The Future ::: Crisis ::: Strategy ::: Creative Thinking ::: General Summary ::: Area Focus ::: Purpose Focus ::: Summary of the TO Stage ::: LO The Information Stage ::: Is Information Enough? ::: Sources of Information ::: Questions ::: Fishing Questions ::: Shooting Questions ::: Quality of Information ::: Perception ::: Feelings ::: Analysis ::: The Search for Information ::: Making the Most of the Information ::: Information Is Not Enough ::: Summary of the LO Stage ::: PO What are the Possibilities? ::: PO and Possibility ::: Three Levels of Possibility ::: Making the Connection ::: The Four Basic Approaches ::: 1. The Search for the Routine ::: Analysis ::: Similarity ::: Transform the Problem ::: Three Thinking Situations ::: Situation A The Car Park ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: 2. The 'General' Approach ::: Working Backwards ::: Three thinking situations ::: The Concept Fan ::: Three thinking situations ::: The 'Something' Approach -- Magic Words ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A The Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The new restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the General Approach ::: 3. The Creative Approach ::: The Challenge Process ::: There are three basic questions ::: Outer World ::: Inner World ::: The Use of 'Challenge' ::: The three thinking situations ::: Provocation ::: Movement ::: Setting Up Provocations ::: The three thinking situations ::: Random-entry Provocation ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the Creative Approach ::: 4. The Design and Assembly Approach ::: List The Needs ::: Lead With Priorities ::: Concept First ::: Parallel Input ::: Everyday Design ::: Three thinking situations ::: Situation A The Car Park Problem ::: Situation B The New Restaurant ::: Situation C The Graffiti Problem ::: Summary of the PO Stage ::: SO What Is the Outcome? ::: Sequence ::: Development of Possibilities ::: Shaping Ideas ::: Tailoring ::: Strengthen The Idea ::: Fault Correction ::: Practicality ::: Acceptance ::: Cost ::: Simpler ::: Take The Concept ::: Evaluation and Assessment ::: Values And Benefits ::: Difficulties And Dangers ::: Feasibility ::: Choice ::: Stronger And Weaker ::: In And Out ::: Priorities ::: Direct Comparison ::: Greed, Fear And Laziness ::: Final Evaluation ::: Decision ::: Decision Frame ::: Decision Need ::: Decision Pressure ::: Scenario ::: Risk ::: Outcome ::: Looking Back: the Reasons ::: Summary of the SO Stage ::: GO Putting the Thinking to Work ::: Operacy ::: Simple Output ::: Routine Channels ::: The Design of Action ::: Stages ::: Objectives And Sub-objectives ::: Flexibility And Routine ::: Checks And Monitoring ::: Fall-back Positions ::: People ::: Acceptance ::: Motivation ::: Obstacles ::: Incentives And Expectations ::: Effectiveness ::: Task Forces And Groups ::: Experts ::: Energy ::: Amplification ::: Planning ::: Summary of the GO Stage of Thinking ::: Situation Coding ::: The Coding ::: Should Be ::: Summary ::: Summary ::: The Five Stages of Thinking ::: TO 'Where am I going to? ::: LO 'Lo and behold.' ::: PO 'Let's generate some possibilities.' ::: SO 'So what Is the outcome?' ::: GO 'Go to It!' ::: Simpler ::: Backwards and Forwards ::: Enjoy Your Thinking Skill
More specific thinking
Conflicts contents page ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Prologue ::: Introduction ::: PART I The way the mind works and modes of thinking ::: Why We Need to Know How the Mind Works ::: What Is Wrong With Argument ::: Map-Making, Thinking and Think ::: Fight, Negotiate, Problem-Solve or Design? ::: PART II Why Do People Disagree? ::: Why do people disagree? Because they see things differently ::: Why do people disagree? Because they want different things ::: Why do people disagree? Because their thinking style encourages them to ::: Why do people disagree? Because they are supposed to ::: PART III Creativity, design and the third party role ::: Design ::: Why disputants are in the worst position to solve their dispute ::: Continuity ::: Objectives, benefits and values ::: Creativity ::: The third party role in conflict thinking ::: PART IV Conflict ::: Conflict models ::: Conflict factors ::: Conflict factors: fear ::: Conflict factors: force ::: Conflict factors: fair ::: Conflict factors: funds ::: Conflict attitudes ::: PART V Structures For Conflict Resolution ::: Why existing structures are inadequate for conflict resolution ::: S.I.T.O. ::: Epilogue ::: Index ::: Prologue
Creativity Workout contents page ::: Amazon ::: CONTENTS ::: Introduction ::: How to Use this Book ::: How to Use Random Words Exercises ::: Tables of Random Words ::: Number Maps ::: Tables of Random Numbers ::: Pre-set Table ::: About the Author ::: INTRODUCTION ::: Everyone wants to be creative. ::: Everyone should want to be creative. ::: Creativity makes life more fun, more interesting and more full of achievement. ::: Research shows that 94 percent of youngsters rate “achievement” as the most important thing in their lives. ::: Creativity is the key skill needed for achievement. ::: Without creativity there is only repetition and routine. ::: These are highly valuable and provide the bulk of our behavior-but creativity is needed for change, improvement and new directions. ::: In business, creativity has become essential. ::: This is because everything else has become a commodity available to everyone. ::: If your only hope of survival is that your organization will continue to be more competent than your competitors, that is a weak position. ::: There is nothing you can do to prevent your competitors also becoming competent. ::: Information has become a commodity available to everyone. ::: Current technology has become a commodity, with a few exceptions-where a 16-year patent life offers some protection. ::: Imagine a cooking competition with several chefs at a long table. ::: Each chef has the same ingredients and the same cooking facility. ::: Who wins that competition? ::: At a lower level the chef with the highest quality wins. ::: But at the higher level all chefs have excellent quality. ::: So who wins? ::: The chef who can turn the same ingredients into superior quality. ::: In business, competing with India and China on a price basis is impossible. ::: That leaves creating new value as the basis for competition. ::: And that needs a more serious commitment to creativity than is the case at the moment. ::: CREATIVITY AS TALENT ::: Too many people believe that creativity is a talent with which some people are born and the rest can only envy. ::: This is a negative attitude that is completely mistaken. ::: Creativity is a skill that can be learned, developed and applied. ::: I have been teaching creative thinking for over 30 years to a wide variety of people: ::: … from four-year-olds to 90-year-olds from Down’s syndrome children to Nobel laureates … from illiterate miners in Africa to top executives ::: Using just one of the techniques of “lateral thinking,” a group of workshops generated 21,000 ideas for a steel company in one afternoon. ::: UNINHIBITED ::: An ordinary man is walking down the road. ::: A group of people seize him and tie him up with a rope. ::: Then a violin is produced. ::: Obviously, the man tied up with the rope cannot play the violin. ::: So what do we say? ::: We claim that if the rope was cut the man would play the violin. ::: This is clearly nonsense. ::: Cutting the rope does not make the man a violinist. ::: Unfortunately we have the same attitude towards creativity. ::: If you are inhibited it is difficult to be creative. ::: Therefore if we make you uninhibited you will be creative! ::: This is the basis of “brainstorming” and other popular techniques. ::: There is some merit in these systems but the approach is a very weak one. ::: The formal and deliberate “tools” of lateral thinking are much more powerful. ::: The brain is designed to be “non-creative.” ::: If the brain were creative, life would be impossible. ::: With 11 pieces of clothing to put on in the morning there are 39,916,800 ways of getting dressed. ::: If you tried one way every minute you would need to live to be 76 years old, using your entire waking life trying ways of getting dressed. ::: Fortunately for us, the brain is designed to form stable patterns for dealing with a stable universe. ::: That is the excellence of the brain and for that we should be very grateful. ::: So removing inhibition is of value, but only a weak way of developing creativity. ::: CREATIVITY AS SKILL ::: Creativity is a skill that everyone can learn, practice and use. ::: It is as much a skill as skiing, playing tennis, cooking or learning mathematics. ::: Everyone can learn such skills. ::: In the end not everyone is going to be equally good at these skills. ::: Some people cook better than others. ::: Some people play tennis better than others. ::: But everyone can learn the skill. ::: And everyone can seek to get better through practice. ::: CREATIVITY IS NOT A MYSTERY ::: For the first time in history we can now look at creativity as the “logical” behavior of a certain type of information system. ::: The mystery and mystique can be removed from creativity. ::: 1. We need to look at the human brain as a “self-organizing information system.”. ::: 2. Self-organizing information systems form patterns. ::: 3. All pattern-making systems are “asymmetric.” ::: 4. This is the basis of humor and of creativity. ::: Humor is by far the most significant behavior of the human brain ::: because it indicates the nature of the underlying ::: system. ::: Reason tells us very little because any “sorting system” run backwards is a reasoning system. ::: Humor ::: indicates asymmetric patterns. ::: This means that the ::: route from A to B is not the same as the route from B to A. ::: “Lateral thinking” is the creativity concerned with changing ::: ideas, perceptions and concepts. ::: Instead of working harder with the same ideas, perceptions and concepts, we seek to change them. ::: This “idea creativity” is not the same as “artistic creativity,” which is why a new term was needed. ::: All these things are explained in my books on lateral thinking; an understanding of such systems is the logical basis for the practical tools of lateral thinking. ::: THE WORD “CREATIVE” ::: In the English language, the word “create” means to bring into being something that was not there before. ::: So someone can “create a mess.” ::: That means bringing into existence a mess that did not exist before. ::: Is that person “creative”? ::: We hasten to add that what has been brought into existence must have “value.” ::: So creativity is bringing into existence something that has value. ::: There is, of course, the element of “newness” because repetition-no matter how valuable-is not seen as creative. ::: The word “creative” has largely been taken over by the arts, because in the arts all the work is new and has value. ::: It is true that the value is not always recognized at first. ::: For example, the Impressionist painters were not fully appreciated in their time. ::: In the English language there does not exist a separate word to distinguish the creativity of new ideas from the creativity of art. ::: So when I claim that “creativity” can indeed be taught, I am ::: asked if Beethoven could be produced in this way. ::: The answer is “no,” but “idea creativity” can be taught, learned and developed in a formal way. ::: The purpose of the exercises in this book is to help develop creative habits of mind. ::: The “creativity” of the art world includes a large element of “aesthetic judgement.” ::: The artist judges that something is “right.” ::: This is quite different from the ability to produce new ideas. ::: While artists may be excellent in their field, they are not especially good at changing ideas and creating new ideas. ::: This language problem has two very serious #consequences. ::: The first consequence is that education authorities believe that they are “teaching creativity” by encouraging dancing and music-playing. ::: This is totally wrong. ::: These activities are of value in themselves but they are not teaching creativity. ::: The second consequence is that people say that if you cannot produce a Beethoven to order, then creativity cannot really be taught. ::: This is also garbage. ::: Idea creativity can be taught. ::: As a matter of interest, my work is used quite widely in the arts world, particularly in music. ::: Because music does not represent existing sounds, there is a great need for creativity rather than just expression. ::: HABITS OF MIND ::: There is no sharp distinction between a mental skill and a mental habit. ::: The two overlap and blend into each other. ::: The purpose of this book is to provide opportunity for practising the mental skill of creativity and developing the habits of mind that make creativity happen. ::: Suppose you developed the habit of mind of trying to find alternative meanings for well-known acronyms. ::: So when you looked at NASA, you did not only think of the North American Space Agency, but of other possibilities: ::: Not Always Same Astronaut Not Always Same Ascent Not Always Same Ambition ::: Or: ::: New Adventures Splendid Achievements New Ambitions Serious Attainments ::: As with a joke, the new explanation is more powerful if it links in with existing knowledge, or even prejudice, about the organization. ::: POSSIBILITY ::: Educational establishments totally underestimate the importance of “possibility.” ::: Two thousand years ago, China was far ahead of the West in science and technology. ::: They had rockets and gunpowder. ::: Had China continued at the same rate of progress, then today China would easily have been the dominant power in the world. ::: What happened? ::: What brought progress to a halt? ::: The Chinese scholars started to believe you could move from “fact to fact.” ::: So they never developed the messy business of possibility (hypothesis, etc.). ::: As a result, progress came to a dead end. ::: Exactly the same sort of thing is happening in the world today. ::: Because of the excellence of computers, people are starting to believe that all you need to do is to collect data and analyze it. ::: This will give you your decisions, your policies and your strategies. ::: It is an extremely dangerous situation, which will bring progress to a halt. ::: There is a huge need for creativity to interpret data in different ways; to combine data to design value delivery; to know where to look for data; to form hypotheses and speculations, etc., etc. ::: I have held academic positions at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Harvard. ::: I have to say that at each of these wonderful institutions the amount of time spent on the fundamental importance of possibility was zero. ::: Our culture and habits of thinking insist that we always move towards certainty. ::: We need to pay equal attention to possibility. ::: Peptic ulcer (stomach or duodenal ulcer) is a serious condition that affects many people. ::: Sufferers used to be on antacids for 20 years or more. ::: There were major operations to remove part or all of the stomach. ::: A large number of beds were occupied by patients under treatment or diagnosis of the condition. ::: Hundreds of people were researching this serious condition. ::: Then a young doctor, Barry j. ::: Marshall, in Perth, Western Australia, suggested that peptic ulcer might be an infection. ::: Everyone laughed, because the hydrochloric acid in the stomach would surely kill any bacteria. ::: No one took the possibility seriously. ::: Many, many years later it turned out that he was right. ::: Instead of antacids for 20 years and losing some or all of your stomach, you simply take antibiotics for one week! ::: Possibility is very important. ::: And possibility is the key to creativity. ::: HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ::: There is no way you can learn a skill if you do not practice the skill. ::: There is no short cut. ::: There is no other way to develop skill. ::: This holds for the skill of creativity. ::: There is no magic fountain that you can drink from in order to become creative. ::: The nearest equivalent would be to read this book! ::: The use of creativity and the practice of creativity are the best ways to develop the mental skills and the mental habits of creative thinking. ::: If you want to become good at golf, you had better practice hitting the ball. ::: If you want to develop the skill of cooking, you had better get into the kitchen. ::: If you really want to develop the skill of creative thinking, you had better treat this book seriously and work through it diligently and systematically. ::: It is not much use reading the book for knowledge or to find out how the story ends. ::: That’s like going to the gym to watch other people exercise. ::: The more you practice, the better you will get-as with golf or cooking. ::: The book is designed to be simple, practical and usable. ::: The ::: subject of creativity could be made very complicated, but then the book would have no value except to academics. ::: The book is, however, designed for everyone who wants to become more creative and who is willing to enjoy the process. ::: The book is designed around a series of exercises. ::: You can do the exercises on your own. ::: You can do the exercises with other people. ::: You can use the exercises to practice a little bit of creativity every day. ::: EXERCISES/GAMES ::: The purpose of the exercises in this book is to provide training in creative thinking. ::: The attitudes, habits and skills of creative thinking will be developed as you go through the exercises systematically and in a disciplined way. ::: There are those who believe that any disciplined or systematic approach is the opposite of creativity. ::: This view is complete garbage and shows a lack of understanding of the fundamental nature of creative thinking as the behavior of a self-organizing informational system that makes asymmetric patterns. ::: At the same time, the exercises are enjoyable and so can be regarded as “games.” ::: Generally you would play these games on your own (as with a crossword) and get a sense of achievement when you succeed. ::: It is also possible, occasionally, to play with others and to compare your results. ::: So, they are enjoyable exercises that could be called either “exercises” or “games.” ::: The intention is to train your creative mind. ::: The book is a playground. ::: If there were a playground with a ball ::: in it, you would certainly kick the ball around. ::: That is the way you should treat this book. ::: Have fun. ::: But it is serious fun. ::: Creativity is a very serious skill. ::: Unlike many other skills, you can have fun while you develop this serious skill. ::: From this point onward, it is up to you. ::: What you get out of the book will be directly proportional to the effort you put into using the book. ::: There are 62 exercises in the book. ::: That means 52 + 10. ::: That suggests that you could, if you wished, practice one exercise one week and the next exercise the following week. ::: The 10 extra exercises are in case you feel extra energetic and want to do more than one exercise that week. ::: PROBLEMS AND SITUATIONS ::: Use the given problems and situations even if you find them difficult. ::: You may also insert problems and situations of your own. ::: Only do this after you have attempted to use the given problems. ::: Otherwise you will tend only to work on easy problems you have chosen. ::: TIME LIMITS ::: The exercises may be done without any time limit at all. ::: You can also set a time limit. ::: To begin with, this could be four to five minutes per exercise. ::: As you get better, the time limit can be reduced to two to three minutes. ::: RIGHT ANSWERS ::: With creativity, there is no one “right answer.” ::: For the exercises there is no one right answer. ::: Any answer that fits the stated requirements of the exercise is equally right. ::: Players will, however, learn to recognize that some answers are indeed better than others-because they are more practical, more unusual, or offer a higher value. ::: NOTE: The fact that there are no right answers does NOT mean that any answer will do. ::: The answer must satisfy the requirements of the exercise. ::: If you were asked to suggest “food for breakfast,” there is no one right answer. ::: But if you were to suggest “the transmission of a car,” that would indeed be a wrong answer. ::: If you are asked for “alternative modes of transport” and you suggested “a frying pan,” that would indeed be a wrong answer. ::: In the course of the book you will practice both perceptual creativity and constructive creativity. ::: Perceptual creativity involves looking at things in different ways. ::: It involves extracting concepts. ::: It involves extracting values. ::: It involves opening up connections and associations. ::: Constructive creativity means putting things together to deliver ::: value. ::: This is “design thinking.” ::: While education focuses a great deal on analysis, there is practically no attention at all to design thinking. ::: Yet life and human progress depend on design thinking. ::: Analysis is important, just as the rear left wheel of a car is important-but it is not enough. ::: Readers of this book will develop creative habits of mind and a fluency in dealing with ideas, concepts, perceptions and values. ::: The emphasis is on the creativity of “what can be” rather than the usual education emphasis on “what is.” ::: ONE A DAY ::: Many people do some physical exercises every day. ::: Some people go to the gym every day. ::: I would suggest that you make a habit of doing at least one of the exercises every day. ::: You should be able to go back to the book again and again to repeat exercises (using different problems, etc.). ::: The book is like a gym for creative thinking habits and skills. ::: And, as with physical exercise, the important thing is to be disciplined about it. ::: 1. Choose an exercise. ::: 2. Set a time limit. ::: 3. Do the exercise. ::: HOW TO USE RANDOM WORDS ::: The whole book is based on Random Words. ::: So it is important to understand how to use these. ::: A Random Word is there for no reason at all-it is random. ::: The words are all nouns because these are easier to use. ::: The Tables of Random Words are given on pages 153-165. ::: You can get your Random Word in a number of different ways: ::: 1. You can throw a single die four times. ::: … the first throw indicates which of the six tables you are going to use the second throw indicates which column you are going to use … the third throw indicates which section you are going to use in the column the fourth throw indicates which word you are going to use in the section ::: You can also throw four dice all at once and then arrange them in a sequence. ::: You can use colored dice with a given sequence of colors. ::: 2. You can use the Number Maps given on pages 167-169. ::: With your eyes closed, stab with a pencil, matchstick or toothpick at the map. ::: Take the number you have hit. ::: If you are on a dividing line or miss a number, simply try again. ::: Do this four times to obtain the four numbers (table number, column number, group number and word number). ::: 3. Use the Tables of Random Numbers given on pages 171-173. ::: Take the numbers in order and tick off the ones you have used. ::: Alternatively, take a sequence from the Tables of Random Numbers and just change one number in the given sequence. ::: You can also create your own Table of Random Numbers in advance so that you can use it whenever you want. ::: 4. Simply invent a sequence of numbers. ::: Each number must be between 1 and 6. ::: Use these numbers as if thrown with a die. ::: 5. In the Pre-set Table (pages 174-175) the sequences of ::: numbers are already given. ::: You can insert your own number (1 to 6) in the gap to give the new sequence. ::: VERY IMPORTANT: Do not keep trying different Random Words until you get one you like. ::: This destroys the whole point of the exercises. ::: You must seek to use the first word you obtain. ::: If, however, you do not understand the meaning of a Random Word, ignore that word and try again, or else take the next word down. ::: POWERFUL TOOL ::: The Random Word process on which the book is built is just one of the powerful tools of lateral thinking which is a process I invented in 1967. ::: The process is now widely used and the phrase has an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. ::: There are other powerful tools of lateral thinking such as: challenge; concept extraction; concept fan; provocation and movement, etc. ::: Lateral thinking is serious and systematic creativity. ::: It is not being different for the sake of being different. ::: It is not based on sitting on a river bank and playing Baroque music. ::: It is not a matter of messing around in a brainstorming session. ::: There are formal tools and processes that can be used deliberately and with discipline. ::: These tools are based on the understanding of self-organizing information systems, as described in my book The Mechanism of Mind (1969). ::: For the first time in human history we can treat creativity as a mental skill, not just a matter of talent or inspiration. ::: PROVOCATION ::: In a way the Random Word process is an example of provocation. ::: In normal thinking there needs to be a reason for saying something before it is said. ::: Otherwise the result is nonsense. ::: With provocation, there may not be a reason for saying something until after it is said. ::: Develop your creative thinking skills. ::: It’s up to you!
de Bono's Code Book contents page ::: Amazon ::: Something of the sort is going to happen sooner or later ::: Language has been the biggest help in human progress ::: Language is now by far the biggest barrier to human progress ::: The barrier ::: Description is not perception ::: Grotesque and bizarre ::: To create the new concepts and perceptions we use numbers ::: Shock, Horror and Outrage ::: Benefits ::: Benefit 1: International ::: Benefit 2: Perception ::: Benefit 3: Complex Concepts ::: Benefit 4: New Concepts ::: Benefit 5: Precision ::: Benefit 6: Expectations ::: Benefit 7: Avoiding Awkwardness ::: Benefit 8: Saving Time ::: Benefit 9: Information Management ::: Benefit 10: Uniformity ::: Benefit 11: Calm ::: Benefit 12: Locus ::: This book contains two codes ::: Pronunciation Usage ::: Part 1 De Bono Code B ::: Overview of the Codes From De Bono Code B That Are Included in This Book ::: Code 1: Pre-Code ::: Code 2: Attention Directing ::: Code 3: Action Code ::: Code 4: Difficult Situations ::: Code 5: Response Code ::: Code 6: Interaction (Frantic) Code ::: Code 7: Information Code ::: Code 8: Youth Code ::: Code 9: Meetings ::: Code 10: Mood Code ::: Code 11: Distance Code ::: Code 12: Relationships Start ::: Code 13: Relationships Continue ::: Code 14: Relationships End ::: Code 15: Negotiation ::: Code 16: Assessment ::: Code 17: Project Status ::: Code 18: Travel Code ::: Code Details ::: Pre-Code Code 1 ::: 1/1 This is a friendly greeting. There is no request attached to it ::: 1/2 This is a request for information on the matters indicated ::: 1/3 I need very specific and very detailed information on the matter indicated ::: 1/4 This is a request for your response and your reaction to what is indicated here ::: 1/5 Please expand on this ::: 1/6 I simply do not understand the following matter ::: 1/7 I want to draw your attention to the following matter ::: 1/8 This is a request that you lay out your action plans for the matter specified ::: 1/9 This is a request that you carry out the action specified here ::: 1/10 I am putting forward a proposal or suggestion for your consideration ::: 1/11 I want to register a complaint. I want to bring this to your attention because ::: 1/12 This is a direct response to your request (specified) ::: 1/13 I wish to register a disagreement ::: 1/14 This is the information which you requested ::: 1/15 Here is some information. This communication contains information ::: 1/16 This is a schedule, plan, timetable, action sequenceetc. This is information you need ::: Attention Directing Code 2 ::: 2/1 Direct your attention to the PMI points. Tell me what you see ::: 2/2 Direct your attention to the future ::: 2/3 What are the factors involved here? ::: 2/4 What is the objective? What are we really trying to do? ::: 2/5 What are the views of the other people involved? ::: 2/6 What are the alternatives? ::: 2/7 What are the priorities? ::: 2/8 Direct your attention to the key values involved ::: 2/9 Direct your attention to the matters on which we agree/disagree/irrelevant ::: 2/10 Can you recognize this as a standard situation? ::: Action Code Code 3 ::: 3/1 I want in. I want to take part in this ::: 3/2 I am very interested ::: 3/3 Thank you, but no thank you. I am not interested ::: 3/4 I want out. I want to get out of this ::: 3/5 Let's move right forward to action ::: 3/6 What is the problem? What is the hold-up? ::: 3/7 We need to design a way forward ::: 3/8 We need some creative thinking here ::: 3/9 There are no problems but nothing seems to be happening ::: 3/10 What is the immediate next step? ::: 3/11 We need to think about this ::: 3/12 what has been happening? What is the feedback? Where is the action report? ::: Difficult Situations Code 4 ::: 4/1 Lack of the necessary resources ::: 4/2 Lack of management at all levels or at some levels ::: 4/3 Low morale. Low motivation. A workforce uninterested in what they are doing ::: 4/4 Lack of leadership ::: 4/5 An organization that is rigid and old-fashioned ::: 4/6 Lack of Vision. Lack of mission. Survival is enough ::: 4/7 4/7 The world outside is tough. Everything takes time and a great deal of effort ::: 4/8 Situations which are 'locked' in ::: 4/9 Fights, factions, disputes and far too much internal politics ::: 4/10 Too much corruption, cheating, nepotism, etc. An organization with rather low morals ::: 4/11 Coasting. A once-successful organization, group or even country coasts on its reputation ::: Response Code Code 5 ::: 5/1 I am sorry, this matter is not of interest to me ::: 5/2 Here is the information that you wanted ::: 5/3 This is some of the information that you requested. I am not able to supply the rest of it ::: 5/4 I am not able to provide you with the information that you requested ::: 5/5 You are asking for far too much information ::: 5/6 I could be interested in what you have suggested but I would need much more information ::: 5/7 I am going to have to think about this matter and will then get back to you ::: 5/8 Thank you for your proposal. Here are my reactions to your proposal ::: 5/9 With regard to your suggestion of a meeting I would like to have in writing ::: 5/10 Thank you very much for your comments ::: 5/11 I accept your invitation and will be happy to be there ::: 5/12 I regret that I am unable to accept your invitation owing to a prior engagement ::: 5/13 I am sure you are entitled to your opinion no matter how you arrived at it ::: Interaction (Frantic) Code 6 ::: 6/1 What exactly is the matter? Spell out the problem directly and simply ::: 6/2 You give me what you think my point of view might be and I shall give you ::: 6/3 There are things we do need to discuss here. Let us find time to discuss them ::: 6/4 Give me space. Don't crowd me. Don't pressure me ::: 6/5 Calm down. There is no need to be frantic or aggressive ::: 6/6 Don't take yourself so seriously. Don't overreact ::: 6/7 Cut the crap, what do you want? Never mind the preamble and background ::: 6/8 Things are becoming too emotional. I suggest we take a break ::: Information Code Code 7 ::: 7/1 This information is purely factual. It is comprehensive and not selective ::: 7/2 These are administrative details ::: 7/3 Instructions, operating procedures, laws, regulations, etc ::: 7/4 This information is intended to be an honest, objective description of or comment on some matter ::: 7/5 This is a subjective category, description or review ::: 7/6 This is a dishonest review or commentary ::: 7/7 This is advocacy or case-making ::: 718 This indicates material that is of an advertising and selling nature ::: 7/9 This is also 'selling' information but the information is put forward in a neutral way ::: 7/10 This indicates chat or conversation ::: 7/11 This is the fine print. These are the 'footnotes'. ::: 7/12 Proposals, propositions, suggestions, offerings, etc. ::: 7/13 This indicates hate, bigotry and a strong emotional outpouring ::: 7/14 This indicates advice, help, motivation, self-help, training, etc ::: 7/15 This indicates 'forms to fill in. Forms of any sort come into this category ::: Youth Code Code 8 ::: 8/1 I am in trouble and I need your help. I do not want a lecture ::: 8/2 I am having difficulty making a decision ::: 8/3 I am confused. I am in a muddle. I need clarification ::: 8/4 There is something that I need to talk about ::: 8/5 I would like an honest and direct answer to the question that I am going to ask you ::: 8/6 This thing is really very important to me. You may not think so ::: 8/7 This is something I really, really want to do ::: 8/8 Sure, let's talk. Let's discuss things. I am willing to listen without judging ::: 8/9 What is troubling you? What is the matter? Tell me the problem ::: 8/10 What do you really think and feel about this? ::: 8/11 What are your intentions? What are you plans? What are you going to do? ::: 8/12 You are behaving like a spoiled brat. You are being very selfish ::: 8/13 Show some manners and respect. Don't behave in that boorish and oafish manner ::: 8/14 For some reason you are in a difficult and cranky mood. Could you snap out of it? ::: 8/15 Don't sulk. It won't get you anywhere ::: 8/16 Clean up the mess. Tidy Up. Put things away ::: 8/17 Be nice to your brothers and sisters ::: 8/18 It would be nice if you could help. It would be nice if you could contribute ::: 8/19 Let's have some peace and quiet. Stop that racket or go somewhere else ::: 8/20 Don't be unreasonable ::: 8/21 I need attention. Don't ignore me ::: 8/22 Thank you. Thank you very much. I appreciate what you are doing or have done ::: 8/23 That is fine. That is just right. That is perfect. I like that very much ::: Meetings Code 9 ::: 9/1 I am confused. I am lost. I cannot follow you. Please repeat. Please clarify ::: 9/2 Do not assume that we know the current situation. Please spell it out ::: 9/3 Get to the point. What do you propose? What do you want to see happen? ::: 9/4 Could you summarize what you have been saying? Could you repeat the main points? ::: 9/5 More information is needed at this point. I need more information. ::: 9/6 What are the benefits? Why is this worth doing? Why is this a good idea? ::: 9/7 What is the downside? What are the risks? What are the drawbacks? ::: 9/8 This is a weak case. I am doubtful. I am not convinced. I do not agree with the argument ::: 9/9 I fully agree. I am convinced. I have followed your line of reasoning and I agree with you ::: 9/10 This stuff is irrelevant. This stuff has nothing to do with the main point or ::: Mood Code Code 10 ::: 10/1 Would you like to tell me what your mood is today? What is your mood right now? ::: 10/2 I am happy. I am in a happy mood. Things are going well ::: 10/3 The mood is neutral and normal ::: 10/4 This is the broad, generic 'unhappy' response ::: 10/5 I am overworked. I am very busy. There is far too much to do ::: 10/6 I am under pressure. I am being hassled. There are many demands to be met ::: 10/7 I am tense. For some reason I feel tension. It may be a combination of factors ::: 10/8 I am just very tired. I have been doing a lot lately ::: 10/9 I am depressed. I am going through a phase of depression. This is no one's fault ::: 10/10 I am unwell. i am not feeling well. I think I may be il ::: 10111 I am worried about something. I am anxious about something ::: 10/12 I am preoccupied. I am thinking about something ::: 10/13 I am in the best of moods. I am at the top of my form. I am full of energy ::: 10/14 I am annoyed and upset about a particular individual or action ::: 10/15 I am upset and not pleased in a general sense ::: 10/16 I am furious. I am very angry ::: 10/17 I am becoming increasingly unhappy about the way this project is going ::: 10/18 I am disappointed. I expected better ::: 10/19 I am stressed out at the moment. There are a lot of things going on ::: 10/20 I congratulate you. I applaud your success. What you have done is wonderful ::: 10/21 Thank you. Thank you very much. I appreciate what you have done for me ::: 10/22 I feel frustrated. I feel thwarted. I feel blocked ::: 10/23 I am feeling full of energy. I feel able to do anything ::: 10/24 I am in a creative mood. I feel creative. I feel inspired ::: Distance Code Code 11 ::: Code 11 Distance Code ::: 11/1 Do you know how to use this code? Do you use this code? ::: 11/2 I like the look of you and I would like to meet you. Is this a good idea? ::: 11/3 Fine. Let's meet. Let's meet halfway ::: 11/4 Yes, we can meet. I do want to meet. But not right now ::: 11/5 The answer is 'no'. I am not interested. Don't pester me. Keep away ::: Relationship Codes Code 12,13 and 14 ::: Code 12 Relationships Start ::: 12/1 I am looking forward to the development of this relationship ::: 12/2 I have no hidden agenda or dark intentions. I like you and want to know you better ::: 12/3 Let's try it out and see how we get on ::: 12/4 Where do we go from here? What is the next step? ::: 12/5 There is no hurry. Let things evolve on their own ::: 12/6 This seems to be getting a bit one-sided. I seem to be doing all the running ::: 12/7 You are getting too intense. You are crowding me. Give me space or I shall back off ::: 12/8 I am not going to ask you any questions and I do not want you to ask me any questions ::: 12/9 I want you to e very honest with me about your status, commitments, baggage arid encumbrances ::: 12/10 You seem to be becoming too possessive. I need space. I want to let you know how I feel ::: 12/11 You are becoming very demanding. I find this difficult. I feel I ought to tell you this ::: 12/12 I am in this as a romance, as an adventure, as a fling ::: 12/13 I am looking for a long-term relationship or commitment ::: 12/14 I like you very much and I want to be friends. Nothing more heavy than that ::: 12/15 I just want a small place somewhere in your life ::: 12/16 I love you for ever - or until next Monday ::: Code 13 Relationships Continue ::: 13/1 This relationship does not seem to be going anywhere ::: 13/2 This relationship has stagnated. It is getting boring ::: 13/3 Things are going very well. Things are getting better and better ::: 13/4 we have become complacent. We seem to take each other for granted ::: 13/5 Things seem to have changed. I have noticed a change in your behaviour ::: 13/6 There are some important things that we need to talk about ::: 13/7 What is the problem? What has gone wrong? What are you upset about? ::: 13/8 This is just a temporary hiccup. This is a very minor problem ::: 13/9 I am completely prepared to admit my fault over this matter. I am sorry ::: 13/10 There you go again. Insisting on having your own way ::: 13/11 I feel we are making real progress and moving forward to overcome the difficulties ::: 13/12 You know I do not like that. It annoys and irritates me ::: 13/13 Don't overplay the victim. Don't overplay the martyr role ::: Code 14 Relationships End ::: 14/1 it is no one's fault but I do not think we are compatible after all ::: 14/2 This relationship has been dying for some time ::: 14/3 People change. I may have changed or you may have changed ::: 14/4 This relationship has been dead for a long time ::: 14/5 This is a good relationship but I do not see any long-term future in it ::: 14/6 You want commitment without commitment ::: 14/7 I have come to the conclusion that I can't give you what you want from life ::: 14/8 The present level of involvement is over ::: 14/9 The plain truth is that I have met someone else ::: 14/10 This has happened. I am mad at you. I am disappointed ::: 14/11 The relationship has run its course ::: 14/12 You are simply not the person I thought you were ::: 14/13 We could both try harder to salvage the relationship ::: 14/14 If there were an elegant and painless way to end a relationship ::: Negotiation Code 15 ::: 15/1 Is this a genuine negotiation? ::: 15/2 Could you please lay out your position? ::: 15/3 You are asked to lay out what you think our position might be ::: 15/4 What can we agree upon? What do we disagree upon? ::: 15/5 What are the benefits that you are offering? ::: 15/6 As it is, your offer is not attractive ::: 15/7 These fears are real and do need to be addressed ::: 15/8 What is your proposal (or counter-proposal)? Please spell it out again ::: 15/9 What do you see as the alternatives and options at this point? ::: 15/10 We have gone over the old ground again and again ::: 15/11 How do you see the future unfolding? How do you see alternative futures? ::: 15/12 More information is needed on the following matters … ::: 15/13 At the moment I see this as rather one-sided ::: 15/14 Are we treating this as an adversarial confrontation or are we seeking, together ::: 15/15 What are the contingency arid fall-back positions? ::: 15/16 Who are the people who really matter in this situation? ::: 15/17 We are moving towards an outcome ::: 15/18 Is this outcome going to be acceptable? ::: 15/19 This is a stalemate ::: 15/20 Are there matters which have seen left out? ::: 15/21 Can we review what we have discussed and what seems to have been agreed? ::: 15/22 Who is going to take responsibility for what? Who is going to do what, and when? ::: 15/23 What is the next step? Where do we go from here? ::: 15/24 That was constructive. That was good. I think we made a lot of progress ::: Assessment Code 16 ::: 16/1 This is highly competent. I cannot find fault with it ::: 16/2 This is more than competent. This is excellent ::: 16/3 This is both competent and highly creative ::: 16/4 This is great on creativity but not so good on competence ::: 16/5 This is very patchy. Some parts are good and other parts are not good enough ::: 16/6 Barely adequate. This is the bottom rung ::: 16/7 This is a mediocre performance. It is not bad and it is certainly not good ::: 16/8 This is a disappointing performance. You are capable of a much better performance ::: 16/9 There is a great deal of room for improvement. This performance is not good enough ::: 16/10 Good but full of careless errors. May carelessness or lack of concentration ::: 16/11 Good performance but locking in sensitivity and people skills ::: 16/12 This is not a good performance at all. Perhaps there are reasons for this? ::: 16/13 This is simply a poor performance. It is not acceptable in any way ::: 16/14 This is a truly shocking performance ::: 16/15 You may well have misunderstood what you were supposed to do ::: Project Status Code 17 ::: 17/1 What is the time status of the project? Is it on time or what? ::: 17/2 The project is behind schedule because of a number of … which could have been foreseen ::: 17/3 There are major problems and obstacles which are holding things up ::: 17/4 We need help in solving the following problem or problems ::: 17/5 This project is resource-starved as indicated here ::: 17/6 There is some doubt about the quality of management on this project ::: 17/7 This project has been poorly planned. We need to replan the whole project ::: 17/8 The project is in crisis. We need to see how we can rescue it ::: 17/9 What is the way forward? ::: 17/10 How do you see the future scenarios? ::: 17/11 The project seems to be running low on energy ::: 17/12 What can I do to help? What sort of help would be most useful? ::: Travel Code Code 18 ::: 18/1 I am feeling very ill. I need to see a doctor or get to a hospital. Can you help me? ::: 18/2 I have been robbed or am otherwise in trouble. I need to call the police. Can you help me? ::: 18/3 I am in difficulties and I need help. I need to get in touch with my embassy or consulate ::: 18/4 Can you take me to … ? The place is indicated by one of the following additional numbers ::: 18/5 Can you tell me how I can get to the following place, as indicated by the number given ::: 18/6 I need to find accommodation. I want you to recommend a place or to take me to such a place ::: 18/7 I need to find a bank or a place where I can change money. Can you help me? ::: 18/8 I need to make a telephone call. Where Carl I find a telephone? ::: 18/9 I need to make an international phone call. Where can I do that? ::: 18/10 I need to connect up with my e-mail or the Internet. How can I do that? ::: 18/11 I need to send a letter or postcard to the following country. ::: 18/12 Where can I find a toilet? Where is the nearest toilet? ::: 18/13 Would you like to join me for a coffee, a drink, a meal or a walk? ::: 18/14 I need to get a ticket to this destination. What do I need to do? ::: 18/15 I have this ticket, or this address, or this situation (pointing to something). What do I do? ::: 18/16 Do you speck English (or other specified language)? Does anyone here speak English? ::: Part 2 De Bono Code A ::: De Bono Code A ::: The Meaning of the Numbers ::: Change (Input, Change, Output) ::: System Values (Positive/Negative values) ::: The People Factor ::: The Time Factor ::: Existence and Presence ::: Absence, Not Present ::: The Grid ::: The Use of De Bono Code A ::: Prefix ::: Pronunciation ::: Overlap and Addition ::: Familiarity, Reference and Use ::: Code meanings ::: 7: Present / This ::: Make Happen ::: 5: Absent / Missing ::: 1: Situation / Input/ Starting Position ::: 2: the Change Process ::: 6: Output / Outcome / Result ::: 8: System Positive ::: 4: Negative / Harmful / Unfavourable / Bad ::: 3: the People Factor ::: 9: the Time Factor ::: Codes A and B: Duplicate and Parallel ::: International Numbers ::: Large Numbers ::: Summary ::: Standardization ::: Licensing ::: De Bono Code B summary ::: Code 1 // Pre-Code ::: Code 2// Attention Directing ::: Code 3// Action Code ::: Code 4// Difficult Situations ::: Code 5 // Response Code ::: Code 6 // Interaction (Frantic) Code ::: Code 7// Information Code ::: Code 8 // Youth Code ::: Code 9 // Meetings ::: Code 10 // Mood code ::: Code 11 // Distance Code ::: Code 12 // Relationships Start ::: Code 13 // Relationships Continue ::: Code 14 // Relationships End ::: Code 15 // Negotiation ::: Code 16 // Assessment ::: Code 17 // Project Status ::: Code 18 // Travel Code ::: Overview of the Codes From De Bono Code B That Are Included in This Book
How to be More Interesting contents page ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Author's Note ::: Frames of Interest ::: Special-interest Groups ::: Very Ordinary ::: Facts and Figures ::: Opening Up ::: Levels — certain to fantasy ::: Speculation ::: Mental Habits ::: The Fixed Point ::: Formal and Informal ::: Concept Differences ::: Concept Level ::: Joint Exploration ::: Associations and Triggers ::: Functional Links ::: Keep Going ::: Use of Provocations ::: Interest Sensitivity ::: Sensitization ::: The Pause ::: The Dance of Attention ::: Choice of Avenue or Alley ::: Alleys ::: Themes ::: Complex Situations ::: Lists ::: Summaries ::: The Red Hat ::: Examination of Feelings ::: Views, Opinions and Feelings ::: Other People’s Shoes ::: Remote Relevance ::: Show Relevance ::: Mixed Emotions ::: Surprise ::: Expectation ::: Curiosity ::: Stories ::: Attention Directing ::: Questions ::: Speculations and Provocations ::: Alternatives and Choices ::: Opinions ::: Develop and Build Upon ::: Partial Agreement ::: Parallel Thinking ::: Arrogance ::: Adjectives ::: Clarify and Map ::: The Six Hats ::: Jumps ::: Interrupt ::: Diversions ::: SUMMARY
How to have a beautiful mind contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction: what is a beautiful mind? ::: How to agree ::: The need to be right ::: The logic bubble ::: Special circumstances ::: Special values ::: Special experience ::: Sweeping generalisations ::: Summary ::: How to disagree ::: Politeness ::: Errors of logic ::: Interpretation ::: Selective perception ::: Emotions ::: Different experience ::: Sweeping generalisations ::: Extrapolations ::: Possible and certain ::: Differ or disagree ::: Summary ::: How to differ ::: Two sorts of difference ::: Sources of difference ::: Spell out the difference ::: Spell out the reasons for the ::: difference ::: Accept the difference ::: Summary ::: How to be interesting ::: Information ::: What if? ::: Possibilities and alternatives ::: Speculation ::: Connections ::: Creativity and new ideas ::: A most useful habit ::: Exercises ::: Summary ::: How to respond ::: Clarification ::: Support ::: Examples and stories ::: Build upon ::: Extend ::: Carry forward ::: Modify ::: Summary ::: How to listen ::: Impatience ::: Getting value ::: Notice ::: Repeat back ::: Questions ::: More details ::: Two focuses ::: Summary ::: Questions ::: Fishing questions and shooting questions ::: Source and validity ::: More detail ::: Explanation ::: Alternatives and possibilities ::: Modification ::: Multiple choice questions ::: Values ::: The basis for your thinking? ::: Summary ::: Parallel thinking - the six hats ::: Co-operative exploration ::: The six thinking hats ::: The white hat ::: The red hat ::: The black hat ::: The yellow hat ::: The green hat ::: The blue hat ::: Use of the hats ::: Benefits ::: Summary ::: Concepts ::: Why bother with concepts? ::: Pick out the concept ::: Vagueness ::: Levels of concept ::: Types of concept ::: Exercise ::: Completeness ::: Compare and contrast ::: Summary ::: Alternatives ::: Better ::: Perception ::: Alternative values ::: Generating alternatives ::: Possible ::: Summary ::: Emotions and feelings ::: Selective perception ::: Choice ::: Adjectives ::: First reaction ::: Positioning ::: Summary ::: Values ::: Circumstance ::: Different parties ::: Personal values ::: Organisation values ::: Quality values ::: Innovation values ::: Ecology (impact) values ::: Perceptual values ::: Negative values ::: Summary ::: Diversions and off-course ::: Purpose ::: Boring ::: Conventional ::: Humour ::: Enjoyment ::: Summary ::: Information and knowledge ::: How much? ::: The Zulu principle ::: The mirror strategy ::: Knowledge input ::: Making do ::: Summary ::: Opinion ::: Why have opinions? ::: Provoking opinions ::: Exercise ::: Point of view ::: Changing opinions ::: New information ::: Less complete ::: Value change ::: Comparison and difference ::: Summary ::: Interruption ::: My turn ::: Ego interruptions ::: Amplifying interruptions ::: Challenge interruptions ::: Immediate or later ::: Doubts ::: Summary ::: Attitude ::: The battle attitude ::: The ego power game ::: The learner attitude ::: The explorer attitude ::: The constructive attitude ::: The fun attitude ::: The 'who cares? attitude ::: Summary ::: Starting and topics ::: Current topics ::: On-going topics ::: What do you do? ::: False starts ::: New leads ::: Shaping ::: Anger and emotion ::: Bored ::: Summary ::: Conclusion ::: Enjoyment ::: Skill ::: The conversation club ::: Numbers ::: Regularity ::: The organiser ::: Format ::: Agenda and topics ::: Achievement ::: Cross visits ::: Range of activites
Opportunities contents page ::: Amazon ::: Title ::: About Edward de Bono ::: Title page ::: Contents ::: Introduction ::: Hindsight ::: The opportunity search ::: Objective ::: Form of the book ::: Lateral thinking and opportunity search ::: Information and ideas ::: The need for ideas ::: Part I: People attitudes and opportunities ::: The distinction between what is urgent and what is important ::: Minding the store ::: Problem-solving and problem-finding ::: Three types of problem ::: Block type ::: Run out of road type ::: Problem of no Problem ::: Opportunity could have been opened before ::: Doctors starting own insurance company ::: Example 2 ::: Example 3 ::: Example 4 ::: Constructing What if problems ::: Résumé example ::: Databank Example ::: Executive styles ::: About executive styles ::: The train-driver ::: The doctor ::: The farmer ::: The fisherman ::: The opportunity-negative structure ::: No one is to blame ::: Obstacles to opportunity search ::: Organizational ::: Urgent matters always have priority ::: No time to think ::: The style of management ::: Communication is always downward from senior executives to lower levels ::: Opportunity search is always delegated to too great a distance ::: Availability of resources ::: Shortage of expertise in implementing opportunities ::: Shortage of imaginative thinkers ::: Difficulty in obtaining information ::: Risk-taking related to small resources ::: Short-term profit problem ::: Environmental ::: Union involvement and restrictions ::: Legal, government and quasi-government regulations ::: Bureaucratic constraints ::: Tax and price controls ::: Ecological pressures ::: The size of the domestic market ::: Lack of risk capital ::: Personal ::: A tendency to follow trends elsewhere and to borrow ideas ::: A protectionist atmosphere breeds managers who are not competitive ::: Love of a quiet life ::: Preference for reacting to situations rather than thinking about them in advance ::: Preference for action rather than thinking ::: The preferred outcomes encouraged by management training ::: The difficulty of evaluating opportunities once they have been generated ::: Traditional blinkers ::: Lack of encouragement ::: Lack of financial motivation ::: Lack of confidence ::: Lack of focus ::: Lack of technique ::: Comment ::: Cultural attitude towards opportunity ::: Corporate attitude towards opportunity ::: Ride the cycle ::: Survive the pressures ::: Something will turn up ::: Complacency ::: Technology-push fears ::: Fear of an opportunity war ::: Plain caution ::: Disinclination to expand ::: Comment ::: Executive attitude towards opportunity ::: Indifferent ::: Reiuctant ::: Complacent ::: Blocked ::: What is an opportunity? ::: Alternative Views of What Constitutes an Opportunity ::: Why us? ::: Opportunities for expanding and opportunities for contracting ::: Direction, destination and means ::: The thinking involved ::: Levels of opportunity ::: Corporate level ::: Management level ::: Job level ::: Personal level ::: Benefits and motivation ::: Escape benefits and achievement benefits ::: Time course of search for benefits ::: Break-off point ::: The opportunity dilemma ::: The solution ::: Part II: The Opportunity Audit and the Opportunity Team ::: Status of the opportunity search exercise ::: Skill area ::: Coping with an all ::: Channel for upwards communication ::: Problems and opportunities ::: Surveillance ::: Value ::: Elements of the opportunity search exercise ::: Opportunity Audit ::: Opportunity Manager ::: Opportunity Team ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Purpose ::: The Opportunity Audit ::: Focus ::: Start of the exercise ::: Timing of the exercise ::: Executives involved in the exercise ::: The output required in the exercise ::: Opportunity space ::: General opportunities ::: Specific opportunity objective ::: Opportunities elsewhere ::: The thinking required in the exercise ::: Opportunity space ::: Definition of opportunity space ::: Examination of opportunity space ::: Areas of activity ::: Types of operation ::: Reaction patterns ::: Example of opportunity space ::: Description of opportunity space ::: Purpose of opportunity space description ::: Job description and opportunity space ::: Idea-sensitive areas and general opportunities ::: Idea-sensitive areas (i.s.a.) ::: High-cost area (h.c.a.) ::: Specific-problem area (s.p.a.) ::: Further-development area (f.d.a.) ::: Emotional-target area (e.t.a.) ::: General opportunities ::: Separate ideas ::: Opportunity space ::: The specific opportunity objective ::: Summary of the opportunity ::: Benefits ::: Where from? ::: How? ::: Scale? ::: Depending on what? ::: Dangers? ::: Fall short? ::: Problems? ::: Assumptions? ::: Description of the opportunity ::: Plan of action ::: Resources ::: Sticking-points ::: Time course ::: Progress reports ::: Four-monthly intervals ::: Content of the progress report ::: Opportunities in other areas ::: Other departments ::: Corporate opportunities ::: The Opportunity Manager ::: Some of the tasks of the Opportunity Manager ::: 1. To organize the mechanics of the opportunity search exercise ::: 2. To act in a general liaison capacity with regard to opportunities ::: 3. To provide a communication by-pass ::: 4. To give help and advice ::: 5. To provide a listening post and to be an ombudsman ::: 6. To provide a 'fixit' service ::: 7. To set up and run the Opportunity Team ::: 8. To organize and coordinate the Opportunity Task Forces ::: 9. To bring together people to discuss opportunities ::: 10. To focus attention upon specific problems ::: 11. To act as a liaison officer with outside consultants ::: 12. To report on and represent the opportunity function ::: Difficulties ::: The Opportunity Team ::: The mechanics of the Opportunity Team ::: Input to the Opportunity Team ::: Evaluation ::: Reaction of the Opportunity Team to opportunity suggestions ::: Coordination of opportunity search and development ::: Taking the initiative ::: Review and report ::: Budget ::: Difficulty ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Members of the task force ::: Briefing of the task force ::: Authority of the task force ::: Projects ::: Report back ::: Part III Thinking for opportunities ::: Contents ::: Review of fundamental thinking processes ::: Focus ::: Analysis ::: Abstraction ::: Alternatives (lateral thinking) ::: Synthesis ::: Search, judgement and matching ::: Modification ::: Provocation ::: Repertoire of operations ::: 'Moving-in' and 'moving-out' as modes of thinking ::: Starting point check-list ::: Intrinsic assets ::: Operating assets ::: Situation assets ::: 'Left behind' ::: Synergy ::: Variable value ::: Challenge ::: 'De-averaging' ::: Significant point ::: Disadvantage into advantage ::: 'Under what circumstances …' ::: 'What business are we in?' ::: Me-too ::: Brought in from abroad ::: Market size ::: Trends ::: Focus on areas of weakness and areas of strength ::: Idea-sensitive areas ::: Provocation ::: Transfer ::: The treatment of ideas ::: End-point check-list ::: Idea-sensitive areas ::: The 'something' method ::: Market gaps ::: Needs ::: #Objectives ::: Wishful thinking ::: Defects ::: Faults ::: Quality improvements ::: Problem-solving ::: Stock solutions ::: Constructed solutions ::: Working backwards ::: Re-definition of the problem ::: Provocation ::: Upstream problem avoidance ::: The treatment of ideas ::: The killer phrase ::: Function extraction ::: The PMI ::: Provocation and stepping stones ::: Tailoring an idea ::: Instruction symbols for thinking ::: No entry ::: Build upon ::: Make practical ::: Use as a stepping stone ::: Extract the function ::: Incorporate the function ::: Examine the basic assumptions ::: Focus ::: Challenge ::: Expand ::: Contract ::: Show evidence ::: The DPA rating ::: Spell it out ::: Information available and information required ::: Satisfy and define ::: If-box maps ::: Action-channels ::: If-boxes ::: Needed item ::: Problem solution ::: Search ::: Response ::: Circumstance ::: Protective ::: Constructing if-box maps ::: Action structure for opportunity ::: Channels of effort ::: Delegation ::: Fashions, trends and bandwagons ::: Tapping existing energy ::: Trigger ::: Amplification ::: Positive feedback ::: Contact channels ::: Dealing with risk and uncertainty ::: Sensitivity ::: Cycles ::: Self-#fulfilling ::: Observation ::: Analysis ::: Recognition ::: Comparison ::: Hunch ::: Trends ::: Market research ::: Test runs ::: Extrapolation ::: Feasibility study ::: Spell it out ::: Wide targets, narrow targets and nearby targets ::: Degree of innovation ::: Cumulative effects ::: Risk and reward ::: Evaluation ::: Spell out the benefits ::: Approval and rejection ::: Benefits ::: What are the benefits? ::: How do the benefits arise? ::: How large are the benefits? ::: On what do the benefits depend? ::: In what way may the benefits fall short of expectation? ::: What are the assumptions? ::: What problems are likely to be met? ::: Example ::: The time profile ::: Goodness of fit ::: Does the opportunity fit the type of manager we have? ::: Does the opportunity fit our cash-flow situation? ::: Does the opportunity fit our market strengths? ::: Does the opportunity fit production and research facilities? ::: Does the opportunity fit our style of thinking? ::: Investment ::: Test-beds ::: Cut-offs ::: Target cut-off ::: Cost cut-off ::: Time cut-off ::: Test response cut-off ::: Disaster cut-off ::: Review cut-off ::: Difficulties ::: Scenario ::: Excellent ::: Moderate ::: Poor ::: Disaster ::: Comparison ::: Pre-definition ::: Individual assessment ::: Comparison ::: Value ::: Summary of Terms ::: Hindsight ::: Lateral thinking ::: Important and urgent ::: Technology-push innovation ::: Market-pull innovation ::: Minding the store ::: Reactive and projective thinking ::: Problem-solving and problem-finding ::: Blocked by openness ::: The problem of no problem ::: Train-driver-style executive ::: Doctor-style executive ::: The farmer-style executive ::: The fisherman-style executive ::: An opportunity-negative structure ::: Riding the cycle ::: Opportunity war ::: Escape benefits and achievement benefits ::: Break-off point ::: The opportunity dilemma ::: Idea-sensitive area (i.s.a.) ::: Sticking point ::: Provocation ::: Po ::: Moving-in and moving-out ::: Intrinsic assets ::: Operating assets ::: Situation assets ::: Left behind ::: Synergy ::: Variable value ::: 'De-averaging' ::: Me-too ::: The 'something' method ::: Upstream problem avoidance ::: 'The same as' ::: Function extraction ::: PMI ::: Stepping stone ::: Tailoring an idea ::: DPA rating ::: Spell it out ::: FI-FO ::: If-box map ::: Action channel ::: If-box ::: Wide targets, narrow targets and nearby targets ::: Time profile ::: Goodness of fit ::: Cut-off ::: Scenario ::: Best-case and worst-case ::: The opportunity search exercise (Opex) ::: Opportunity Audit ::: Opportunity Manager ::: Opportunity Team ::: Opportunity Task Force ::: Opportunity space ::: General opportunities ::: Specific opportunity objective ::: Read More in Penguin
Questions (attention directing tools) ::: 78 Important Questions contents page ::: Amazon ::: Contents ::: Preface ::: How to Use This Book ::: A Warning ::: Acknowledgments ::: Introduction: Answers. You Want Answers ::: The Power and Problem of Why? ::: 1 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Themselves ::: 1. What does leadership mean? ::: 2. How do you feel about being a leader? ::: 3. What do you want to be remembered for? ::: 4. Are you happy ::: 5. What are you afraid of ::: 6. Are you sure you want to ask questions? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter One Worksheet ::: 2 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Customers ::: 7. Why do you do business with us? ::: 8. Why do you do business with our competition? ::: 9. How and when have we made it hard for you to do business with us? ::: 10. What will you need from us in the future? ::: 11. If you were me, what's one thing you'd change about my organization? ::: 12. How can we effectively tell you that we're grateful for your business? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Two Worksheet ::: 3 Questions Leaders Need to Ask Employees About the Business ::: 13. How do we make money? ::: 14. How does your work contribute to our success? ::: 15. How could we save money? ::: 16. How could you make your job more effective? ::: 17. What's the most important thing you know about our customers? ::: 18. What's something we could offer to our customers? ::: 19. Who do you see as our competition, and what do you know about them? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Three Worksheet ::: 4 Deeper Questions Leaders Need to Ask Employees ::: 20. What gets in the way of your doing your job? ::: 21. What does our leadership team do that gets in the way of your doing your job? ::: 22. What's a recent management decision you didn't understand? ::: 23. How could we communicate management decisions more effectively? ::: 24. If you could change one thing about our organization's collective behavior, what would it be? ::: 25. What's a potential benefit we could offer that would be helpful to you? ::: 26. What is it like to work on a team in our organization? ::: 27. How do you feel at the start of your workweek? ::: 28. How do you feel at the end of your workweek? ::: 29. What volunteer work do you do? ::: 30. What makes you proud of working as a part of our organization? ::: 31. What's something you've learned in the past week? ::: 32. What brings you joy in your work? ::: 33. What do you do just for the fun of it? ::: 34. What gives your life meaning? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Four Worksheet ::: 5 Questions to Ask in Special Situations ::: Questions for New Employees ::: 35. Why did you decide to join our firm really? ::: 36. If you had to describe our organization in one word, what would that word be? ::: 37. What's a great question I could ask someone who's new to our organization? ::: 38. What questions can I answer for you? ::: Questions for Coaching and Mentoring Sessions .... ::: 39. What are the strengths you bring to the workplace?. ::: 40. What skills do you need to learn? ::: 41. What skills do you need to practice? ::: 42. Who in our organization do you need to know? .. ::: 43. What work would you like to be doing in five years? ::: Questions for Newly Promoted Leaders ::: 44. Why do you think we made you a leader? ::: 45. What did the best leader you ever had do? ::: 46. What do you need to learn to be a great leader? . . ::: 47. How can we support you as you grow into this leadership position? ::: Questions During a Crisis ::: 48. Are you all right? ::: 49. What do you need to know? ::: 50.What do you need? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Five Worksheet ::: 6 Questions Leaders Need to Answer ::: 51. What do you see happening in our organization over the next twelve months? ::: 52. What is the future of our industry? ::: 53. What gets you excited about the future? ::: 54. How do you learn about our customers? ::: 55. How do you know what I do in my job? ::: 56. How can I advance in our organization? ::: 57. How do you make decisions? ::: 58. How do you take time to think? ::: 59. What makes you angry in the workplace? ::: 60. How do you measure success? ::: 61. What are you learning? ::: 62. How do you stay positive? ::: 63. How do you re-ignite your enthusiasm for your job? ::: 64. What do you love about your job? ::: 65. What do you do just for fun? ::: 66. What gives your life meaning? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Six Worksheet ::: 7 Answers for Special Situations ::: During a Business Crisis ::: 67. What's happening? ::: 68. What's going to happen next? ::: 69. What's going to happen to me? ::: 70. Am I going to have a job next month? ::: 71. What's the long-term impact of this crisis ::: During a Merger or Acquisition ::: 72-73. What's going to change? What's going to happen to my job? ::: 74. Who will be my leader? ::: 75. Will our values last? ::: During the Personal Crisis of an Employee ::: 76-78. What will the organization do to support me? What are my benefits? What will this mean for my career? ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Seven Worksheet ::: 8 Delivering Tough Answers ::: Answering when the answer is I don't know ::: Answering when the answer is No ::: Answering when there isn't an answer ::: Answering when you can't answer ::: Answering when no one wants to hear the answer ::: Answering a question that's just too personal ::: What Did You Learn? ::: Chapter Eight Worksheet ::: Conclusion: Some Final Questions ::: Appendix: Good Questions From Other Leaders ::: What's the risk of doing nothing? ::: Does what you are doing make you and the organization grow? ::: What ideas do you have? ::: What if none of this works? What next? ::: How do we WOW this customer? ::: What difference will you make for the organization today? ::: How do you face disappointment with grace? ::: How will we know when it is enough? ::: How can you ensure that this plan will be effective? ::: How can we make a change for the better of the business? ::: If you owned the company, would you do it the way you are proposing? ::: What do you think? ::: Do you honestly have the time to put this new task on your calendar? ::: What should I do to make sure you've got no worries on this project? ::: What support do you need from me to make that happen? ::: Do you think the culture of an organization can be changed by one individual? Why or why not? ::: How are you doing today? ::: What is it that we want to accomplish in the long run? ::: I know it can be done... but should it be done? ::: What's the new learning here? ::: Suppose you owned the situation, what steps would you take? ::: How did you get into this profession? ::: Why have we always done it this way? ::: How can I be part of the solution, not part of the problem? ::: What can I do to make myself more valuable to the company? ::: Can you give me specific feedback on how I can be a better leader for our organization? ::: If you could make one decision that would put this organization on a more positive course, what would it be? ::: What is your true passion? ::: What are the greatest needs and challenges facing your customers? ::: What are you taking time to do these days? ::: Is there a better way to do this? ::: How can I make a difference to the team? ::: What have you done today to develop your leadership skills? ::: Does this meet the highest standards of quality? ::: Do we all have the same sense of purpose and understanding of the desired outcomes? ::: What about your job inspires you to help a customer? ::: What went wrong? ::: What questions should we be asking our customers? ::: Why? ::: Suggested Reading List ::: Index
Simplicity contents page ::: Amazon ::: The Ten Rules of Simplicity ::: To get simplicity you have to want to get it ::: Rule 1. You need to put a very high value on simplicity ::: Rule 2. You must be determined to seek simplicity ::: Simplicity has to be designed ::: Rule 3. You need to understand the matter very well ::: Rule 4. You need to design alternatives and possibilities ::: Rule 5. You need to challenge and discard existing elements ::: Modify if you can — start afresh if you cannot ::: Rule 6. You need to be prepared to start over again ::: Rule 7. You need to use concepts ::: Rule 8. You may need to break things down into smaller units ::: If simplicity is a real value then you must be prepared to trade off other real values in order to gain simplicity ::: Rule 9. You need to be prepared to trade off other values for simplicity ::: Rule 10. You need to know for whose sake the simplicity is being designed ::: Complexity harms everyone ::: In an increasingly complex world ‘simplicity’ is becoming one of the four key values ::: Almost everyone sees a value in simplicity ::: 1 Simplicity: What Use, Value, Need. Why better ::: Simplicity is not natural ::: 2 Simplicity: The challenge, search, effort, urge. Investing in ::: If simplicity has such a high value ::: 3 Simplicity: Love, hate, upset. Simplistic. Over-simplification. Why You Have to Know Your Subject Very Well ::: Why shouldn’t language be living and changing all the time? ::: 4 Simplifying Simplify and Simplification ::: New Suggestion ::: 5 How to: Make things simpler, Simplifym 'Simp' ::: Overview of Methods, Techniques and Approaches ::: A metaphor provides a physical model ::: 6 Tree metaphor ::: A Way of Looking at Things ::: Cooking is made up of ways of cooking. ::: 7 Three methods of simping ::: A mountain top can be reached by various routes ::: 8 Three More Ways to Work towards Simplicity ::: A carpenter can use all the tools of carpentry but at any one moment uses the tool that seems appropriate for the situation ::: 9 More Approaches: Restructuring, Start Afresh, Modules and Smaller Units ::: With a ‘provocation’ there may not be a reason for saying something until after it has been said ::: 10 Further Approaches: Provocative Amputation ::: Wishful Thinking ::: Shift Energies ::: It is possible to work with detail or to work with a very broad approach ::: 11 The Last Two Approaches: Ladder and Flavor ::: Electricity is generally useful but may be dangerous ::: 12 The Dangers of Simplicity ::: 13 Simple Notes on Everyday Simplicity ::: 14 The Simple Life ::: Some rules do not have to be obeyed — but it is useful to keep them in mind ::: 15 The Ten Rules of Simplicity ::: Complexity harms everyone
Six Thinking Hats contents page ::: Amazon ::: Title page ::: Info page ::: Table of contents ::: Preface ::: Impact ::: Widespread Use Around the World ::: The Six Hats Method ::: Special Note on the Black Hat ::: Notes on the New Edition ::: Introduction ::: Argument versus Parallel Thinking ::: A Changing World ::: What Is Parallel Thinking? ::: Directions and Hats ::: Directions Not Descriptions ::: Not Categories of People ::: Note on Using the Thinking Hats ::: Showing Off ::: Playing the Game ::: Results ::: Power ::: Time Saving ::: Removal of Ego ::: One Thing at a Time ::: Six Hats, Six Colors ::: White Hat ::: Red Hat ::: Black Hat ::: Yellow Hat ::: Green Hat ::: Blue Hat ::: Three pairs of hats ::: In practice refer to color, not function ::: For those who haven't read the book ::: Using the Hats ::: Single Use ::: Sequence Use ::: Discipline ::: Timing ::: Guidelines ::: Group and Individual ::: Individuals in Groups ::: The White Hat ::: Facts and Figures ::: Whose Fact Is It? ::: Japanese-Style Input ::: Thinking Facts, Truth and Philosophers ::: Who Puts on the Hat? ::: Summary ::: The Red Hat ::: Emotions and Feelings ::: The Place of Emotions in Thinking ::: Intuition and Hunches ::: Moment to Moment ::: The Use of Emotions ::: The Language of Emotions ::: Summary ::: The Black Hat ::: Cautious and Careful ::: Content and Process ::: The Past and the Future ::: The Problem of Overuse ::: Summary ::: The Yellow Hat ::: Speculative-Positive ::: The Positive Spectrum ::: Reasons and Logical Support ::: Constructive Thinking ::: Speculation ::: Relation to Creativity ::: Summary ::: The Green Hat ::: Creative Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Movement Instead of Judgement ::: The Need for Provocation ::: Alternatives ::: Personality and Skill ::: What Happens to the Ideas? ::: Summary ::: The Blue Hat ::: Control of Thinking ::: Focus ::: Program Design ::: Summaries and Conclusions ::: Control and Monitoring ::: Summary ::: Benefits of the Six Hats Method ::: Special Techniques ::: Not Surprising ::: Conclusion
Six Action Shoes contents page ::: Amazon ::: A brilliant new way to take control of any business or life situation ::: Author’s note: Thinking and Action ::: Think and then take action ::: Supermarket ::: Think about something to buy ::: Then you buy it ::: Company ::: Plan a new strategy ::: Implement the strategy ::: Often we assume that action is easy and obvious ::: That thinking lays out the roads and decides which road is to be taken ::: That action is simple as walking along the correct road ::: It’s not that easy ::: The direct teaching of thinking ::: Education is too often about description and analysis ::: The real world involves action as well as knowledge ::: Operacy is just as important as literacy and numeracy ::: Has to do with operations ::: Six action shoes helps ::: In the training of action skills ::: In the use of those skills at the moment of action ::: Specific guidance about the action that needs to be taken ::: Choose your action style to fit the needs of the occasion ::: Introduction ::: About the six HAT method ::: The six hat method has been widely accepted because it is simple, it is practical, and it works. ::: Attributes ::: Simple ::: Practical ::: Works ::: It actually changes how thinking takes place in meetings and elsewhere: ::: instead of the usual to and fro arguments it makes it possible for people to have constructive discussions ::: All people at a meeting can use a hat of a particular color for a few moments at a time ::: Changes how thinking takes place in meeting and elsewhere ::: Constructive discussion ::: The hats involve participants in a type of mental role playing ::: White hat: An objective look at data and information ::: Red hat: Legitimizes feelings, hunches, and intuition ::: Black hat: Logical negative, judgment, and caution ::: Yellow hat: Logical positive, feasibility, and benefits ::: Green hat: New ideas and creative thinking ::: Blue hat: Control of the thinking process ::: It works because it sets the rules of the game, and people then can be asked to play the game ::: People feel foolish if they don't seem to be able to follow the rules ::: Here are some of the benefits of the method ::: Is simple to learn and use and has an immediate appeal. The visualization of the hats and the colors helps ::: Makes time available for deliberate creative effort. You can ask for "three minutes of green hat thinking." ::: Allows the legitimate expression of feelings and intuition in a meeting-without apology or justification: "This is my feeling." ::: Allows an "unbinding" of thinking so that each mode gets full attention. It avoids the confusion of trying to do everything at once ::: Provides a simple and direct way of switching thinking without causing offense: "What about some yellow hat thinking here?" ::: Requires all thinkers to be able to use each of the hats instead of sticking to only one type of thinking. ::: Separates ego from performance in thinking. Frees able minds to examine a subject more fully. ::: Provides a practical method for using the different aspects of thinking in the best possible sequence ::: Gets away from to and fro arguments and allows parties to collaborate on constructive exploration ::: Makes for much more productive meetings ::: Exploring the subject ::: The hats are most effective in occasional use ::: using one hat at a time ::: in order to obtain a certain type of thinking ::: When there is need to explore a subject fully and effectively ::: a sequence of hats may be put together ::: and then each hat used in turn ::: Advantages ::: Simple ::: Easy to learn ::: It does work ::: The six pair of action shoes follows directly from the six hat frame work ::: Six pairs of action shoes ::: Introduction ::: Occasionally, thinking is an end in itself ::: Usually the purpose of thinking is to choose or design a course of action ::: Sometimes there is a distinct thinking phase and then an action phase ::: At other times thinking and action are intertwined ::: Shoes imply action ::: Shoes, like action, are for reaching a destination ::: Situations require different styles of action ::: The perfect person ::: Knowing how to act appropriately in any type of situation ::: There seem to be two traditional approaches to this problem ::: Method 1: Establish rigid codes of behavior and expect people to learn these codes and follow them without deviation ::: Method 2: Establish general guiding principles, and then allow people to design their own actions around these principles ::: Six styles of action ::: Introduction ::: Ask what type of action is required here? ::: Put on the appropriate action shoes, and behave in that style ::: The feel of a situation ::: The feel of a situation is all important ::: Based on experience ::: Also on perception ::: The mind ::: Sees what it is prepared to see ::: Notices what it is ready to notice ::: Works as a self-organizing system ::: Information arranges itself into patterns ::: Once the patters are there then we see the world through these patterns ::: Six action shoes provide a framework ::: Become familiar with different types of situations ::: Then use this familiarity to react suitably in similar situations ::: Two shoes in a pair ::: Have to respond to a particular situation without pretending that it is something that we would like it to be ::: Situations are rarely pure ::: Often require a combination of 2 types of shoes ::: 15 possible combinations ::: Color for the shoes ::: Must differ from the hats. To avoid confusion ::: Must suggest the nature of the mode ::: Physical nature of the shoes ::: Visualizing the action shoes, in color and shape, is an important part of the learning process ::: The shoes ::: Overview ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Routines and formal procedures ::: Grey sneakers ::: Exploration, investigation, and collection of evidence ::: Purpose of the action is to get information ::: Brown brogues ::: Involves practically and pragmatism ::: Do what is sensible and what is practical ::: Figure it out as you go using initiative, practical behavior, and flexibility ::: Almost the opposite of the formality navy formal shoes ::: Orange gumboots ::: Danger and emergency ::: Emergency action is required ::: Safety is a prime concern ::: Pink slippers ::: Suggest care, compassion, and attention to human feelings and sensitivities ::: Purple riding boots ::: Suggest authority ::: Playing out the role give by virtue of a position or authority ::: There is an element of leadership and command ::: The person is not acting in his or her own capacity but in an official role. ::: Once the framework has been learned and visualized, then there is not need to repeat the whole description of the action mode each time: ::: The shoes in detail ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Introduction ::: Sometimes routines help us to avoid making dangerous mistakes ::: It is easier to use a routine checklist that to figure everything out each time ::: Examples ::: Airlines ::: Doctors ::: Hotel check-in ::: Arrest ::: The need for rules, laws, procedures, and routines ::: Otherwise chaos and confusion ::: A stifling bureaucracy sometimes seems to exist solely to keep itself in existence ::: The overuse of routines may be a bad thing ::: Freedom of routines ::: In some ways routines provide freedom ::: If we had to think about every action we take ::: Then life would be very slow and very complicated ::: About the brain ::: The nature of perception ::: Occasionally we need to challenge these perceptions ::: That is what we call creativity ::: But most of the time having these routine perceptions makes life possible ::: Some people feel all routines and structures are restricting ::: Want to be free of structures ::: Want to use their own initiative ::: Even … are restrictive ::: The framework of the six hats and six action shoes ::: The deliberate technique of lateral thinking ::: The don’t realize the difference between restrictive structures and liberating structures ::: Examples ::: We need to keep a balanced view of structures and routines ::: We should not overlook their value ::: just because abuses of routine can be restrictive ::: Source of routines ::: May gradually evolve and accumulate over time ::: Examples ::: Weddings ::: Good manners ::: Those associated with a craft ::: Sometimes tempted to keep routines only for tradition’s sake ::: Some routines are set up by organizations just like laws are set up by society ::: Help avoid errors ::: Allow interaction between people ::: Represent crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: Such routine can be improved or even dropped ::: But at time we want and need to use them ::: Routines that individuals set up for themselves ::: They can have high use if they simplify life ::: Instead of working things out each time, just switch into the routine — navy formal shoes ::: What should routines be like? ::: Criteria ::: Should cover many situations ::: Should be easy to recognize when a particular routine needs to be used ::: Applying a routine should be straightforward ::: The steps should be clear ::: The steps should follow one another ::: The routine should be robust ::: The purpose of the routine is achieved even if the steps are not carried out exactly as prescribed ::: Routines should be flexible enough to cope with special circumstances ::: Routines should be easy to learn and remember ::: Routines should make sense of those who use them. Their logic and value should be apparent ::: Routines must avoid doubt and confusion ::: Designing routines takes skill ::: A routine should always be a little bit artificial ::: For example, because if it is too natural, then it is easy to forget that it is a routine ::: The use of routines ::: Some basic questions ::: Which routine should be used here? ::: What are the steps of this routine? ::: Is it necessary to combine routines ::: Is some flexibility necessary? ::: Where can the flexibility be used? ::: Can this routine be improved? ::: Can I check the application of this routine? ::: What output or result do I expect? ::: The better the routine is known, the less trouble there is in using that routine ::: Navy shoe action mode and exercises ::: Quotations ::: Navy formal shoes requires the carrying through of established routines ::: The action focus in on … ::: choosing the appropriate routine ::: then carrying it through meticulously ::: Focus on the step that is being taken ::: And think of the following step ::: Keep checking that the routine is being done properly ::: The navy shoe action mode can also include establishing formal routines where these would have a value ::: Exercises ::: Nave shoe action style ::: Precisely using formal routines ::: Adhering to formality and procedure ::: Taking the laid down steps one after the other ::: Acknowledging that the routine has a value and purpose ::: Instead of going through the routine mindlessly just because you have to ::: There is a sense that the routine is the best action plan of the moment ::: And that this action plan is being followed ::: You may ask a person to switch into the navy shoe action mode ::: People may decide for themselves that the situation demands the navy shoe action mode ::: In the framework of the six styles of action the navy shoe action mode has its rightful place ::: Quite often the best action is routine action ::: Sometimes routine action is absolutely necessary ::: Just as you would wish to carry out a dance routine effectively or to sing in tune, so you might desire to carry out a routine perfectly ::: Summary of navy formal shoes ::: Emphasizes formality and routines ::: Such as drills and routines of the navy ::: At times routines are essential to ensure safety and avoid error ::: Routines can represent a crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: Using routines can free up our thinking so that we can tackle other matters ::: But their overuse can stifle initiative and restrict flexibility ::: This does not make routines a bad thing ::: But cautions against excessive use of what is a good thing ::: A routine is an action pattern ::: that has been laid down in advance ::: Once the appropriate routine has been selected, then action consists in fully carrying through this routine ::: Grey Sneakers ::: Introduction ::: We need to know why there has been this increase in absenteeism. ::: Before we take any other type of action we need some grey sneaker action. ::: Let's get more information." ::: "We are investigating it. ::: We are still in grey action mode. ::: We'll let you know as soon as we have anything." ::: "Just find out all you can. ::: Limit yourself to grey sneaker mode. ::: Be as inconspicuous as possible. ::: Remember just the grey mode. ::: No heroics." ::: Sneakers are quiet, and you can pad around in them without being noticed. ::: In a sense, in grey shoe action mode the person is sneaking around, listening, and exploring. ::: The style is casual, relaxed, and quiet. ::: There is no desire to be noticed or even to affect other people. ::: In a grey mist and fog you cannot see clearly to find your way around. ::: All your energy is directed at getting information from the surroundings. ::: In the same way grey action mode implies removing the fog of ignorance. ::: We want to obtain as much information as possible. ::: Grey also suggests the grey matter of the brain, as in the colloquial, "Use your grey matter." ::: So the grey action mode includes both collecting information and also thinking. ::: When in the grey action mode, a person may use any aids to thinking that he or she wishes, such as the six thinking hats. ::: In the navy action mode you know exactly the next step that has to be taken because you are following a known routine. ::: In the grey action mode you are exploring, but you do not know what you are going to find. ::: What you find determines your next step. ::: If a clue turns up, then you follow that clue. ::: In the navy action mode you are reciting a poem you know by heart. ::: In the grey action mode you are conducting a conversation that may turn in any direction. ::: Note that the grey action mode includes all the activities that are necessary in order to obtain the information. ::: If the information is in a particular library, then tracking it down is part of the grey sneaker action mode. ::: It is not just a sit-and-think mode. ::: Scientists pursuing a theory, ::: investigating journalists, ::: detectives solving a crime, ::: market researchers trying to assess response to a new product, ::: pollsters, ::: investment bankers contemplating a takeover, and ::: tax inspectors are all using the grey action mode. ::: Perhaps the purest case of grey action mode would be the investigation of a computer fraud. ::: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, mainly involved himself in grey sneaker action. ::: In the end the criminal usually confessed, thereby removing the need for more vigorous action. ::: Today's television dramas allow less room for grey action mode and tend to emphasize orange and brown action modes. ::: The grey action mode can interplay with other action modes as information gathered reveals the need for other types of action. ::: Quite often there may be a pause in other types of action until you get the information that you need to go forward. ::: As with all the other action modes there is often an overlap of needs, and an action rarely consists of only one action mode. ::: The Use of Investigation ::: You need to investigate when you have no idea as to what is going on. ::: You're fishing. ::: You're looking for leads. ::: You want some basis on which to build a hypothesis. ::: A scientist, an archaeologist, a searcher for oil, and a detective are often in this sort of position. ::: There is a leak of sensitive information from a government department. ::: Where do you start looking? ::: When a patient first visits a doctor, the doctor has to search for clues. ::: The doctor may indeed use some fixed routine for eliciting information—a combination of navy and grey shoe action. ::: When a doctor forms an idea, then this hypothesis can be checked out by means of tests. ::: So the first use of investigation is to make a start. ::: The mind can see only what it is prepared to see. ::: That is why a hypothesis is so useful. ::: Using the framework of the hypothesis you can start to notice things you would not otherwise have noticed. ::: The hypothesis also provides a direction in which to look for further information. ::: The second use of information therefore is to confirm or reject hypotheses. ::: In theory scientists should seek to destroy an hypothesis, but they first need something to destroy, so they attempt to confirm the hypothesis as theory. ::: This second use of investigation is the checking-out phase. ::: Choices often have to be made. ::: You may need to choose between two possible hypotheses or two courses of action. ::: You need information to make choices of any sort. ::: A person buying a new stove wants to get as much information as possible, not only from the vendor but from existing users of that brand of stove. ::: You need information to build a case. ::: A prosecutor wants the detective to provide enough information to get a conviction. ::: The designer of a new product wants as much information as possible about how the product will be perceived by the designated market. ::: The information may not reach the level of certainty of proof, but the information must build a reasonable case. ::: You need information when looking into the future. ::: You need to see the #consequences of action—and also of inaction. ::: Today ecologists and green groups paint horrific scenarios about the greenhouse and other effects. ::: You need information to assess the seriousness of the danger. ::: Information about future possibilities gives a good basis for action. ::: Sometimes you need to know what you don't know. ::: You need to identify exactly what you don't know. ::: Thinking, Ideas, and Information ::: Thinking is involved in collecting information and making the maximum use of that information. ::: Information may trigger ideas, which may trigger an information search. ::: Information does not easily yield up all the ideas that are present in that information. ::: The mind has to put things together in different ways—to generate possibilities and even provocations. ::: Sometimes there is information which everyone has looked at in a particular way. ::: Then someone comes along and uses lateral thinking to look at information in a different way and reaches a new hypothesis about it. ::: It is a mistake to believe that collecting enough information will do all our thinking for us. ::: Information is not a substitute for ideas and thinking. ::: On the other hand, there is a real need for information. ::: The key is to sustain an active interplay between thinking and information collecting. ::: Thinking directs information collecting and also makes the best use of what has been collected. ::: At the same time information may suggest ideas, confirm some ideas, and lead to the rejection of others. ::: Use of the Grey Sneaker Action Mode ::: "Right now we are all in the grey sneaker action mode. We have to find out what our competitors are planning to do. That has to come first." ::: "Why are you trying to solve the problem in that way? Have you given it some grey action mode, or are you just doing the first thing that comes to mind?" ::: "We have only got half a story here. Get out there, put on your grey sneakers, and get the other half. Then we can publish it." ::: "How much is it all going to cost? Have you completed your grey actions on this?" ::: "He is always jumping to conclusions. He never checks things out. I don't think he likes the grey action mode. Perhaps it is too quiet for him. He prefers strong action." ::: "I congratulate you. That's very good grey sneaker action. That was a smart piece of investigation. It is going to save us a lot of time and money." ::: "How is it that those two scientists could show the effect but no one else has been able to?? What is going on? Did they cheat? Did they make an honest mistake? Did they just do things in a different way? There is a great need for some grey sneaker action." ::: Motivation for Grey Sneaker Action ::: What is the motivation for investigation and exploration? ::: Investigation may be a large part of your job as a scientist, detective, explorer, or spy. ::: Even so, some people satisfy the minimal requirements of such jobs, and some actually enjoy exploration. ::: Some people have a natural curiosity and a fascination with information. ::: They want to know things. ::: Other people may not have this curiosity but instead have an urgency to complete a task once the task has been started. ::: Such people may be slow to start grey sneaker action, but once started they are carried along by the momentum of what they are discovering. ::: Like the proverbial terrier, they cannot let go. ::: Other people want only certainties. ::: They are irritated by ambiguities and uncertainties. ::: They want everything to be neat and defined. ::: Such people are apt to switch into certainties and beliefs as soon as possible. ::: They quickly become dogmatic and move rapidly from possibility to certainty without any proper justification. ::: What is a belief? ::: A belief is an idea, a hypothesis, a theory, or a way of looking at the world which forces us to look at the world in a way that supports that belief. ::: The classic example is paranoia. ::: Paranoid people use complicated logic to show that all events are directed toward themselves. ::: Unlike some other types of mental illness in paranoia there is no lack of organization of information but a type of excess of organization. ::: Everything is fitted together into one master theory. ::: In an investigation this type of person rushes to generate an idea or hypothesis. ::: All further investigation is designed to fit that hypothesis, which soon becomes a belief—which must be true. ::: Anything that does not fit is ignored or changed so that it does fit. ::: Objective exploration ceases. ::: As a lawyer in court makes and argues a particular case, so does the investigator. ::: This is dangerous grey shoe action. ::: The best preventative for this premature closing of the mind is to insist that in grey shoe action at least two hypotheses are kept in mind and that the investigator should be able to make a reasonable case for both of them at any time. ::: The premature acceptance of a theory also causes trouble in science. ::: An early reasonable hypothesis causes scientists to look at the world in a particular way and then ignore evidence that does not fit the hypothesis. ::: All evidence is seen through this hypothesis. ::: It can take a long time for a breakthrough to break through even though the evidence was there all along. ::: What Should Investigation Be Like? ::: A formal collection of information can take the form of house-to-house inquiries in a murder hunt. ::: A scientist tests many possible variations of a chemical molecule. ::: A pollster defines a sample and steadily works through it. ::: This is navy type action used for grey purposes. ::: The data should be neutral and objective even though eventually they are looked at through the window of an idea. ::: Having more than one person involved in collecting the data reduces the personal bias of an individual. ::: This type of data collection is driven by a systematic method. ::: The other type of data collection is driven by a hunch or theory that hypothesizes what data to look for and where to find it. ::: It requires a conscious effort by the grey sneaker operator to make a clear distinction between a theory that helps data collection and data collection that simply supports the theory. ::: There may be a need for a second person to show that the same data can indeed be looked at in a different way. ::: There can also be the habit, suggested earlier, of always having at least two theories or hypotheses in mind. ::: There is no easy way around the dilemma that without a theory it may be difficult even to collect data but that the theory may so dominate the data collection that it is no longer neutral or comprehensive. ::: Instead of pretending that people can be objective it may be better to acknowledge that the mind cannot really be objective and then to take steps to address that lack of objectivity (like the habit of twin hypotheses). ::: Investigation Leads to Action ::: Navy shoe formality may be involved in collecting data, and that may lead to grey shoe activity. ::: This in turn may lead to brown shoe (or other) action. ::: Investigation itself is a form of action, but at some point grey shoe action gives way to other forms of action and activity. ::: A scientist moves from data to theory to experiment to data to publication of a paper. ::: A detective collects evidence to build a case, which is passed to the prosecutor, who then presents the case in court. ::: In between comes the arrest of the person to be charged. ::: A market researcher takes action to collect information, which is then passed to the client, who decides what action to take. ::: An interplay occurs between the collection of information and the action that is going to be taken as a result of that information. ::: The key question for the grey shoe operator to ask is, "At this moment what is the central purpose of my activity-to collect information?" ::: If the answer to that question is yes, then grey sneaker action is called for. ::: The movement from information collection to action depends on several factors: ::: What is the time pressure? ::: Is there a hurry? ::: Will delay have negative #consequences? ::: What are the dangers of precipitate action? ::: What are the benefits of quick action? ::: What is the trade-off between more thorough data collection and the need for action? ::: If a criminal suspect is preparing to flee the country, further collection of evidence may make a better case, but there would be no suspect to try. ::: In some cases spending twice as much money and time in collecting data produces a benefit that is only 10 percent better. ::: That may not be a worthwhile investment if the information is for a market survey. ::: In other fields the extra information might be vital: in medicine one additional test may make the difference between recommending and not recommending a procedure. ::: Some ways of collecting information are more effective than others. ::: One way may take a long time and cost a great deal of money; another way make be quicker and cheaper. ::: The collection of data is an activity like any other and can be improved through careful and creative thinking. ::: It is not often that data must be collected regardless of cost. ::: Information is a product like any other. ::: What is the best way of producing that product? ::: The careful design of data collection is as important as the use of the data. ::: Carrying Through Grey Sneaker Action and Exercises ::: The data collector must be absolutely clear that at the moment he or she is in grey sneaker mode. ::: Information collection requires full concentration and must take precedence over other matters. ::: The casual and incidental collection of information does have a high value, but with grey sneaker mode the purpose of the action is direct collection of information. ::: Collecting the information is an end in itself. ::: Grey sneaker action requires effort and discipline. ::: It is easy to slip into other action modes that offer a reaction to the situation and make use of existing action habits. ::: Grey sneaker action is quiet and unobtrusive. ::: If the data collector uses an authority role (purple boot action mode), then the data provider might tell the collector only what is expected. ::: The information collector should be almost invisible. ::: That is why the color grey is so appropriate—a grey cat is always difficult to see. ::: Persistence is probably the most important characteristic needed for the grey sneaker mode. ::: If you do have persistence, then a lot else will follow. ::: If you do not have persistence, then all other qualities will amount to nothing. ::: Grey Sneaker Action Style ::: Information collection as a priority. ::: Quiet, unobtrusive, and objective. ::: Collecting information as a basis for theories and then collecting information to test the theories. ::: Asking, looking, and listening. ::: Designing ways of collecting the information. ::: Collecting information most effectively. ::: Being conscious of the value of an hypothesis and also of the danger of an hypothesis, which can reduce objectivity. ::: Grey sneaker action style also includes thinking. ::: The formal application of thinking to a chosen target area. ::: The solution of problems. ::: Making the maximum use of available information and deciding what further information may be required. ::: In general, grey sneaker action mode is absorbing information and using it. ::: Action is required to collect information, and skill is involved in deciding how to collect the information, in collecting the information, and in making the best use of it. ::: Summary ::: The grey sneaker action mode is one of the six action modes. ::: It emphasizes the collection and use of information. ::: Think of grey as indicating the grey matter of the brain because it is brain rather than muscle that is important in grey sneaker mode. ::: Think also of a grey fog or mist because the purpose of grey sneaker action is to remove the fog to make things clear. ::: The sneaker type of shoe suggests something that is casual, quiet, and unobtrusive. ::: In the grey sneaker mode the #objectives are the collection and use of information. ::: They must take precedence over everything else. ::: Information may be collected systematically where this is possible, but other times a theory or hypothesis may be needed to suggest a direction. ::: Remember that the collection of information should be as comprehensive and neutral as possible. ::: It is only in the second phase that information collection may be directed at testing a hypothesis. ::: Information collecting is a valuable activity that is the basis for many other types of action. ::: Brown brogues ::: Source Part V: Brown Brogues ::: Introduction ::: "This is brown brogue stuff. ::: Get in there and see what you can do. ::: Be sensible, be practical. ::: Work it out as you go along." ::: "I'm operating in the brown brogue mode. ::: Each step is determined by the evolving situation. ::: I have a general sense of direction, but the choice of action at any moment is purely practical." ::: "There is no fixed price. ::: You just bargain. ::: It is a sort of brown brogue way of conducting business. ::: He sets the price flexibly, and you pay flexibly." ::: "You want to be told what to do. ::: Well, I'll tell you. ::: Use the brown brogue action mode. ::: Do what is sensible and practical at every moment." ::: Brown is a practical color. ::: The earth is brown, and mud is brown. ::: There is nothing exotic about the color brown, which is basic and indeed earthy Brown is an everyday color. ::: Brogues are stout shoes capable of hard wear; they are not smart shoes for formal occasions but day-to-day shoes for most occasions. ::: All these factors contribute to what is meant by the brown brogue action mode. ::: The emphasis in brown brogue action is on practicality, pragmatism, and good sense. ::: What can be done in this situation? ::: Navy shoe action is determined by a preset routine that has to be followed. ::: Brown brogue action is determined moment to moment by the actual situation. ::: Quite often the situation falls outside established routine or training. ::: Flexibility is a key aspect of brown brogue action. ::: You change your behavior as the situation changes. ::: If you cannot do what you set out to do, you modify your objective. ::: There is no rigidity about brown brogue action. ::: You do what can be done. ::: You do what you can do. ::: Brown brogue action is low key and unspectacular. ::: There is something to be done, and you do it. ::: Good sense, common sense, and a little wisdom are required. ::: General experience can be a help, but general experience may have set up bad habits of behavior that interfere with the true flexibility required for brown brogue action. ::: Experience can trap people in routines of perception and behavior and lead to navy shoe behavior. ::: But experience also can help to prevent overreaction and provide a sense of perspective. ::: Experience can provide a sort of calmness in coping. ::: Brown brogue action is not detached and advisory but is always involved: it is "get your hands dirty" action. ::: Without thinking there would only be mindless action, but the thinking is directed to what can be done in the moment. ::: What are sometimes called street smarts come under brown brogue action. ::: The general skills of doing-for which I invented the word operacy—are best illustrated by brown brogue action. ::: Schools teach about literacy and numeracy, but in the real world operacy is just as important. ::: Knowledge does not automatically lead to action. ::: Matters like assessing priorities and guessing well are important parts of life, of operacy, and of brown brogue action. ::: When I fly short distances, I ask for a window seat because I enjoy looking at the world outside. ::: When I fly long distances, I prefer an aisle seat because it makes it easier to reach the lavatory in the middle of the night. ::: That is a sort of brown brogue action although you could argue that the window person climbing over me might wake me up. ::: On balance, it seems to make sense to me. ::: I have often suggested that airport information desks should have simple overhead projectors providing instant information that could be updated as often as required. ::: Passengers then would know when and why delays occurred instead of crowding around desks to hear announcements. ::: I have been told that the idea is too simple and that the airlines are developing a complicated electronic screen-which probably will be out of order half the time. ::: Simplicity and practicality are key features of brown brogue action. ::: The small cartons of fruit juice have been a huge success. ::: The fruit juice is the same, but the handy size and the attached straw provide great convenience. ::: Brown brogue action is concerned with what is doable and what gives value. ::: This book is being written entirely on a flight from London to Auckland, New Zealand, where I have been invited to address the meeting of the Commonwealth Law Society. ::: Why? ::: Because writing a book is by far the best way to make the time pass quickly. ::: Because it is a period of total peace when I am not going to be interrupted by phone calls or other matters. ::: Because there is nothing else that I could, or should, be doing. ::: Because being 35,000 feet up does give one a certain detachment. ::: Because I have found it better to write books like this in one go rather than a piece at a time. ::: Because I wrote another book, Six Thinking Hats, on a plane trip from London to Melbourne. ::: On that occasion I used a Canon 5 Star electronic typewriter, which meant messing around with pieces of paper. ::: This time I'm using a small Psion MC400 mobile computer, which removes the need for paper and also is quieter. ::: Brown brogue action may also include twisting your tie back to front when eating on a plane so that dropped food does not ruin the tie. ::: These are minor points of practicality. ::: Brown brogue action is not heroics but small practical things that come together to give effectiveness. ::: Chapter 23: Pragmatism ::: Some people condemn pragmatism because they believe that pragmatism seems to be a way of acting without principles. ::: Pragmatism does not mean being unprincipled: it means the pragmatic use of principles. ::: Pragmatism is when you do what can be done to achieve an objective and put as much emphasis on practicality as on principles. ::: Action without principles is dangerous and intolerable in a civilized society because principles help society control action. ::: The main objection to pragmatism is that the end might come to justify the means. ::: If offering false evidence to convict a drug dealer is acceptable because the end is worthwhile, then the door is opened to all sorts of behavior. ::: Pragmatism, however, asserts that the end cannot justify the means without leading to total chaos. ::: Much theft, for example, would be justified on the grounds of need. ::: Pragmatism is concerned with where an action might lead — with the effect or #consequences of the action — but it does not say that anything is acceptable as long as the outcome is positive. ::: Pragmatism should be contrasted with the arrogance (often based on principles) that declares, "I am sure that what I am doing is right, and I do not care what the #consequences might be." ::: Pragmatism means being sensitive to a situation, to the people involved in the situation, and to what is practical. ::: Pragmatism is the art of the possible. ::: Politicians are pragmatic people. ::: The term expediency also has a bad image. ::: Politicians are said to do things in order to gain votes even though these things may be unprincipled. ::: Buying votes with favors is an unpleasant practice, and some types of expediency are not acceptable. ::: Nevertheless, it may not be hygienic to use a dirty handkerchief to staunch a flow of blood, but if there is nothing else on hand then one urgent need overrides the danger. ::: An infection can be dealt with later. ::: Chapter 24: Effectiveness ::: In the course of my work I have met a lot of highly intelligent and creative people. ::: But what seems to be more rare than intelligence or creativity is simple effectiveness. ::: Effectiveness is very much a part of brown brogue action. ::: Brown brogue action is not just concerned with survival and getting by, even though that may sometimes be the priority. ::: Brown brogue action is concerned with getting results. ::: Efficiency and effectiveness are not at all the same thing. ::: Efficiency is a balance between input and output. ::: There is an effort to cut down on input and costs so that the ratio looks good. ::: Effectiveness means making sure that the resources are available to get the results that you want. ::: If the resources are not sufficient to allow you to do everything that you need to do, then you list priorities and go down that list as far as you can. ::: But you make sure that each item you tackle is done effectively. ::: Effectiveness does not mean inefficiency. ::: It means focusing directly on what you want to achieve rather than on the balance between input and output. ::: An efficient operation may give a poor quality output. ::: To some extent the Japanese tend to put effectiveness first, whereas the Americans tend to put efficiency first: the Americans removed all extras from cars to decrease the price, and the Japanese put in as many extras as possible to increase the value. ::: It is a good habit to ask at every step, what is the most effective course of action here? ::: That is a good brown brogue habit. ::: Chapter 25: What Is the Basis of Brown Brogue Action? ::: Brown brogue action is a combination of good values, good sense, and good principles. ::: What are good values? ::: Human respect is an example of a good value. ::: From this basic value comes an avoidance of bullying, pressure, extortion, torture, prejudice, racism, etc. ::: Human respect is a practical aspect of the love that #religions advocate. ::: You can respect an enemy even when you feel you can't love that enemy. ::: Respect acknowledges others' dignity and right to exist. ::: Being unwilling to cause harm is another basic value. ::: One of the most basic values in medicine is not to cause more harm than help: sometimes the side effects of drugs do just that. ::: Respect for the truth is another basic value and so is respect for the environment. ::: There are individual values, community values, social values, and environmental values. ::: Unless the brown brogue action is specifically directed toward doing something directly in these areas, the minimum requirement is to avoid doing harm. ::: If a person is in good standing in a community, then to destroy that standing unreasonably is causing harm to the community. ::: To arrest a person as publicly as possible causes such harm. ::: An arrested person is not yet a convicted person (that is for the courts to decide), so there is no justification for this harm. ::: Should brown brogue action attempt to create benefits or positive values as such? ::: Probably not, unless this is the specific purpose of the action. ::: A slight additional effort may be able to create such additional values, but it is usually difficult enough to achieve the main objective of the brown brogue action, and blurring one objective with another may confuse the action and make it less effective. ::: What is good sense? ::: In hindsight, everything that works out well can be attributed to common sense and any failure to lack of common sense. ::: Good sense and common sense are most easily visible in hindsight when everything has been worked out. ::: It is not unlike standing beside a roulette table when the number twenty-three comes up. ::: If you had had the good sense to put your money on number twenty-three, then you would have won a lot of money. ::: Hindsight is easy. ::: So a plea for common sense is usually pointless. ::: Good sense is a combination of sensitivity, priorities, and practicality. ::: Sensitivity means clear understanding of the situation and of the people involved. ::: This is a matter of perception and also of trying out different perceptions. ::: This sensitivity does not mean sympathy or compassion but an understanding of what is going on. ::: Establishing priorities is very much part of brown brogue action. ::: Without a good sense of priorities it is difficult to lay down the necessary action steps. ::: Priorities set objectives and guidelines for action. ::: What do you want to achieve? ::: What matters most? ::: What needs to be done first? ::: The final component of good sense is practicality. ::: This is an acknowledgment of what is actually doable. ::: You might like to do some things, but they may not be feasible. ::: What can actually be done? ::: This should not give rise to a sense of timidity and the setting of timid objectives. ::: The sense of practicality extends to a feeling of what is likely. ::: What is likely to happen? ::: How is the situation likely to evolve? ::: What is the likely reaction to an intervention? ::: To some extent this assessment of what is likely depends on experience and understanding human nature. ::: But even a simple pause to ask, "What is the most likely outcome here?" can make a significant difference. ::: It is important to distinguish between the likely and the possible. ::: There are times when the possible does indeed happen, but in general you are going to be better off aiming for the likely. ::: What are good principles? ::: That the end cannot justify the means is a basic principle. ::: A concern for the truth is both a principle and a value. ::: There are general moral principles such as these and also practical principles of action. ::: The latter might include the need to define your role, your resources, and your objectives. ::: Another practical principle is to define the action mode that you want to use. ::: Is it really brown action mode, or might it be a purple action mode? ::: Being reliable when others have to depend on you is a further important principle. ::: These guidelines for behavior in the brown brogue action mode may seem much like the guidelines for training the perfect person who acts appropriately on every occasion. ::: This is true but refers to only one of the six action modes. ::: The pragmatic nature of brown brogue action requires a double sensitivity: ::: 1. A sensitivity to the situation. ::: 2. A sensitivity to guiding principles. ::: This is the definition of pragmatic behavior. ::: The other five action modes do not have this characteristic. ::: Chapter 26: Initiative ::: Since there are no formal rules of procedure, then a person in the brown brogue action mode needs to use initiative. ::: Analyze the situation and determine priorities and objectives. ::: Behave in the most obvious and established way. ::: This depends on a personal repertoire of action steps provided by experience. ::: If the action does not work, then try another approach. ::: Always do the obvious thing first unless you are sure that surprise is important. ::: There may be a place for creativity if the value of a creative approach is high and the cost of failure low. ::: Is this the right situation in which to risk a new and untried approach? ::: Patterns of action depend on individual personalities and styles. ::: The extrovert may behave in a way that is different from the introvert. ::: No one pattern is right for everyone. ::: That is the difference between the navy action mode and the brown action mode. ::: With the navy action mode there is one routine that has to be used by everyone. ::: Brown action mode is more customized and more individualized. ::: Because brown action mode is individual, there is training value in discussing what has been done in debriefing sessions. ::: Why did you do that? ::: What did you do next? ::: In sales training colleagues quickly learn from the behavior of a master salesperson because there is a tangible measure of success (the sales volume). ::: This instant measurement of success is more difficult to find in other fields. ::: So training should include an acknowledgment of the success of the action. ::: This acknowledgment may be based on many criteria-effectiveness, speed, simplicity, low cost, low risk. ::: All these aspects need to be discussed. ::: Brown action mode does not mean having to create an action pattern from scratch on each occasion. ::: When you get up in the morning, you have a choice of clothes to wear (as distinct from having to wear a uniform). ::: So the brown action operator may choose from a range of available action patterns. ::: But the choice is up to the operator. ::: Chapter 27: Use of the Brown Brogue Action Mode ::: "There is no set way of doing this. ::: Keep your head. ::: Be practical. ::: Use the brown brogue mode. ::: Make your decisions as you go along." ::: "He's fine in routine situations. ::: A great navy action person. ::: But not so good at the brown brogue stuff. ::: He does not seem to have any common sense." ::: "We are going to put the books aside and use the brown brogue mode. ::: You know, practical and moment-to-moment action depending on what we find. ::: We have our objectives and our priorities for guides." ::: "I liked the way you used your initiative. ::: That was a very good example of brown brogue action mode. ::: You are getting pretty good at it." ::: "What do we do now? ::: I don't yet know. ::: We'll wait and see how the situation develops and then decide what to do. ::: Brown brogue stuff." ::: "I am sorry I just froze up. ::: I couldn't think of a thing to do. ::: I guess I am not very good at this brown brogue action mode." ::: "Yes, that is a reasonable plan of action. ::: You can try it, but if you find it does not work then switch to the brown brogue action mode." ::: "There are times when doing nothing at all is the correct brown brogue action mode." ::: "She is totally the wrong sort of person for that job. ::: She has no feel for situations. ::: She does not understand what is meant by pragmatism. ::: She wants to do everything by the book. ::: But the book does not cover all situations. ::: She just does not seem happy with brown brogue action." ::: Chapter 28: Source of Brown Brogue Action ::: Brown brogue action is determined in the first place by the needs of the situation. ::: What are you there for? ::: What are you trying to do? ::: What sort of situation is it? ::: Brown brogue action is, above all, responsive to the situation. ::: Brown brogue action follows a simple analysis, understanding, or appreciation of the situation. ::: What is going on? ::: How is it likely to develop? ::: What are the sensitive points in the situation? ::: What are the action points? ::: What are the needs? ::: Brown brogue action requires simple initiatives. ::: Keep things as simple as possible. ::: Do the obviousexcept in a conflict situation where surprise may have a benefit. ::: Don't try to be clever. ::: Prefer to be practical. ::: Brown brogue action draws on your experience and also the experience of others. ::: What action patterns are available to you? ::: What did you do in the past in similar situations? ::: Although brown brogue action is responsive to the situation, always try to be in control of the situation. ::: Avoid letting the situation get out of control so that you are carried along and have to respond to the initiatives of others. ::: Chapter 29: What Should Brown Brogue Action Be Like? and Exercises ::: Brown brogue action should be simple, practical, and effective. ::: There is nothing more to be said. ::: Everything is covered in those three words. ::: Use them to test any brown brogue actions: ::: • Are the actions simple enough? ::: • Are the actions practical (doable)? ::: • Are the actions likely to be effective? ::: If the answers to these three questions are not an easy yes, then think again. ::: Brown brogue action is not mindless action. ::: It includes the thinking necessary to choose suitable actions. ::: Exercises ::: For each of the following situations suggest a brown brogue course of action. ::: A father asks your advice because he suspects his son is a thief. ::: You are waiting patiently in a line when some newcomers move directly to the head of the line. ::: You are in a public meeting that is constantly interrupted by someone with a grievance who makes the same point over and over again. ::: You are in a store and notice that the man in front of you is stealing some of the merchandise. ::: At a party one of the guests gets drunk and wants to pick a fight with you. ::: A neighbor always parks her car so that it blocks the entrance to your garage. ::: When you come back late at night, you are unable to get into your garage. ::: Someone unknown is spreading false rumors that your business is in difficulties and is likely to go bankrupt. ::: You are driving a distance of fifty miles to get to an important meeting for which you cannot be late. ::: After twenty miles you hear a strange sound coming from the back of the car. ::: What do you do? ::: Chapter 30: Brown Brogue Action Style ::: The style is low key and practical. ::: You don't go in with any set plan, but you assess the situation moment to moment and act accordingly. ::: The emphasis is on practicality and effectiveness. ::: You do what is doable. ::: There is a need for a clear sense of objectives and a clear sense of priorities. ::: Within these guidelines you determine your actions. ::: Take initiatives and don't be passive. ::: Keep control of the situation. ::: Be sensitive to changes in the situation. ::: Give yourself space for action and fallback positions in case things do not work out as intended. ::: Have plans, but don't be trapped by them. ::: Be flexible: if the situation changes, then adjust to that change. ::: Keep your head and use it. ::: Pragmatism is the key aspect of brown brogue action. ::: Chapter 31: Summary ::: Think of brown earth and down to earth. ::: Think of mud and messy situations. ::: Think of the practicality of brogues, which are hard-wearing shoes suitable for most occasions. ::: The result is brown brogue action mode that is low key and practical. ::: Assess the situation, and then act on your own initiative. ::: Your actions will be guided by basic values, principles, good sense, and a feel for what is possible. ::: The emphasis is always on simplicity, practicality, and effectiveness. ::: Over time you will build up basic action patterns: pick and choose from these as the situation requires. ::: A strong sense of priorities and likelihood is useful in guiding your choice of action. ::: Be pragmatic, and be flexible. ::: Keep in control of the situation even as you adjust to it. ::: In brown brogue mode you watch and you act. ::: Introduction ::: Day-to-day shoes for most occasions ::: The emphasis is on practicality, pragmatism, and good sense ::: Action is determined moment to moment by the actual situation ::: Quite often the situation falls outside established routine or training ::: Flexibility is a key aspect ::: You change your behavior as the situation changes ::: If you cannot do what you set out to do ::: You change your objective ::: There is no rigidity ::: You do what can be done ::: You do what you can do ::: It is low key and unspectacular ::: There is something to do ::: You do it ::: Good sense, common sense, and a little wisdom are required ::: General experience ::: Can help ::: But may have set up bad habits of behavior ::: That interfere with true flexibility (that is required) ::: Can trap people in routines of … ::: perception ::: and behavior ::: Can lead to navy formal shoe behavior ::: Can help prevent overreaction ::: Can provide a sense of perspective ::: Can provide a sort of calmness in coping ::: It is “get your hands dirty” action ::: Without thinking there would only be mindless action, but the thinking is directed to what can be done in the moment ::: The general skills of doing come under brown brogue action ::: Operacy ::: Assessing priorities ::: Guessing well ::: The examples ::: The window seat ::: Plane status ::: Drink boxes ::: Writing a book while flying ::: Moving you tie when you eat ::: Brown brogue action is not heroics but small practical things that come together to give effectiveness ::: Pragmatism ::: The pragmatic use of principles ::: You do what can be done to achieve an objective and put as must emphasis on practicality as on principles ::: Action without principles is dangerous and intolerable in a civilized society because principles help society control action ::: Concerned with were an action might lead ::: With the effect or consequence of the action ::: But it does not say anything is acceptable as long as the outcome is positive ::: Should be contrasted with arrogance ::: often based on principles ::: “I am sure that what I am doing is right, and I do not care what the #consequences might be” ::: Means being sensitive to … ::: a situation ::: the people involved in the situation ::: what is practical ::: Is the art of the possible ::: Politicians are pragmatic people ::: Expediency ::: Effectiveness ::: The rareness of simple effectiveness ::: Concerned with getting results ::: The difference between efficiency and effectiveness ::: Efficiency is a balance between input and output ::: There is an effort to cut down on input and output ::: Effectiveness means making sure that the resources are available to get the results that you want ::: If the resources are not sufficient to allow you to do everything that you need to do ::: List priorities ::: Go down that list as far as you can ::: Make sure that each item you tackle is done effectively (did he mean efficiently) ::: Effectiveness means focusing directly on what you want to achieve ::: rather than the balance between input and output ::: It is a good habit to ask at every step, what is the most effective course of action here? ::: What is the basis of brown brogue action? ::: A combination of good values, good sense, and good principles ::: Good values ::: Human respect (an example) ::: Avoidance of bullying, pressure, extortion, torture, prejudice ::: A practical aspect of the love that religions advocate #religion #religions #religious ::: Unwilling to cause harm ::: Respect for the truth ::: Individual values ::: Community values ::: Social values ::: Environmental values ::: Unless the brown brogue action is specifically directed toward doing something directly is these areas the minimum requirement is to avoid doing harm ::: Should brown brogue action attempt to create benefits or positive values as such? ::: Probably not unless this is the specific purpose of the action ::: A slight additional effort may be able to create such additional values, but it is usually difficult enough to achieve the main objective of brown brogue action, and blurring one objective with another may confuse the action and make it less effective ::: Good sense ::: Combination of sensitivity, priorities, and practicality ::: Sensitivity ::: Clear understanding of the situation and of the people involved ::: This is a matter of perception and also of trying out different perceptions ::: Does not mean sympathy or compassion ::: Means an understanding of what is going on ::: Priorities ::: Establishing priorities ::: Needed to lay down the action steps ::: They set objectives and guidelines for action ::: What do we want to achieve? ::: What matters most? ::: What needs to be done first? ::: Practicality ::: An acknowledgement of what is actually doable ::: You might like to do some things, but they may not be feasible ::: What can actually be done? ::: This should not give rise to a sense of timidity and the setting of timid objectives ::: The sense of practicality extends to a feeling of what is likely ::: What is likely to happen? ::: How is the situation likely to evolve? ::: What is the likely reaction to an intervention? ::: To some extent this assessment of what is likely depends on experience and understanding human nature. ::: But even a simple pause to ask, “What is the most likely outcome here?” can make a significant difference ::: It is important to distinguish between the likely and the possible ::: There are times when the possible does indeed happen ::: But in general you are going to be better off aiming for the likely ::: Good principles ::: The end cannot justify the means is a basic principle ::: A concern for the truth is both a principle and a value ::: There are general moral principles such as these ::: And also practical principles of action ::: The need to define … ::: your role ::: your resources ::: your objectives ::: To define the action mode you want to use ::: Is it really brown brogue action? ::: Or might it be a purple action mode ::: Being reliable when others have to depend on you is a further important principle ::: These guidelines for behavior ::: May seem much like the guidelines for training the perfect person who action appropriately on every occasion ::: This is true but refers to only one of the six action modes ::: The pragmatic nature of brown brogue action requires a double sensitivity: ::: To the situation ::: To guiding principles ::: This is the definition of pragmatic behavior ::: Initiative ::: Since there are not formal rules of procedure, then a person in the brown brogue action needs to use initiative ::: Analyze the situation ::: Determine priorities and objectives ::: Behave in the most obvious and established way ::: This depends on a personal repertoire of action steps provided by experience ::: If the action does not work, then try another approach ::: Always do the obvious thing first ::: Unless you are sure that surprise is important ::: There may be a place for creativity if the value of a creative approach is high and the cost of failure low ::: Is this the right situation in which to risk a new and untried approach? ::: Patterns of action depend on individual personalities and style ::: The extrovert may behave in a way that is different from the introvert ::: No one pattern is right for everyone ::: That is the difference between the navy action mode and the brown action mode ::: Because brown action mode is individual, there is training value in discussing what has been done in debriefing sessions ::: Why did you do that? ::: What did you do next? ::: The instant measurement of success is more difficult to find in other fields ::: So training should include an acknowledgement of the success of the action ::: This acknowledgement may be based on many criteria ::: Effectiveness ::: Speed ::: Simplicity ::: Low cost ::: Low risk ::: All the aspects need to be discussed ::: Brown brogue mode does not mean having to create an action pattern from scratch on each occasion ::: When you get up in the morning ::: You have a choice of clothes to wear ::: As distinct from having to wear a uniform ::: So the brown action operator may choose from a range of available action patterns ::: But the choice is up to the operator ::: Use of brown brogue action ::: A list of quotes ::: Source of brown brogue action ::: Brown brogue action is determined in the first place by the needs of the situation ::: What are you there for? ::: What are you trying to do? ::: What sort of situation is it? ::: Brown brogue action follows a simple analysis, understanding, or appreciation of the situation ::: What is going on? ::: How is it likely to develop? ::: What are the sensitive points in the situation? ::: What are the action points? ::: What are the needs? ::: Brown brogue action requires simple initiatives ::: Keep things as simple as possible ::: Do the obvious ::: Except in a conflict situation where surprise may have a benefit ::: Don’t try to be clever ::: Prefer to be practical ::: Brown brogue action draws on your experience and also the experience of others ::: What action patterns are available to you? ::: What did you do in the past in similar situations? ::: Although brown brogue action is responsive to the situation, always try to be in control of the situation ::: Avoid letting the situation get out of control so that you are carried along and have to respond to the initiatives of others ::: What should brown brogue action be like? and Exercises ::: Brown brogue action should be simple, practical, and effective ::: Are my action simple enough? ::: Are the actions practical (doable)? ::: Are the actions likely to be effective? ::: If the answers to these three questions are not an easy yes ::: Then think again ::: Brown brogue action is not mindless action ::: It includes the thinking necessary to choose suitable actions ::: Brown brogue action style ::: Low key and practical ::: You don’t go in with any set plan ::: Assess the situation moment to moment ::: Act accordingly ::: The emphasis on practicality and effectiveness ::: You do what is doable ::: There is a need for a clear sense of objectives and a clear sense of priorities ::: With these guidelines you determine your actions ::: Take initiatives and don’t be passive ::: Keep control of the situation ::: Be sensitive to changes in the situation ::: Give yourself space for action and fallback positions in case things do not work out as intended ::: Have plans, but don’t be trapped by them ::: Be flexible ::: If the situation changes ::: Then adjust to that change ::: Keep your head and use it ::: Pragmatism is the key aspect of brown brogue action ::: Summary of brown brogue action ::: Think of brown earth and down to earth ::: Think of mud and messy situations ::: Think of the practicality of brogues ::: Mode is low key and practical ::: Assess the situation, and then act on your own initiative ::: Your actions will be guided by basic values, principles, good sense, and a feel for what is possible ::: The emphasis is always on simplicity, practicality, and effectiveness ::: Over time you will build up basic action patterns: pick and choose from these as the situation requires ::: A strong sense of priorities and likelihood is useful in guiding your choice of action ::: Be pragmatic and flexible ::: Keep in control of the situation even as you adjust to it ::: You watch and you act ::: Orange gumboots ::: Introduction ::: Once something is classified as an emergency, then priorities change ::: There are new rules for action ::: For most people these are rare situations ::: People where emergencies are a part of their daily lives ::: Police, fire fighters ::: Business crises due to financial problems or personnel problems ::: Domestic crisis ::: Any situation that threatens danger requires orange gumboot action ::: To the people within the situation ::: In a fight or an attempted suicide ::: To innocent people what are not responsible in any way for the situation ::: Flood ::: An accident involving a vehicle carrying toxic material ::: To people who are tackling problems ::: Fire fighters in a forest blaze ::: Police officers in a drug raid ::: Accidents of any sort usually require an orange gumboot response ::: Because speed is essential to … ::: save human lives ::: and limit the damage ::: We accept a degree of risk in order for society to function effectiv ::: We try to minimize risk ::: But risks do remain ::: Especially the natural disaster risks like … ::: Characteristic of emergency situations ::: Basic features ::: A danger to human life or lives is present ::: Events happen quickly ::: The situation is unstable ::: The situation is unpredictable ::: Action of some sort is required urgently ::: Someone usually can be blames in an emergency ::: When the emergency is over, some people claim that it could have been handled differently ::: Standard reaction patterns are ineffective because each situation is unique ::: Emotions are heavily activated ::: Impotence often characterizes the situation ::: Many of the about characteristics apply only to major emergencies ::: Minor emergencies are just as real as major emergencies ::: Routine of police and fire departments ::: Lack the extra pressures caused by medial and political involvement ::: Characteristics that apply to all emergencies ::: Threat of danger or harm ::: Rapid onset or quick acceleration of the situation ::: The situation is unstable ::: The situation is unpredictable ::: Action of some sort is required urgently ::: Standard reaction patterns are ineffective because each situation is unique ::: Emotions are heavily activated ::: Classification of the situation ::: The spectrum of emergency situations ::: Ranges … ::: From those that are clearly orange mode in nature ::: To others that have elements of orange mode ::: Many situations may be a mixture of orange and brown modes ::: A situation also may suddenly change into orange mode if a human life is endangered ::: Most organizations have ways of classifying and labeling major emergency situations ::: Red alert ::: Orange gumboot mode applies to a wider variety of situations ::: Because it describes not the situation but the action mode ::: Once a situation is classified as requiring orange gumboot action ::: Then the nature of the situation is set ::: and the priorities are determined ::: The basic priority is to remove, contain, or minimize the danger ::: At this point other considerations are less important ::: The focus become clear ::: What is the existing danger? ::: What are the potential dangers? ::: How can the dangers be removed, contained, or minimized? ::: Auto accident example ::: Cars may pile up ::: People may suffer unless they get medical attention quickly ::: Guidelines for orange mode action ::: Eleven guidelines ::: Assess the existing situation as accurately as possible ::: Determine what needs to be known (and how it can be found out) ::: and how it can be found out ::: Assess the potential development of the situation in terms of what is likely and what is possible ::: Assess the existing and potential dangers to the people ::: directly involved ::: innocent bystanders ::: those who intervene ::: the environment ::: property ::: Some people may wish to consider the political effects ::: Determine who needs to be involved, who is in charge, and the line of communication between the various parties involved ::: Set up methods of decision making and planning ::: Avoid actions that might make things worse ::: Decide on a strategy, but be prepared to change or modify the strategy if it is not working or if events demand a change ::: Avoid overreacting to every change and following events instead of taking the initiative ::: You may need two parallel strategies ::: One strategy may minimize and contain the danger (evacuating people in danger) ::: The second strategy may tackle the cause of the danger directly, in cases where this is possible ::: Develop and review a variety of action options ::: Some actions may not solve the crisis but may tilt the balance the right way ::: Some actions may put you in a better position if things move in a certain direction ::: Think ahead to deal with eventualities ::: Reassess the situation periodically, even when nothing new has happened ::: Reassess when there is a development or change in circumstances ::: Never panic or permit others panic ::: Panic never improves the quality of the actions of those involved ::: People who do not fully appreciate the danger in which they have been placed must be informed—but without causing panic ::: Formulate a strategy for dealing with public announcements and the media ::: This is required in certain circumstances ::: This requires direct attention and coordination among the involved ::: At times waiting it out is the best strategy ::: as in hostage situations ::: People tire and moods change ::: so waiting it out instead of taking precipitate action may be the better choice ::: In other situations ::: Waiting is not an option ::: because the situation is likely to worsen ::: It is difficult to justify inaction when things do get worse ::: At the very beginning of a crisis a spontaneous reaction might avert the crisis, but once the crisis is established, there is probably no room for spontaneity ::: Actions need to be designed, planned, and assessed ::: There is room for hunches and intuition ::: Provided these do not increase the danger ::: and provided there is a strong fallback position if the initiative fails ::: In conflict situations you may need to apply the techniques of negotiation ::: These involve … ::: Perceptions ::: Values ::: Expectations ::: and power ::: Important parts of negotiation are … ::: establishing trust and communication ::: and designing action options ::: Courage ::: Orange action modes requires courage of all sorts ::: Physical courage ::: Make a decision and follow a strategy knowing that things may not work out as hoped ::: Background courage of acting and knowing that the safety of others depends on your thinking and your actions ::: Courage (defined) ::: does not mean deliberating embracing risks ::: as in a Hollywood tough-guy movie: “I’m going in there.” ::: involves minimizing and avoiding risks ::: Entrepreneurs and risk ::: Many hated risks ::: Tried hard to have the odds stacked in their favor ::: See page 97 ::: Risk ::: The risks of any action need to be weighted against the risks of inaction ::: In some cases inaction is not very visible ::: In an emergency situation inaction is very visible as a form of action ::: 3 types of risk associated with action ::: The action will cause more harm and damage ::: This is the big danger ::: Where other people are involved ::: the other party may panic with disastrous results ::: It will fail to achieve its purpose ::: If an action can fail with … then there is little risk in trying it ::: no negative effects ::: no resetting of the situation ::: no closing off of further options ::: Fear of failure should not be a bar to action in such cases ::: “Will this make things worse if it does not succeed? ::: It will close off further options ::: Back-up and fallback positions ::: Risk is reduced if a backup position is designed to be implements should the initial operation falter ::: Sometimes ::: This new and secure fallback position can be designed as a secondary objective ::: “If we don’t reach the main objective, then we’ll try for this secondary objective.” ::: In general … are on the side of the orange mode operator ::: resources ::: thinking power ::: time ::: initiative ::: These benefits should therefore be used carefully ::: Resources include access to expert opinion in fields such as ::: psychology ::: chemistry ::: Design is a key word ::: Design means bringing resources to the emergency in a systematic manner ::: Design is impeded when too many people are involved in decision making ::: Advice should be take from many people ::: But designs and decisions are best left to one person or a small group ::: A good design is not a democratic consensus ::: Every action taken should fit into the design ::: In the orange gumboot mode ::: There is a greater need for strategy and design ::: Than in the brown brogue mode (which is more reactive) ::: If the disaster is major ::: Then it is important to review the available concepts ::: What are these concepts? ::: How can they be carried through? ::: There may be a need for … ::: new concepts ::: deliberate creative thinking ::: for some green hat thinking ::: What should orange mode thinking be like? ::: This is our assessment of the current situation ::: These are the existing dangers ::: and these are the potential dangers that might develop ::: These are the practical actions that can be taken right now to reduce (contain) the danger (to people, environment, property) ::: This is our overall strategy ::: We shall review it from time to time to see how it is working ::: and how it fits changing circumstances ::: We have obtained expert advice in the following matters ::: We are working with the following groups, and the lines of communication are as follows ::: These are the alternatives we have considered and the reasons we have put them aside for the moment ::: We assess the risks as follows. ::: We assess the chances of success as follows ::: Design for action ::: Orange mode actions need to be designed ::: The routine approach of the navy shoes cannot be applied ::: The free initiative of the brown brogue is not rigorous enough ::: There is a need to take grey sneaker action to collect information ::: and then to move into orange mode ::: and design a strategy ::: Simply thinking of the ultimate objective is not enough ::: Every subobjective and every step toward the objectives must be designed ::: The means must be specified as well as the ends ::: Alternative steps have to be … ::: generated ::: considered ::: assessed ::: The possible outcomes of each step must be examined ::: The priorities of the orange mode are very clear ::: Minimize the danger ::: Everything is assessed against this priority ::: As in chess steps may be taken to create a situation in which the final step will be effective ::: Every advantage is worth having ::: but it is not worth going for a short-term advantage ::: if this has a long-term negative consequence ::: Getting the situation under control is the first step ::: Until the situation is under control ::: action is going to be haphazard ::: Carrying through orange mode action ::: Requires … ::: control ::: decisiveness ::: a unified strategy ::: All those involved need to work as a team ::: Different opinions can be put forward up to the moment of a decision ::: But after that there should be cooperation ::: Modifications to moment-to-moment tactics can be suggested as long as the benefits are clearly stated ::: If such modification are rejected ::: They stay rejected ::: Everyone needs to know exactly what is to be done and who is to do it ::: The … need to be worked out in detail ::: backup ::: follow-through ::: fall-back actions ::: and the point at which they come into play ::: Contingencies are thought through, and provision is made for a change of plan should this be required ::: In the case of totally unexpected events some sort of stabilization plan needs to be prepared ::: People crises and exercises ::: People crises ::: When the emergency or crisis involves people ::: Then an understanding of psychology may be required ::: This may mean understanding the behavior of … ::: an individual ::: certain groups ::: certain situations ::: Understanding perceptions, values, emotions is important ::: It is difficult to empathize with people with different personal styles ::: but this must be attempted ::: The strategies and psychology of negotiation may be needed ::: Time and the use of time are important ::: In the end most people crises are solved through shifts in perception ::: either of the reality of the situation or of the future ::: Changes in perception precede changes in behavior and changes in emotion ::: Changes in perception are much more powerful than logic arguments ::: It is necessary to develop perceptions and present the possibility of alternative perceptions ::: Once an alternative perception is presented ::: it may not be accepted ::: but it can’t be unthought ::: Because perceptions are fragile ::: and can easily be destroyed by a false move ::: it is important for a single person to be in charge ::: Where people are involved ::: then trust, credibility, and personality play a big part ::: It may be necessary to change the people involved in order to begin a dialogue ::: Egos, pride, and turf battles are counter-productive when orange mode action is needed ::: Exercises ::: Orange gumboot action style ::: Emergency of crisis action ::: Accepting the need for orange gumboot action mode ::: Assessing the situation, the dangers, and the possible developments ::: Clear sense of priorities ::: Which means removing, containing, or reducing the danger ::: Everything is directed toward this purpose ::: Clear understanding who is in control and the lines of communication ::: Designing a detailed strategy for action ::: Planning the steps and also the fallback positions ::: Assessing the risks of any action and also the risks of inaction ::: Using expert help where possible ::: Assessing the likelihood of success ::: Putting the strategy into action ::: Everyone knowing what has to be done and who is going to do it ::: Periodically reassessing the situation ::: Modifying or even changing strategy as required ::: A main characteristic of the style is focus ::: On the danger ::: On ways of reducing that danger ::: Summary of orange gumboot action ::: Orange is a vivid color suggesting warning and alarm ::: Gumboots are worn by fire fighters and emergency teams ::: They are not normal everyday wear ::: So the orange gumboot action mode is concerned with emergencies, crisis, and dangers ::: It focus and priorities are clear ::: reducing the danger ::: The situation and the dangers involved need to be assessed carefully ::: A strategy and action steps for carrying through that strategy need to be designed ::: It is within this tight framework of defined action steps that action takes place ::: The risks of action and inaction are constantly reassessed within a framework of coordinated action rather than the ad hoc initiative of the brown brogue mode ::: There may be a range of situations ::: From those that obviously require orange gumboot mode to those that have some orange elements ::: Focus, urgency, and sense of priorities characterize orange gumboot action ::: Pink slippers ::: Introduction ::: Has to do with human … ::: feelings ::: compassion ::: sympathy ::: tender loving care ::: People caring for people … ::: is the essence of a family ::: defines a successful community ::: is the basis of civilization ::: The human caring values advocated in all religions are in pink slipper mode ::: Applies to all action involving human feelings and human caring ::: Some situations are pure pink slipper mode, but as with the orange mode, many situations have some pink slipper aspects ::: Only where a special caring element needs emphasizing does the pink slipper mode need to be spelled out ::: Many pragmatic situations require on brown brogue and one pink slipper ::: What is caring? ::: Is caring a matter of … ::: sympathy, compassion, and understanding ::: or the actions that go with these feelings ::: Active caring ::: The intention to care ::: and the actions that arise from this intention ::: Is it necessary to have a strong understanding of psychology or human nature in order to show caring? ::: Certainly not ::: Caring is a human emotion and not an intellectual exercise ::: Caring and action ::: Usually takes one of two forms ::: Adds an element of human caring and human compassion to other actions ::: Modifies other actions ::: Pink slipper mode as the prime activity ::: Comforting victims of an accident (may be a pure pink slipper behavior) ::: Dealing with an unhappy customer ::: Intervention in domestic disputes ::: The practical nature of the actions will vary with situations, but it includes such fundamentals as the willingness to listen ::: Training for caring ::: People matter ::: Over the last few years business has learned that people matter ::: Motivating employees has become a key element in business success ::: Human resource departments ::: In Search of Excellence ::: Viewing video tapes of poor service ::: Caring means what it says ::: Small gestures can be important ::: They show that someone matters ::: They show that someone cares ::: Calling people by their name ::: Remembering who they are ::: What their interests might be ::: Offering help in small ways ::: Being willing to listen ::: Inquiring about someone’s family ::: Sometimes these sort of things can become overdone ::: The simple process of labeling a situation pink slipper mode creates a particular framework for action ::: Action needs are now perceived in a special way ::: You are alerted to the human aspects ::: People are very good at playing the game that is required of them at the moment ::: But the rules of the game have to be clearly spelled out ::: That is what the six action shoes labeling does ::: It doesn’t mean play-acting, artificiality, or insincerity ::: It is a reminder of the nature of the situation and the action required ::: It is a tangible description of the idiom or feel of a situation ::: It is more powerful to say “Use the pink action mode” than to say “Be compassionate and caring” ::: Levels of caring ::: The possible levels of caring ::: Intention: The desire to care ::: Feeling: Empathy, sympathy ::: Gesture: Visible actions that show caring ::: Action: Actual help and care ::: Action can spring directly from intentions ::: Even if pink slipper action mode is carried through almost as a mechanical routine, it still has value ::: Interaction with other action modes ::: The example of the young person who got involved with the wrong crowd and committed a crime ::: Should not interfere directly ::: Help the family with welfare or support arrangements ::: The pink slipper action supports other actions ::: but usually does not run counter to those actions ::: At times pink slipper sentiments may clash with the formal impersonality of navy shoe routines ::: On such occasions it is necessary to explain the need for the routines ::: Sometimes, especially in brown action mode, pink slipper considerations may override other considerations because they become a central part of the situation ::: The pragmatism and flexibility of the brown brogue action mode would usually be sensitive to pink slipper factors ::: Sometime the main purpose of the action is human caring ::: and then actions are chosen specifically for that purpose ::: The priority is human caring just as the priority in orange mode action is reducing the danger ::: Using the pink slipper action mode ::: Quotes ::: Monsters ::: Some people behave inhumanely ::: The Nazi concentration camps ::: The Japanese prison camps ::: Pink slipper action removes these lines and barriers in order to realize that everyone deserves human care ::: This is not easy, especially if you come to expect equal consideration in return ::: The current business idiom is an attempt to change a perception ::: from “That is a member of the public who must accept what you care ::: to provide” to “That is the customer who really pays your wages” ::: Summary of pink slippers action ::: Pink ::: is a gentle and feminine color ::: suggests humanity and tenderness ::: Slippers ::: suggest comfort and domesticity ::: Has to do with caring ::: but actions show caring ::: Even when the feelings are not there ::: the actions should be carried through ::: There are times when the pink action mode is the main purpose of action ::: as in providing help and care ::: At other times the pink action mode modifies whatever else is being done so that what is done is done in a humane and caring manner ::: The pink action mode is always a reminder that people matter ::: The pink slipper action mode applies to everyone ::: Purple riding boots ::: Introduction ::: An officer is an officer because of the officer role ::: Playing out the purpose of that role is the purple boot action mode ::: Is all about official positions ::: An official position is not a superior on ::: When an official acts within the boundaries of that role ::: Then he or she has more authority that someone without an official role ::: It’s no longer the person who acts but the official role ::: There might even be a conscious separation between the person and the role ::: “Speaking as the principle of this school I am going to have to punish you for violating our discipline code” ::: The role of a judge is to administer justice ::: A good judge carries out that role properly ::: Even though in his or her private life the judge may not always act fairly or reasonably ::: People and their roles ::: Examples ::: Doctor ::: Vicar or priest ::: Village school master ::: Lawyer ::: In the above cases the official role is played by someone with expert training ::: Other official roles, however, have no grounding in expert training ::: A person may be in an official role because there seems to be a need … ::: for that role ::: and for having someone play that role ::: The most suitable person who is eligible or who applies is selected ::: You may object … (but) ::: to need for that role ::: and to the suitability of a particular person to hold the role ::: But ::: The role is there ::: and a person is filling it ::: Society is an organization of people for their mutual benefit ::: Organization require that decisions be made and actions be carried out ::: These needs justify establishing official roles ::: The will of society, as expressed by elected members of a legislature, is implemented by people performing official roles ::: Police officers, fire fighters, judges, school principals ::: Even in communes ::: Someone to wash dishes ::: Someone to carry out the trash ::: Living up to the role ::: Some argue ::: That no person should hide behind an official role ::: to escape personal responsibility for an action ::: Activities may be carried out by a person performing a role ::: rather than by that person as an individual ::: Some argue ::: That people in official roles should behave as they do in private ::: A teacher ::: should be a friend and counselor ::: rather than a teacher and disciplinarian ::: A tax inspector ::: should be a financial consultant ::: A police officer ::: should be a neighborhood watchdog ::: This is a sensible plea for … ::: more humanity ::: more pink slipper action in performing these roles ::: Taken to extremes it becomes impractical ::: The official role give authority and power to some people and not to others ::: Being cautioned or arrested by a police officer is not the same as being cautioned or arrested by an ordinary person ::: Actors and actresses are sometimes shy in ordinary life ::: They enjoy being on stage and losing their personality in the identity of the character they are playing ::: They pick up one role and put it down at the end of a performance ::: Judges ::: The abuse of something does not destroy its value ::: The petty tyrannies of some officials do not destroy the value of official roles ::: The role is bigger that the person because it has been identified by society as necessary ::: Can perform actions that might be impossible for them to perform without their role ::: The role magnifies innate abilities because it clearly defines how a particular ability is to be used ::: Navy action mode has a clear guide to behavior: carry out the routine ::: Grey action mode has a clear objective: collect information and use it ::: Orange action mode has clear priorities: reduce the danger ::: Pink action mode has clear objectives: care for people ::: Where is brown ::: Purple action mode also has clear guidelines: act according to your duties ::: An actor or actress performs on a stage ::: The person in purple action mode acts a part ::: There is no need to be embarrassed or apologetic about playing roles ::: Nor is there any value in always being in the purple action mode ::: That would be unnecessary and tedious to everyone ::: But when required ::: A person should be able to switch into the purple action mode ::: and act with the power and authority of that mode ::: Role and responsibility ::: With the power of a role also goes the responsibility of that role ::: Japanese CEO resignation ::: Where to draw the line between carrying out orders and doing wrong ::: If orders are illegal or criminal ::: Then they should not be carried out ::: If a country enacts laws that sanction behavior others regard as criminal ::: and if the behavior infringes on human rights ::: or is contrary to a generally accepted concept of natural law (meaning that in most countries it would be illegal) ::: Then purple action is no defense ::: No role takes a person above the law ::: Nor does any role relieve a person from being a human being first and official second ::: The roles is an enhancement of the person as a human being and as a member of society ::: and therefore those performing roles are bound by all the rules, laws, and considerations that apply to private individuals ::: If an official role requires you to act according to the laws of society and you still disapprove of the actions your role requires you to take, then you should resign from the role. You also should campaign to change the role’s responsibilities ::: Interaction with other action modes ::: Difference between Navy action mode and Purple action mode ::: In Navy action mode a routine is performed step by step ::: A clerk may ask a person to fill out a routine form ::: but has no authority to require that person to fill out the form ::: In the purple mode the person performs the role without referring to formal steps ::: It is almost brown action mode ::: but shaped by the character of the role ::: the nature of the role guides behavior ::: In the purple action mode a person can use initiative just as in the brown brogue mode ::: The navy action mode and the purple action mode overlap when an official caries out a formal routine ceremony ::: On occasion there also may be a close synergy between the purple action mode and the orange mode ::: Because the leadership and authority conferred by the role may be useful in emergency situations ::: When there is no time to establish personal leadership, the official role provides automatic leadership ::: The purple and the brown action modes sometimes harmonize and sometimes clash ::: Pragmatic brown action mode may be needed even when in purple action mode ::: At other times the low-key brown brogue approach may be subverted by an insistence on purple action rights ::: The pink action mode may help soften the harshness of the purple action mode ::: No role is designed to make people inhuman ::: But the pink mode may remind role players of their humanity ::: In a clash between the demands of the pink mode and the purple mode ::: the purple normally takes precedence ::: The grey sneaker mode is sometimes enhanced by the purple boot mode and sometimes inhibited ::: Sometimes obtaining certain types of information is easier when asking from an official position ::: but sometimes it may be inhibited by an official role ::: Use of the purple boot mode ::: Quotations ::: Carrying out purple boot behavior and exercises ::: There are two main requirements for carrying out purple boot behavior ::: The behavior must be clearly signaled ::: The behavior must be consistent ::: Purple riding boot action style ::: The style is authoritarian but civilized ::: The role player makes it clear when the official role is being performed ::: It is necessary to signal this role playing ::: and to remain consistently within the role ::: The duties, obligations, and expectations of the role provide guidelines for behavior ::: Behavior is firm, neutral, and fair ::: Those performing the role don’t need their actions to be liked all the time ::: but tyranny and bullying are unacceptable ::: Most important, the person acting in this mode must make clear that he or she is acting out a role and then must behave according to that role ::: To pretend to assume the role and then to act in a way that is inconsistent with that role leads to confusion and devalues the role function ::: Summary of purple riding boot action ::: Purple is an imperial color and suggests authority ::: Riding boots are used for special occasions ::: The purple riding boot action mode indicated that a person is acting in the capacity of an official role. ::: An individual is not acting: the role is acting ::: Indeed, the person consistently acts out the role ::: Behavior is guided by the behavior expected of that role ::: It is important to signal this role behavior and to act consistently with the role ::: Within these limits there is room for initiative ::: Combination of shoes ::: No formal framework for combining the different modes of action ::: See discussion of individual shoes for more suggestions ::: Types ::: Balanced combination ::: The situation demands an equal measure of two different modes ::: The uncertain situation ::: The balance of action may tip one way or the other. ::: Two colors are needed to cover the possibilites ::: A modifying situation ::: One action modes dominates but another action mode acts as a modifier ::: ￼ ::: It is also possible to have flavors of more than two colors in a situation ::: Doing so begins to dilute the effectiveness of the method ::: In practice, situations are rarely pure examples of one or another action mode. ::: There is no need to specify all possible combinations ::: It is usually enough to indicated the dominant action mode ::: even when the situation is not pure ::: Combination examples ::: ONE OF THE ADVANTAGES OF USING THE shoe metaphor is that we normally wear a pair of shoes. Although in real life it would be unconventional to wear one pink slipper and one orange gumboot, we can combine action modes when an action seems to call for a response that has both pink and orange elements. ::: There is no formal framework for combining the different modes of action. In discussing each of the shoes I have provided suggestions and examples of combinations, and I offer more in this section. ::: 1. Balanced combination: The situation demands an equal measure of two different action modes. ::: "This is very much a pink slipper and brown brogue situation." ::: "I want you to go in there with one purple boot and one orange gumboot." ::: "We want to make only official inquiries, so one grey sneaker and one navy shoe." ::: "Make your inquiries, but do it gently-grey sneaker with pink slipper." ::: 2. An uncertain situation: The balance of action may tip one way or the other. Two colors are needed to cover the possibilities. ::: "At this point I just don't know. Things could go either way. Be prepared for brown brogue or pink slipper action: carry them both." ::: "When you get there, you may find that it is more purple boot than orange gumboot. It depends on what happens. Be prepared for either." ::: "Essentially this is a grey sneaker assignment, but it could suddenly become brown brogue if you discover something important." ::: 3. A modifying situation: One action mode dominates but another action mode acts as a modifier. ::: "Straight purple action mode, but keep that pink slipper somewhere in the back of your mind." ::: "Brown brogue. Do what you think necessary. But keep the grey sneaker in mind too. There may be useful information to be picked up." ::: "Go through the navy shoe routine but with a strong flavor of purple boot in the background." ::: Here are some potential combinations of action shoe modes. They are simply suggestions: each pair could have several overlapping definitions. ::: Navy and Grey: Routine and formal inquiries. ::: Navy and Brown: Routine behavior with the possibility of being flexible and using initiative if necessary. ::: Navy and Orange: Routine procedure in an emergency. ::: Navy and Pink: Routine procedures carried out in a gentle manner. ::: Navy and Purple: Routine procedures with the weight of an official role behind them. ::: Grey and Navy: Investigations using formal procedures such as checklists. ::: Grey and Brown: Investigations using initiatives and ad hoc action to obtain more information. ::: Grey and Orange: Investigations in dangerous and sensitive situations, such as infiltration and undercover assignments. ::: Grey and Pink: Investigations using a sensitive and considerate manner to obtain information. ::: Grey and Purple: Investigations using an official position to collect information. ::: Brown and Navy: Practical action that uses flexibility and occasionally routine procedures, even personal routines. ::: Brown and Grey: Practical action that is sensitive to information in order to determine the next action step. ::: Brown and Orange: Practical action in a dangerous or potentially dangerous environment. ::: Brown and Pink: Practical action in a sensitive human situation where feelings and emotions are involved. ::: Brown and Purple: Practical action dealing with different officials and therefore requiring the use of an official position. ::: Orange and Navy: Using standard procedures in an emergency. ::: Orange and Grey: Collecting expert opinion and as much information as possible regarding an emergency. ::: Orange and Brown: Practical moment-to-moment action in a rapidly changing emergency situation before planning becomes possible. ::: Orange and Pink: Dealing with human suffering in an emergency. ::: Orange and Purple: Dealing with officialdom in an emergency; deciding who is in charge. ::: Pink and Navy: Using routines for dealing with delicate situations involving feelings and emotions; can be personal routines. ::: Pink and Grey: Listening and noting in order to offer help and comfort. ::: Pink and Brown: Practical action and initiatives in helping people. ::: Pink and Purple: Using official channels and positions in order to help people. ::: Purple and Navy: Formal behavior as part of an official position. ::: Purple and Grey: Using official statistics and information channels. ::: Purple and Brown: Practical action and individual initiatives within the framework of an official position. ::: Purple and Orange: Giving orders and organizing in emergencies; leadership in a crisis. ::: Purple and Pink: Modifying impersonal official behavior with human sensitivity. ::: It is also possible to have flavors of more than two colors in a situation, but doing so begins to dilute the effectiveness of the method. ::: In practice situations are rarely pure examples of one or another action mode. There is no need to specify all possible combinations. It is usually enough to indicate the dominant action mode, even when the situation is not pure. ::: Action, not description ::: The purpose of the framework is to set the style of the action in advance so that a person can behave within a certain style framework ::: Six action shoes are concerned with what is about to be done ::: Each person should be capable of operating in each of the different modes ::: Just as each person should be capable of using each of the six hats ::: Must resist the tendency to use the six action modes for purposes of description and categorization ::: Simple and practical ::: People who want things to be complicated (see page # 157) ::: Simple things are usable ::: Six hat method is extremely powerful ::: It is not easy to suggest that a person behave in a particular way ::: People may be offended if you tell them to behave in a more caring way ::: The six shoe framework is neutral and offends no one ::: The framework can be seen as a game or ritual ::: People find it easier to follow the rules of a game than to change their personalities ::: The colors and physical nature of the shoes make them easy to visualize and remember ::: Language and terminology ::: Different ways of referring to the six action shoes ::: The imagery is important for the ritual associated with mentally putting on the shoes ::: The framework ::: Six pairs of action shoes ::: Six shoe action framework ::: Six action modes ::: Action mode summary ::: Navy formal shoes ::: Color navy blue. Formal shoes. Navy suggest routines, drills, and formality ::: Navy action mode is for routine behavior ::: Select the appropriate routine ::: Switch into the routine ::: Carry through the routine as perfectly as you can ::: Routines ::: are crystallization of the best way of doing something ::: remove the need to think something through each time ::: reduce the risk of error ::: Go through the routine systematically step by step ::: Use flexibility if you absolutely have to, and return to the routine while you’re using it ::: Routines can be improved and may need changing ::: but that is separate action ::: Don’t seek to improve a routine while you’re using it ::: Although they may appear restrictive in some ways, routines are also liberating because they free you to think about other matters ::: Grey sneakers ::: Shoe description ::: Color grey ::: Sneaker type of shoe ::: Grey suggest grey matter of the brain ::: Grey also suggest fog and mist ::: Sneakers are quiet and casual ::: Action mode is for collecting information and thinking about it ::: That is the prime objective ::: The style is low key and unobtrusive ::: The information is used to clear up the fog and mist suggested by the color grey ::: Sometimes information can be collected in a systematic way by creating a procedure and then following it ::: Sometimes established routines can be followed ::: At other time it may be necessary to have a hunch, a theory, or an hypothesis to start collecting information ::: Collecting information may lead to a theory or hypothesis that then leads to further information collection ::: The purpose of information collection is to be as comprehensive and neutral as possible ::: It is not to support your initial hypothesis ::: It is a good habit to keep at least two hypothesis in mind to avoid being led astray by one hypothesis ::: The final stage of information collection is to check out the most reasonable hypothesis. ::: Avoid clinging to a single hypothesis too early. ::: Brown brogues ::: Shoe description ::: Color is brown ::: Brogue type of shoe ::: Brown is the color of the earth ::: And the action style is down to earth ::: The brogue is a hard-wearing shoe suitable for most occasions ::: The emphasis is on pragmatism and practicality ::: It is a matter of doing what can be done ::: Moment-to-moment adjustment and flexibility in response to the situation are called for ::: Have a clear sense of objectives and priorities ::: Behavior is guided by objectives, priorities, and basic values and principles ::: Behavior is determined by personal initiatives at the moment rather than by formal routines or master plans ::: Be sensitive and respond to the situation ::: But keep in control ::: Don’t just follow ::: Effectiveness and simplicity are important ::: The purpose of any action is to be effective ::: Choose from and combine existing action patterns ::: Do the obvious unless surprise has some particular value ::: Orange gumboots ::: Shoe description ::: Color orange ::: Gumboot style of footwear ::: Orange is the color of danger, fire, explosions ::: Gumboots are work by fire fighters and emergency crews ::: Has to do with emergencies, crises, and dangerous situation ::: When situations are … urgent action is required (if only to get medical attention) ::: Unstable ::: Unpredictable ::: and likely to get worse ::: Action is usually needed ::: But in special cases involving people waiting may have a strategic value ::: The clear objective is to reduce the danger ::: May require attending to the source of the danger ::: Or removing people from the danger area ::: Determine who is in charge ::: Establish communication between the different parties involved ::: A strategic plan needs to present carefully worked out steps ::: Everyone must know what is to be done and who is doing what ::: Back-up, follow-through, and fallback considerations are required ::: Flexibility is necessary if the plan does not work according to expectations ::: Obtain as much information and expert advice as possible ::: Assessment and reassessment of the situation are vital ::: Emotions are usually heavily involved ::: Courage is needed both in making decision and in taking action ::: It is always easy, in hindsight, to say how things could have been better ::: Pink slippers ::: Shoe description ::: Color pink ::: Slippers as a style of footwear ::: Pink is a gentle, feminine color ::: Slippers represent comfort and domesticity ::: Concerned with human caring ::: Sympathy ::: Compassion ::: Help ::: Feeling is not enough ::: The feeling must be put into action ::: If the feeling is not there, the intention to act is a caring way still results in caring actions ::: The prime consideration is that people matter as people ::: Caring applies to all people ::: Some people are not worth more caring than others ::: Listening is an important part of caring ::: Sometimes caring is the prime purpose of the action. ::: At other times the pink slipper action mode may be used to modify, in a caring direction, other types of action that are taking place. ::: Understanding the perceptions and values of others is a key part of caring. Understanding precedes appropriate actions ::: Purple riding boots ::: Shoe description ::: Color purple ::: Riding boots ::: Purple is the traditional color of authority, as in ancient Rome ::: Riding boots suggest a special function ::: Has to do with authority and playing out an official role ::: Not acting as a normal person ::: Through an official role that he or she is performing ::: Action must be consistent with the duties, obligations, and expectations of that role ::: Within this framework initiatives are possible ::: Signal to those around you when you switch into the purple action mode and are going to be acting through your official role ::: Once you have indicated that you are acting in an official capacity, be consistent and don’t keep switching back and forth between official and unofficial roles ::: Purple action mode can be modified by pink slipper considerations, but duties must be performed ::: There is no obligation to perform duties that are illegal or immoral
Six Frames for Thinking about Information contents page ::: Amazon ::: Preface (about attention, perception, information) ::: Directing attention (the function of the Six Frames) ::: Masses of information ::: Introduction ::: Purpose: The Triangle Frame ::: Notice ::: Time-filling and distraction ::: Awareness ::: Interest ::: General interest ::: Specific interest ::: Browse and scan ::: Need and search ::: What and where? ::: Confirmation ::: Very specific questions ::: Where? ::: The triangle frame ::: Point 1: WHAT? ::: Point 2: WHY? ::: Point 3: WHERE? ::: Offering information ::: Summary ::: Accuracy: The Circle Frame ::: Authority ::: Internal checking ::: Comparative accuracy ::: Adequate accuracy ::: Doubts ::: The circle frame ::: Summary ::: Point of view: The Square Frame ::: Persuasion ::: Difficulty of balance ::: The use of adjectives ::: Point of view ::: The power of balance ::: Alternative views from the same point ::: The square frame ::: Summary ::: Interest: The Heart Frame ::: General interest ::: Addition ::: Research ::: Special interest ::: Note-taking ::: Mining ::: The heart frame ::: Summary ::: Value: The Diamond Frame ::: Need satisfaction ::: Question answered ::: Interest value ::: Confirmation value ::: Disagreement value ::: Opportunity ::: Awareness of the world around us ::: Enrichment ::: Note-taking ::: Six value medals ::: Gold Medal ::: Silver Medal ::: Steel Medal ::: Glass Meda ::: Wood Medal ::: Brass Medal ::: Medal Usage ::: The diamond frame ::: Summary ::: Outcome: The Slab Frame ::: Next step ::: So what? ::: Information report ::: Computers ::: The slab frame ::: Summary ::: Summary ::: Truth paste ::: About the author ::: How to Have a Beautiful Mind ::: The Six Value Medals ::: H+ (Plus) A New Religion? ::: How to Have Creative Ideas
The Six Value Medals contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction: What Are the Six Value Medals? ::: Why We Need Values ::: Commodities ::: The Cooking Competition ::: Changes in Thinking ::: Thinking about Value ::: 1 Values ::: When Do We Need to Assess Values? ::: Decisions ::: Value Scanning ::: Analysis and Values ::: Perception and Value ::: Logic and Values ::: Values and Emotions ::: 2 Negative Values ::: Impact ::: Checking Values ::: 3 Frameworks ::: Attention ::: North, South, East and West ::: Other People's Views ::: The Six Thinking Hats ::: The Six Action Shoes ::: Perception ::: Purpose ::: 4 Six Value Medals ::: Symbol ::: Focus ::: Materials ::: Overview of the Six Value Medals. This is a quick overview of all the medals. Each medal will then get full attention in a chapter of its own. ::: GOLD MEDAL: This medal deals with human values, the values that affect people. Gold is a superior material and human values are the most important values of all in the end. What are the human values here? ::: SILVER MEDAL: This medal focuses directly on ::: organisational values. That means values related ::: to the purpose of the organisation (in business ::: this would be profitability). Silver is associated with money. There are also the values involved in the actual running of the organisation, such as cost control. The organisation may also be a family, group of friends or social club. ::: STEEL MEDAL: These are the quality values. ::: Steel should be strong. The values are in the intended direction. What are the values of the product, service or function in terms of what it is trying to do? If it is tea, is it good quality tea? ::: GLASS MEDALS: This medal covers a number of associated values: innovation, simplicity and creativity. Glass is a very simple material originating in sand. But with glass you can use your creativity to do a lot of things. ::: WOOD MEDAL: These are the environmental ::: values in the broadest sense. What are the impact values on the environment, on the community, on others? The values relate to those things and people not directly involved. ::: BRASS MEDAL: This medal deals explicitly with perceptual values. How does this appear? How might it be seen? Perception is real even when it is not reality. Brass looks like gold. ::: 5 Gold Medal Values ::: Assessing Gold Medal Values ::: Gold Medal Values of a Change ::: Gold Medal Values of an Existing ::: Situation ::: The Range of Human Values ::: Basic Needs ::: Freedom From... ::: Psychological Needs ::: What Are Your Gold Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 6 Silver Medal Values ::: Purpose ::: Different Organisations, Different ::: Purposes ::: Operations ::: Levels ::: Problem-Solving ::: What Are Your Silver Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 7 Steel Medal Values ::: Customer Values ::: Quality of Service ::: Function Quality ::: Quality and Change ::: Negative Values ::: Perceived Values ::: Quality Focus ::: What Are Your Steel Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 8 Glass Medal Values ::: Innovation ::: Simplicity ::: Creativity ::: The Culture of Creativity ::: Fragility ::: Potential ::: What Are Your Glass Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 9 Wood Medal Values ::: Impact ::: Nature ::: Other Parties ::: Competitors ::: Suppliers ::: Friends and Family ::: Negative Values ::: What Are Your Wood Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 10 Brass Medal Values ::: Whose Interest? ::: Negative Perceptions ::: Shaping Perceptions ::: Credibility ::: Selective Perception ::: Different Points of View ::: What Are Your Brass Medal Values? ::: Summary ::: 11 Value Sensitivity ::: Criticism ::: Danger Sensitivity ::: Unseen Value ::: Elimination ::: The Value Scan ::: Habit ::: 12 Conflicts and Priorities ::: Prioritising Values ::: Conflict of Values ::: 13 Design ::: Problem-Solving ::: Conflict Resolution ::: Conflicting Values ::: 14 Value Size ::: Figures ::: Four Degrees of Value ::: Strong Values ::: Sound Values ::: Weak Values ::: Remote Values ::: Negative Values ::: Assessment ::: 15 Benefits and Costs ::: Decisions ::: Negative Values ::: 16 Sources of Value ::: Communication Values ::: Permission ::: Gateway ::: Enabler Values ::: Catalyst Values ::: Enhancer Values ::: Accelerator Values ::: Problem-Solving ::: Removing Bottlenecks ::: Mistakes ::: Competitors ::: Failures ::: Concepts ::: 17 The Value Triangle ::: The Triangle ::: Silver Medal ::: Steel Medal ::: Gold Medal ::: Glass Medal ::: Wood Medal ::: Brass Medal ::: Value Strength ::: Negative Values ::: Comparison ::: 18 The Value Map ::: Listing ::: Negative Values ::: Sample List ::: Joint Maps ::: State of Thinking ::: VICTERI Teams ::: Conclusion ::: Seeing Values ::: Perception and Communication ::: Visual Display
I am right - You are wrong (From this to the new renaissance: From rock logic to water logic) contents page ::: Amazon ::: Preliminary ::: Foreword by Ivar Giaever, Nobel Prize for Physics, Rensselaer Institute ::: Foreword by Brian Josephson, Nobel Prize for Physics, Cambridge ::: Foreword by Sheldon Lee Glashow, Nobel Prize for Physics, Harvard ::: Author's Note ::: Introduction: The New Renaissance ::: Our Thinking System ::: Overview ::: Some of the topics that are covered in this book are listed below: ::: Why humour is the most significant characteristic of the human brain and why humour has always been neglected by classical philosophers. ::: Why, contrary to our traditional view, the brain may be a very simple mechanism acting in a highly complex way. ::: The very important difference between our usual 'passive' information systems and 'active' information systems. ::: Why the very excellence of language for description has made language so crude and inefficient for perception. ::: Why we are able to see only what we are prepared to see. ::: Why it may be much easier to learn things backwards rather than forwards. ::: How patterns have both broad catchment areas and also knife-edge discrimination. ::: Why the classical thinking traditions of truth and reason that we inherited from the Greeks may have set civilization on the wrong track. ::: How we became, and remain, so very obsessed with history. ::: Why I call our traditional reasoning 'table-top' logic. ::: How we can have been so successful in technical matters and yet made so little progress in human affairs. ::: Why the analysis of data cannot by itself produce new ideas and is even unlikely to discover the old ideas in the data. ::: How we can move from the behaviour of a neurone in a neural network to the behaviour of the mind in politics, economics and world conflict. ::: How we can have a patterning system and yet enjoy free-will. ::: Why we have completely failed to understand creativity and why something that is logical in hindsight may be inaccessible to logic in foresight. ::: Why logical argument has never been successful at changing prejudices, beliefs, emotions or perceptions. Why these things can be changed only through perception. ::: How beliefs are cheap and easy to set up in a self-organizing system and how they provide the only perceptual truth. ::: How traditional logic has trapped us with the righteousness of its absolutes. ::: How we can design specific creative tools that can be used deliberately to generate new ideas. ::: Why there may not be a reason for saying something until after it has been said—the logic of provocation which is mathematically necessary in a patterning system. ::: How a simple, randomly obtained, word can be so powerful a creative tool. ::: Why there is an urgent need to create many new words to help our thinking. ::: Why there is a need for the functions (such as zero-hold) carried by the new word ' po '. ::: Why the established scientific method and its call for the most 'reasonable' hypothesis is perceptually faulty. ::: How the Laffer curve (more is better) is such a problem in our traditional thinking. ::: Why our cherished argument mode sets out to provide motivated exploration of a subject but soon loses the 'exploration'. ::: Why our underlying model of progress—evolution through muddling along—is bound to be ineffective. ::: Why philosophy can never again be more than a word-game unless we take into account the system behaviour of the human mind. ::: Why the false dichotomies we constructed in order to operate the logic principle of contradiction have been so especially disastrous. ::: Why poetry and humour both illustrate so well the logic of perception, which is different from the logic of reason. ::: Why we left perception to the realm of art and why art has done such a poor job. ::: Why truth is best described as a particular constellation of circumstances with a particular outcome. ::: How we may eventually derive a new ideology from information technology just as Karl Marx derived one from the steam-engine technology of the industrial revolution. ::: Human Affairs ::: Perception ::: Humour ::: Practical Outcomes ::: The Human Brain ::: Validity of the Model ::: Different Universes ::: Traditional Table-Top Logic ::: The Nerve Network of the Brain ::: How Perception Works ::: Overview ::: PATTERN-MAKING: the brain works by providing an environment in which sequences of activity become established as patterns. ::: TRIGGER: the brain will reconstruct the whole picture from just part of it or a sequence can be triggered by the initial part. ::: ASYMMETRY: the sequence patterns are asymmetric and this gives rise to humour and to creativity. ::: INSIGHT: if we enter the pattern sequence at a slightly different point we may follow a short cut. We can rely on chance to bring this about or do it deliberately. ::: LEARNING BACKWARDS: there is good reason to believe that learning things backwards is much more effective than learning them forwards. ::: SEQUENCE: the brain is a history recorder and the patterns are highly dependent on the initial sequence of experience. ::: CATCHMENT: each pattern has a very wide collection basin so that a variety of inputs will give the same output. ::: KNIFE-EDGE DISCRIMINATION: the boundary between two catchment basins is very sharp, so very clear distinctions may be made between things which are quite similar—provided the patterns are in place. ::: PRE-EMPTION: once a pattern exists it is very hard to cut across it to establish a new pattern. ::: MISMATCH: if what is offered to the brain contradicts what is established as pattern the brain notices this strongly. ::: READINESS: the patterns in the brain are not solely in an active/inactive state but there is a 'readiness' to go which is dependent on context and emotions. ::: CONTEXT: the actual patterns that emerge are determined by history, by activity at the moment and also by context which sets the background readiness level of different patterns. ::: CIRCULARITY: a circularity can be established in which patterns lead back into each other. This is the basis of belief systems. ::: MAKING SENSE: the brain has a powerful ability to put together and to seek to coalesce into sense whatever is put before it. ::: ATTENTION: there is unitary attention which may take in the whole field or focus on part of it, ignoring the rest. ::: RELEVANCE AND MEANING: attention will move to those areas which trigger existing patterns. ::: NO ZERO-HOLD: the activity in the brain cannot stabilize into a zero-hold which accepts input but does not seek to follow an accepted pattern. ::: Sequence Patterns ::: Trigger and Reconstruction ::: Asymmetry of Patterns ::: Insight ::: Learning Backwards ::: Time Sequence ::: Catchment ::: Knife-Edge Discrimination ::: Preemption ::: Mismatch ::: Readiness ::: Context ::: Circularity ::: Making Sense ::: Attention ::: Relevance and Meaning ::: Zero-Hold ::: Our Traditional Thinking Habits ::: Overview ::: LANGUAGE: marvelous as a communication system but poor as a thinking system, yet it dominates our thinking. ::: INTELLIGENCE: highly intelligent people do not necessarily make good thinkers. Thinking is a skill, not intelligence in action. ::: CRITICAL THINKING: a greatly over-esteemed part of our thinking culture. It is easy and satisfying but produces little. ::: LAFFER CURVE: a major type of error arising from table-top logic. Something is good so more must, surely, be better. ::: PROBLEM-SOLVING: part of the maintenance mentality which will get us back to where we were. Progress requires different thinking. ::: ANALYSIS: a central and valuable part of our thinking system but assumes all situations are closed and cannot produce ideas. ::: DESCRIPTION: both describes perception and can set perceptions through naming. But has no more validity than any perception. ::: NATURAL: the view that 'nature' and deep feelings are what really matter and should set our decisions rather than thinking. ::: MATHEMATICS: the strong certainty of a constructed system, powerful within its area of application, which is limited. ::: EITHER/OR: the seductive dichotomies which we need and create in order to operate the logical principle of contradiction. ::: ABSOLUTES: the need for truth and its multiple purposes. The problem is that absolutes must be circumstance-independent. ::: ARGUMENT AND CLASH: the motivated exploration as a subject. There are better methods of exploration. Clash is not generative. ::: BELIEF: a making sense of things. The circular system in which belief sets the perceptions that reinforce the belief. ::: SCIENCE: a methodology for testing beliefs. Driven mainly by the 'cause and effect' idiom. Weak on the perceptual side. ::: CREATIVITY: strongly neglected because it seems to happen anyway and we have not understood at all what is going on. ::: HISTORY: almost am obsession, possibly deriving from the period when all future progress could be got by looking backwards. ::: LOGIC: we use little explicit logic In our everyday thinking because we have fed it into our language habits already. ::: ART: this is directly concerned with reflecting existing perceptions and changing them, but does not encourage perceptual skills. ::: Language ::: Thinking and Intelligence ::: Critical Thinking ::: Laffer Curves ::: Problem-Solving ::: Analysis ::: Description ::: Natural ::: Mathematics ::: Either/Or ::: Absolutes ::: Argument and Clash ::: Belief ::: Science ::: Creativity ::: History ::: Logic ::: Art ::: Thinking In Society And Its Institutions ::: Overview ::: CHANGE: our basic belief in an evolutionary model. We muddle along and adapt to pressures, crises and innovations as they arise. ::: THE NEXT STEP: the next step we take is based on where we are and how we got there rather than on where we want to be. ::: FULL UP: there is no vacuum, there are no gaps. Time, space and resources are all committed. ::: EDUCATION: a locked-in system that is largely unaware of the need for thinking in society or of the type of thinking. ::: LUDECY: a new word to describe the playing of a game according to the way the rules are written. Not a matter of selfishness. ::: SHORT-TERM: much of our thinking has to be short-term (business, politics) because the rules are written that way. ::: DEMOCRACY: a system designed to get consensus for action but now much more effective in preventing things from happening. ::: PRAGMATISM: if behaviour is not driven by principles that are fixed and absolute, what is the alternative? ::: BUREAUCRACY: an organization put together for a purpose but coming to survive for its own sake. ::: COMPARTMENTS: one trend towards increased specialization and compartments and the other trend towards unifying understandings. ::: UNIVERSITIES: an educational, cultural and research role strongly based in history and dominating the use of intellectual re sources. ::: COMMUNICATION: the limitations of language and the imperatives of the media and yet a great power to change sentiment. ::: PACKAGING: our growing skill at perceptual packaging may pose a problem in the future. ::: Change ::: The Next Step ::: Full Up ::: Education ::: Ludecy ::: Short-Term Thinking ::: Democracy ::: Pragmatism ::: Bureaucracy ::: Compartments ::: Universities ::: Communication ::: Packaging ::: Summary Of Practical Outcomes ::: Overview ::: At this point we have reached the end of a progression which had the following stages: ::: 1. A look at the self-organizing model of the brain and a contrast between self-organizing information systems and table-top systems. ::: 2. A look at how the behavior of perception arises directly from the behavior of self-organizing systems. ::: 3. A look at the impact of an understanding of perception on our traditional thinking habits and their defects. ::: 4. A look at thinking in society and its institutions. ::: I would now like to pull together and summarize in this section some of the practical outcomes of this exercise. ::: There are many, ranging from the very specific (such as creativity tools) to the more general (such as concern with the deficiencies of language). ::: Some of the points are simple but others open up huge areas of further consideration. ::: To repeat a point I have so often made in this book, I have not set out to provide all the answers but to indicate that these matters now need very serious attention. ::: There are other points implicit in the book which I have not listed here but which individual readers will note and consider. ::: The practical outcomes fall into two broad areas: ::: 1. Practical points arising directly from our understanding of the nature of perception. ::: 2. Defects in our traditional thinking habits made visible by our understanding of perception. ::: Complacency ::: The Need for More Effort and Attention ::: System Basis ::: Traditional Philosophy Is Dead ::: Perception ::: Mental Illness ::: Free-Will ::: Evolution for Change ::: Argument ::: Critical Thinking ::: Clash ::: Analysis ::: Problem-Solving ::: Truth and Absolutes ::: Description ::: Obsession with History ::: Intelligence Is Not Enough ::: Language ::: Polarizations ::: More Is Better ::: Limited Gate-Keepers ::: Understanding Perception ::: Perception and Emotion ::: Perception and Belief ::: Perception and Truth ::: Prejudice and Logic ::: Time Sequence ::: Reconstruction ::: What We Are Prepared to See ::: Innocence ::: Humor ::: Poetry ::: Stratal ::: Six Thinking Hats ::: Attention ::: Perceptual Tools ::: Mechanics of Interest ::: Attention Flow in Art ::: Manipulation of Perception ::: Zero-Hold ::: 'Same as … ' ::: Understanding Creativity ::: The Logic of Provocation ::: The Logic of Insight ::: Specific Tools of Lateral Thinking ::: Resistance to Change ::: The Next Step ::: Education ::: Universities ::: Compartments ::: Short-Term Thinking ::: Ludecy ::: Learning Backwards ::: New Language ::: Water Logic ::: Hope ::: Summary ::: Appendix: Water Logic ::: Hodics
The Mechanism of the Mind contents page ::: Amazon ::: Introduction ::: Oxford example of perception ::: Part One ::: Understanding the System ::: The Simple Basis of Complexity ::: Simplicity and complexity ::: Levels of Organization ::: Transformations, Notations and Models ::: Models ::: Notation ::: Models and notation in this book ::: The model and the brain ::: Memory Traces and Memory Surfaces ::: Memory ::: Less obvious memories ::: Time course ::: Play-back ::: Storing memories ::: Functional connections ::: Good and bad memory-surfaces ::: Special Universes ::: A Self-Organizing Memory Surface: The Polythene and Pins Model ::: Summary ::: Threshold Effects: The Thousand Bulb Model ::: Circular System Effects ::: Notation ::: More complex systems ::: Artificial models ::: Limited Attention Span ::: Behaviour of the thousand bulb rnernory-surface ::: Summary ::: Passive Choice and Selection ::: Attention ::: Single attention area ::: The Past Organizes the Present: The Jelly Model ::: Centring ::: Assimilation ::: Fixed patterns ::: Linked patterns ::: Backbone channel ::: Representative part ::: Time sequence ::: Summary ::: Change and Flow on the Memory Surface ::: Swift flow and staccato flow ::: Self ::: Self and identity ::: Communication by Preset Patterns ::: Elaboration ::: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory ::: Synthesis ::: Time and space ::: Holding effect ::: Separation and synthesis ::: The Emergence of Patterns ::: Emotion, Need and the Internal Patterns ::: The Peculiar Universe of the Memory-Surface ::: D-Lines: A Notation of Convenience ::: D-lines and behaviour on the special memory-surface ::: Fragments and continuity ::: Diversion ::: Centring ::: Polarizing ::: Unit size ::: Abstraction ::: Starting-point and sequence of attention ::: Summary ::: Part Two ::: Characteristic Behaviour of the System ::: Thinking behaviour on the special memory-surface ::: The Mechanics of Thinking ::: Summary ::: Changes in established patterns ::: Extension ::: Diversion ::: Preference ::: Sudden changes in the established pattern ::: The Insight Phenomenon ::: Humour and insight ::: Further ways of changing the basic pattern ::: Cumulative effect ::: Effort and change ::: Errors, Defects and Limitations ::: Momentum ::: The Myth Effect ::: The Dividing and Polarizing Effect ::: Static divisions ::: Mobile divisions ::: Mechanics of polarization ::: The Continuity Effect ::: The Distorting Effects of internal Patterns ::: Bias ::: Overcoming the Limitations ::: Summary of faults ::: Natural Thinking ::: Thinking ::: Natural thinking ::: Repetition ::: Logical Thinking ::: Mathematical Thinking ::: Lateral Thinking ::: Alternatives ::: Non-sequential ::: Undoing selection processes ::: Attention ::: Use of lateral thinking ::: Random input ::: Quota ::: Rotation of attention ::: Reversal ::: Cross-fertilization ::: The New Functional Word ::: PO ::: The first use of PO ::: The end before the means ::: Disconnected jumps ::: Juxtaposition ::: Reversal ::: Being wrong ::: Semi-certainty ::: Construction ::: Random stimulus ::: Summary ::: The second use of PO ::: Anti-arrogance ::: PO as interjection ::: Re-unite ::: Counteracting NO ::: Alternative approaches ::: Summary ::: Emotional content of PO ::: Hypothesis, suppose, poetry ::: Grammatical use of PO ::: PO and language ::: Summary ::: Physiology ::: Translation ::: Inhibition and excitation ::: Units ::: Short-term memory ::: Long-term memory ::: Patterns on the surface ::: Parallel systems ::: Dangers of introspection ::: Broad features ::: PO and the brain ::: General Summary
… snip, snip …
What would happen if we discarded the concept of absolute truth?
What would happen if we threw out absolute truth from its central position in philosophy and in religious meta-systems?
We could replace absolute truth with temporary or contingent truths.
In areas such as science this would only seem to be acknowledging what any proper scientist knows to be the position anyway.
Karl Popper has suggested that the purpose of an hypothesis is not to be proved but to be disproved so that a better one can emerge.
Scientific truths are temporary truths which may seem absolute at the time but are later replaced by others.
Newton’s truths seemed a perfect and absolute explanation until Einstein came along and provided a different explanation.
In time Einstein’s concepts will certainly be replaced by an even newer truth.
We can look at the evolution of truths in the same way as we can the evolution in any self-organizing system.
There is a stable state which continues for some time.
Then there is a period of change to a new stable state which again lasts for some time.
This gives a series of plateaux as shown below.
All the time the truth is ‘improving’.
We can call these plateaux or stable states ‘proto-truths’.
We can treat them as truths in all respects except one:
a proto-truth is always held to be changeable and is never regarded as absolute.
A proto-truth is only changed for a better prototruth.
There is a constant readiness for change but at the same time a willingness to use the proto-truth as if it were absolute.
It is very important to realize that the rejection of absolute truths does not mean that no truth is possible and that we should not try to find any.
On the contrary, it means that we can freely believe in and use truths because we no longer fear being trapped by them.
We often reject absolute truths because we fear the consequences of accepting them.
The same fear is not present with proto-truths.
Proto-truths satisfy the dilemma that has become more and more obvious in our scientific age.
In theory we should be unable to act until science had given a full explanation of the world and a scientific basis for action.
In practice we do have to act and in many areas we have to act on the basis of little information and little scientific understanding.
A proto-truth is a working truth with which we can proceed.
The distinction between a proto-truth and an hypothesis will be discussed later in this section.
Proto-truths and absolute truths
It should now be clear that there are two systems of truth.
Both types of truth are believable and usable.
The sole difference is that proto-truths are capable of being changed to better ones whereas absolute truths are not.
Absolute truths hold sway in special universes and in circular situations.
An absolute truth cannot be changed unless the universe in which it operates is changed.
Proto-truths hold sway in ‘open’ universes.
The meta-system suggested in this book is based on proto-truth rather than absolute truth.
In particular it is realized that the world created by the perception of man’s mind is entirely a world of proto-truth:
one way of looking at things is capable of being replaced by a better way.
Most religious meta-systems are based on absolute truth.
Obtains in open universes;
an evolutionary type of truth which is usable as truth in every way but which is capable of replacement and change.
Proto-truth and hypothesis
It is important to make a clear distinction between the two.
In its essential meaning an hypothesis is a sort of guess which creates an explanation of events which can then be used to design experiments.
Any hypothesis is a provocative tool of science.
For example, I might have an hypothesis that certain species eat their young when upset in order to keep the population constant in an area.
My hypothesis would suggest that in conditions of overcrowding there would be changes in the brain leading to production of chemicals that made an animal more easily irritable.
Such animals would be easily upset and so would eat, their offspring.
Such an hypothesis would lead to a variety of experiments:
- measuring chemicals in the brain
- using tranquilizers
- comparing the provocation thresholds of animals from overcrowded areas with those of animals from less densely populated areas
- observing other instances of irritation in overcrowded areas
After thorough research there might be enough evidence to support a conclusion.
This conclusion would become a proto-truth.
The proto-truth could itself be used deliberately as an hypothesis by someone else who would confirm the proto-truth or replace it with a better one.
The essential difference is a matter of use:
a prototruth is a conclusion (even if short-lived) whereas an hypothesis is a provocative experimental tool.
Proto-truth and pragmatism
This is another important distinction.
Pragmatism was developed by the American philosopher William James who derived the idea from Charles Peirce, another American.
Pragmatism holds that there is no truth except the ‘cash-value’ of an idea.
In other words, a statement is true only if it makes a practical difference to life.
This is generally interpreted to mean that a statement is true only if it is useful.
At once huge dangers open up.
The Nazis may have found it useful to consider the Jews as sub-human because this gave their followers a feeling of superiority which was important for the functioning of the Third Reich.
The Catholic Inquisition may have felt that it was useful to burn apparent heretics because it kept others in line.
Truth can usually be rationalized around actions which seem useful.
A proto-truth does not have to be useful or even usable.
It may make no difference to life at the moment.
It is simply a truth which is acknowledged to be replaceable.
The consequences of proto-truth
Once absolute truth is replaced by proto-truth a number of possibilities at once explode into being.
The practical use of proto-truths
There can be personal proto-truths, group proto-truths and cultural proto-truths as well as more universal ones arrived at by consensus.
Proto-truths are ways of looking at the world, and the experience-histories of different people will lead to different proto-truths.
There may seem an obvious danger here that an individual or group may have arrived at a rather peculiar proto-truth which constitutes a danger to other people (like the Manson cult in the USA).
If such a person or group is entitled to its own version of truth, does this not open the way to anarchy?
The answer is that because a proto-truth is only a temporary truth it cannot be held with sufficient intensity to interfere with the rights or proto-truths of others.
Subjective truths are valid so long as they are not objectively imposed on others.
In any case a person or group who have considered their own version of truth as absolute are not going to be made more dangerous by being told that it is not absolute but only temporary.
The trend would be towards reducing such dangers along with the reduction in arrogance and intolerance.
Like any other truth, a proto-truth should be free of deliberate error or deception.
It should also be based on a full consideration of the situation, not just on a tiny part of it or a special point of view.
The requirements for a proto-truth are no different from the requirements for truth as we now accept them—the only difference is the acknowledgement of the possibility of improvement or replacement.
The Buddhist meta-system insisted that the human mind can only perceive illusion, not reality.
The mind has to be trained away from illusion until it is released into a state of contemplation of pure reality.
The new meta-system insists that illusions are usable and workable and may be regarded as proto-truths.
This does not mean that every illusion is a proto-truth but that some illusions may be regarded as proto-truths and others will still be regarded as illusions.
The distinction is based on the application of the usual criteria of evidence, proof, fit and consensus.
The same distinction can be made between subjective proto-truths and objective proto-truths as is now made with truth.
The only difference is that the arrogance of absolute truth is removed from both.
It may be suggested that if there is no such thing as absolute truth then it is better to dispense with the illusion of truth entirely.
This attitude would mistake the functioning of a self-organizing and evolutionary system.
Animals are ‘definite’ enough even though they may in time evolve into better animals.
It is only because we are so used to considering truth as absolute that proto-truth seems worthless.
In fact proto-truth is of more value than absolute truth because it is evolutionary.
We can use proto-truth with confidence because we know that we are not going to be trapped by it.
Proto-truth is not another word for doubt or indecision.
On the contrary it makes for definiteness and decisiveness:
we must use the proto-truth we have at the moment as we have to do in science.
Without proto-truth life is a meaningless drift of confusion.
The essential point about a proto-truth is that we can use it and believe it—so long as we are prepared to improve or replace it with a better one.
A proto-truth may seem intangible in the way water is intangible.
It cannot be handled and attacked because it is so fluid.
But there is nothing intangible about the way water supports a boat.
Just as a boat makes its way over water so we can live our lives supported by proto-truths that are fluid and changeable.
The new system replaces absolute truth with proto-truth.
Absolute truths only exist in circular systems or special universes.
Proto-truths exist in the sort of open universe with which science and life deal.
A proto-truth is as free from conscious error or deception as any other truth, but it is never held to be unchangeable.
A proto-truth is believable so long as it is realized that it can be improved or replaced by a better one.
Proto-truths are regarded as relatively stable states in the evolution of ideas.
The self-organization of experience forms such stable states both in the mind of individuals and also in society as a whole.
There are individual proto-truths or cultural proto-truths.
Proto-truths are not dogmas but acceptable and sensible ways of looking at the world that fit experience.
Proto-truths may be changed by new experience or by the restructuring of existing experience.
Because proto-truths are not regarded as absolute there is no effort to impose them on other people, and this gives rise to the tolerance of the new meta-system.
Nor is there a need to defend the proto-truths at all costs, and this gives rise to the positive and constructive attitude of the meta-system.
Improvement in the proto-truths is brought about by the process of exlectics instead of dialectics.
Dialectics seek improvement by a process of attack and clash whereas exlectics seek improvement by reconstruction of the initial idea.
“The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not turbulence;
it is to act with yesterday’s logic”. — Peter Drucker
The shift from manual workers
who do as they are being told —
either by the task or by the boss —
TO knowledge workers
who have to manage themselves ↓
profoundly challenges social structure …
“Managing Oneself (PDF) is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.” …
“It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us—even of the younger generation—still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.” …
… “Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities:
Workers are likely to outlive organizations (and therefore, employers can’t be depended on for designing your life),
and the knowledge worker has mobility.” ← in a context
“More than anything else,
has to take more responsibility
for himself or herself,
rather than depend on the company.”
“Making a living is no longer enough
‘Work’ has to make a life .” continue
… finding and selecting the pieces of the puzzle
The Second Curve
These pages are attention directing tools for navigating a world moving relentlessly toward unimagined futures.
What’s the next effective action on the road ahead
It’s up to you to figure out what to harvest and calendarize
— working something out in time (1915, 1940, 1970 … 2040 … the outer limit of your concern) — nobody is going to do it for you.
It may be a step forward to actively reject something (rather than just passively ignoring) and then working out a plan for coping with what you’ve rejected.
Your future is between your ears and our future is between our collective ears — it can’t be otherwise.
A site exploration: The memo THEY don't want you to see
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