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V Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices by (Peter Drucker)
* This is a dynamic outline. Rows with a triangle at the left of the text can be expanded or contracted.
V Preface: The Alternative to Tyranny
> The role of management in keeping society free
> About this book—its aim, its approach and content
* Management
V Introduction: From Management Boom To Management Performance
The emergence of management in this century may have been a pivotal event of history. It signaled a major transformation of society into a pluralist society of institutions, of which managements are the effective organs. Management, after more than a century of development as a practice and as a discipline, burst into public consciousness in the management boom that began after World War II and lasted through the 1960s. What has the boom accomplished? What have we learned? And what are the new knowledges we need, the new challenges we face, the new tasks ahead, now that the management boom is over?
> The Emergence of Management
> The Management Boom and Its Lessons
> The New Challenges
Management is an organ of an institution; and the institution, whether a business or a public service, is in turn an organ of society, existing to make specific contributions and to discharge specific social functions. Management, therefore, cannot be defined or understood let alone practiced except in terms of its performance dimensions and of the demands of performance on it. The tasks of management are the reason for its existence, the determinants of its work, and the grounds of its authority and legitimacy.
V The Dimensions of Management
* Management Is an Organ
* It Exists Only in Contemplation of Performance
> The Three Primary Tasks:
* The Time Dimensions
* Administration and Entrepreneurship
* Efficiency and Effectiveness
* Optimization and Innovation
* The Specific Work of Management: Managing Managers
* Focus on Tasks
V Business Performance
We do not yet have a genuine theory of business and no integrated discipline of business management. But we know what a business is and what its key functions are. We understand the functions of profit and the requirements of productivity. Any business needs to think through the question What is our business and what should it be? From the definition of its mission and purpose a business must derive objectives in a number of key areas; it must balance these objectives against each other and against the competing demands of today and tomorrow. It needs to convert objectives into concrete strategies and to concentrate resources on them. Finally, it needs to think through its strategic planning, i.e., the decisions of today that will make the business of tomorrow.
> Managing a Business: The Sears Story
There are hundreds, if not thousands, of books on the management of the various functions of a business—production, marketing, finance, engineering, purchasing, personnel, public relations, and so forth. But what it is to manage a business, what management is supposed to do and how it should be doing it, are subjects which are rarely discussed.

This oversight is no accident. It reflects the absence of both a tenable theory of business enterprise and an adequate discipline of management. Therefore, rather than theorizing, we shall first look at the conduct and behavior of an actual business enterprise. There is no better illustration of what a business is and what managing it means than one of America's most successful enterprises: Sears, Roebuck and Company.
> What is a Business
> Business Purpose and Business Mission
> The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons
> Strategies, Objectives, Priorities, and Work Assignments
> Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill
V Performance in the Service Institution
The public service institutions government agency and hospital, school and university, armed service and professional associations have been growing much faster than businesses in this century. They are the growth sector of a modern society. And within business, the service staffs have been growing much faster than the operating units. Yet performance has not kept up with growth or importance. What explains the lag in or absence of performance in the service institutions? What is needed to manage service institutions for performance?
> The Multi-Institutional Society
> Why Service Institutions Do Not Perform
> The Exceptions and Their Lessons
> Managing Service Institutions for Performance
V Productive Work and Achieving Worker
Making work productive and the worker achieving is the second major dimension of the management task. We know little about it. Folklore and old wives' tales abound, but solid, tested knowledge is scarce. We do know that work and the work force are undergoing greater changes today than at any time since the beginning of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. We do know that, at least in the developed countries, radically new approaches are needed to the analysis, synthesis, and control of work and production; to job structure, work relationships, and the structure of economic rewards and power relations; to making workers responsible. We do know that we have to move from "managing personnel" as a "cost center" and a "problem" to the leadership of people.
> The New Realities
> What We Know (and Don't Know) About Work, Working, and Worker
> Making Work Productive: Work and Process
> Making Work Productive: Controls and Tools
> Worker and Working: Theories and Reality
> Success Stories: Japan, Zeiss, IBM
> The Responsible Worker
> Employment, Incomes, and Benefits
> "People Are Our Greatest Asset"
V Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities—The quality of life is the third major task area for management. Managements of all institutions are responsibile for their by products, that is, the impacts of their legitimate activities on people and on the physical and social environment. They are increasingly expected to anticipate and to resolve social problems. They need to think through and develop new policies for the relationship of business and government, which is rapidly outgrowing traditional theories and habits. What are the tasks? What are the opportunities? What are the limitations? And what are the ethics of leadership for the manager who is a leader but not a master?
> Management and the Quality of Life
> Social Impacts and Social Problems
> The Limits of Social Responsibility
> Business and Government
> Primum Non Nocere: The Ethics of Responsibility
Managers do not hold their jobs by "delegation." They are thus autonomous and grounded in the needs and realities of enterprise. There are thus managerial jobs: there is managerial work; there are managerial skills; and there is distinct managerial organization.
> Why Managers?
V The Manager's Work and Jobs
What makes a manager is responsibility for contribution to the results of the enterprise rather than "responsibility for the work of others." It is responsibility for his own work; and there is a distinct "work of the manager," there are distinct "managerial jobs." There is a distinct way to manage managers: by objectives and self control. There are also new requirements as we move from "middle management" to the "knowledge organization." Finally, managers have to be managed so as to engender in them a spirit of performance.
> What Makes a Manager?
> The Manager and His Work
> Design and Content of Managerial Jobs
> Developing Management and Managers
> Management by Objectives and Self-Control
> From Middle Management to Knowledge Organization
> The Spirit of Performance
V Managerial Skills
Managing is specific work. As such it requires specific skills. Among them are: making effective decisions; communications within and without the organization; the proper use of controls and measurements; the proper use of analytical tools, that is, of the management sciences. No manager is likely to master all these skills. But every manager needs to understand what they are, what they can do for him, and what, in turn, they require of him. Every manager needs basic literacy with respect to essential managerial skills.
> The Effective Decision
> Managerial Communications
> Controls, Control, and Management
> The Manager and the Management Sciences
V Managerial Organization
Organization structure is the oldest and most thoroughly studied area in management. But we face new needs in organization which the well known and well tested structural designs of "functional" and "decentralized" organization cannot adequately satisfy. New structural designs are emerging: "the task force team"; "simulated decentralization"; "the systems" structure. We have learned that organization does not start with structure but with building blocks; that there is no one right or universal design but that each enterprise needs to design around the key activities appropriate to its mission and its strategies; that three different kinds of work, operating, innovative, and top management, require being structured and lodged under the same organizational roof and that organization structure needs to be both task focused and person focused and to have both an authority axis and a responsibility axis.
> New Needs and New Approaches
> The Building Blocks of Organization
> ... And How They Join Together
> Design Logics and Design Specifications
> Work and Task Focused Design: Functional Structure and Team
> Result-Focused Design: Federal and Simulated Decentralization
> Relations-Focused Design: The Systems Structure
> Organization Conclusions
Top Management is the directing, vision-setting, standard-setting organ. As such it has specific tasks. It requires its own organization. And it faces specific top management challenges of structure and strategy with respect to size and complexity, diversity and diversification, growth, change, and innovation.
> Georg Siemens and the Deutsche Bank
V Top-Management Tasks and Organization
Top-Management tasks differ fundamentally from the tasks of the other management groups. They are multidimensional. They are recurrent but intermittent. They make different and often conflicting demands on personality and temperament. There is, therefore, need so to structure the top management job that both the objective tasks to be accomplished and the personalities of the people available are taken care of. And there is need for providing top management with the stimulation and information it needs for its specific tasks.
> Top-Management Tasks
> Top-Management Structure
> Needed: An Effective Board
V Strategies and Structures
The job, task, and responsibilities of worker and foreman in the plant, key punch operator and secretary in the office, metallurgist in the engineering lab, field salesman and branch manager of a bank or insurance company are little affected by size, complexity, growth, or diversity. Even innovation has an effect on most people in an organization only after it has become accomplished fact. But the structure, the behavior, the tasks, and the strategies of top management are profoundly molded by changes in size and complexity, by diversification, growth, and innovation. And, in turn, top management and only top management can make the strategic decisions that lead to growth, diversification, or innovation. The managerial strategies that relate to a company's basic structure have received almost no attention. They may, however, be of greater importance than strategies with respect to finances, product development, or marketing on which the discussion has focused. Size, diversity, complexity, growth, and innovation are, above all, managerial challenges and opportunities to top management and make managerial demands on it.
> On Being the Right Size
> Managing the Small, the Fair-Sized, the Big Business
> On Being the Wrong Size
> The Pressures for Diversity
> Building Unity Out of Diversity
> Managing Diversity
> The Multinational Corporation
> Managing Growth
> The Innovative Organization
* In this century society has become a society of organizations. Every major social task in this society is being performed in and through large, managed institutions. As a result, the great majority of people in developed countries work as employees. They work as members of managed institutions and within a managerial structure and organization.
* In this century society has become a knowledge society. More and more of the members of developed society make their living by putting knowledge to work. More and more acquire their qualifications through long years of formal education. More and more of them are managers themselves or work as knowledge professionals with direct responsibility for performance and results.
* The two developments are interrelated. Because of the emergence of the society of organizations, one can now make a living through knowledge work. And because of the availability of large numbers of people with substantial formal education, large institutions are possible and can be managed.
* Management is both the carrier and the result of these two developments. It is the organ through which the institutions of the society of organizations can be made to function and to perform their mission. And management itself is such a "knowledge." It is a discipline with its own subject matters, its own skills, its own expertise. Above all, the managers of these institutions in a society of organizations form the leadership groups of the society.
* Unless this society of organizations destroys itself, managers as a leadership group and management as a discipline and challenge will remain with us. To repeat the leitmotiv of this book, we are moving from management boom to management performance. It is the task of this management generation to make the institutions of the society of organizations, beginning with the business enterprise, perform for society and economy; for the community; and for the individual alike.
* This requires, first, that managers know their discipline. It requires that they know management.
* We hear a great deal today about the manager of the future. But the important man is the manager of today. And the first requirement is that the manager know his craft, his tools, his task and responsibility. The first requirement is that he be able to function.
> The Limits of Technocracy
> The Need for Legitimacy

Also see Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices simple table of contents and Management, Revised Edition

Peter Drucker: Conceptual Resources

The Über Mentor

A political / social ecologist
a different way of seeing and thinking about
the big picture
— lead to his top-of-the-food-chain reputation

drucker business week

about Management (a shock to the system)


“I am not a ‘theoretician’; through my consulting practice I am in daily touch with the concrete opportunities and problems of a fairly large number of institutions, foremost among them businesses but also hospitals, government agencies and public-service institutions such as museums and universities.

And I am working with such institutions on several continents: North America, including Canada and Mexico; Latin America; Europe; Japan and South East Asia.” — PFD




List of his books


Large combined outline of Drucker’s books — useful for topic searching.




High tech is living in the nineteenth century,
the pre-management world.
They believe that people pay for technology.
They have a romance with technology.
But people don't pay for technology:
they pay for what they get out of technology.” —
The Frontiers of Management


“The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not turbulence; it is to act with yesterday’s logic”. — Peter Drucker

The shift from manual workers who do as they are being told — either by the task or by the boss — to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves ↓ profoundly challenges social structure

Managing Oneself is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.” … “It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us—even of the younger generation—still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.” …

… “Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations (and therefore, employers can’t be depended on for designing your life), and the knowledge worker has mobility.” ← in a context




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