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Juran on Planning for Quality

Juran planning for quality

Amazon link: JURAN ON PLANNING FOR QUALITY

J.M. Juran page on Amazon

Also see Leadership for Quality

  • Juran on Planning for Quality
    • Introduction to Quality Planning
      • Why should we spend time learning about quality planning
      • The mission of Juran on Planning for Quality
        • Awareness
      • What is quality?
        • Product Performance and Freedom From Deficiencies
          • Product Performance—Product Satisfaction
          • Freedom from deficiencies—Product Dissatisfaction
        • "Fitness for use"
        • The spiral of progress in quality
      • "Product" included Goods and Services
      • Who Are The Customers?
        • External customers
        • Internal customers
        • Customers as suppliers
        • Customers and users
      • Summary (Interim)
      • The Juran Trilogy
        • The Trilogy is not so new
        • Quality Planning compared with quality improvement
        • The quality Planning Road Map
      • Summary (Concluded)
    • Interdepartmental projects
      • Who are the customers?
        • The input-output diagram
        • The product
        • The flow diagram
          • Basic systems
          • The benefits of flow diagrams
          • The sources of flow diagrams
        • The "Processor Team"
        • To identify customers follow the product
        • Categories of customers
          • Significan Impacts
          • Key interfaces
        • Classifications Based on Importance
        • Vital Few Customers
        • Useful Many Customers
          • Consumers
          • The workforce
          • Middle managers and professionals
        • Classification Based on Use
          • Processors
          • Merchants
          • Ultimate Users
          • The Public
      • What are the needs of customers?
        • Varieties of Customers Needs
          • Stated Needs and Real Needs
          • Perceived Needs
          • Perceived Needs, Product related
          • Cultural Needs
          • Needs traceable to Unintended Use
        • Systematic Organization of Needs
          • The Pyramic of Needs
          • The Spreadsheet
        • The Processes for discovering customer's needs
          • Be a customer
            • Direct exposure
            • Training
          • Communicate with customers
            • Customer-initied communication
            • Supplier-initiated communication
            • Communication through behavior
              • Marketing Research—External
                • Which product features are of primary importance to you?
                • As to those key features, how does our product compare to that of our competitors?
                • What is the significance of those qualtiy differences to you in money or in other ways that might be important to you?
                • An atmosphere that permits a free flow of open-ended, supplementat questions
                • Who?
                  • Vital few clients
                  • Nonclients
                  • Processors
                  • Merchants
                  • Ultimate users—consumers
                    • Bais in perceptions
                  • Ultimate users—Other
                  • The Public
              • Marketing Research—Internal
                • Middle managers and professional
                • The workforce
              • The Sampling Concept
          • Simulate customer's use
        • Customers' Needs—A moving target
      • Translation
        • The Language Problem
          • Vague terminology
          • Multiple Dialects
          • Remedies
            • The glossary
            • Samples
            • Special organization to translate
            • Standardization
            • Measurement
        • Fitting the translations into the spreadsheet
      • Establish Units of Measure
        • The Need to measure
          • A wide range of use
            • In the quality planning road map
              • Evaluation of customer needs and our needs
              • Evaluation of product and process features
              • Establishment of optimal product and process goals
            • Other uses
              • Value of quality
              • Salability of quality
              • Quality of competing products
              • Cost of attaining quality
              • Cost of poor quality
        • The spectrum of units of measure
          • Technological level
          • Product performance
          • Errors and failures
          • Functional departmental performance measures
          • Upper management level
          • Evaluation of manager's performance
        • Precise definition
        • Units of measure for abstraction
        • The pyramid of units of measure
        • The ideal unit of measure
          • An agreed basis for decision making
          • Understandable
          • Applies broadly
          • Is susceptible of uniform interpretation
          • Is economic to aplly
          • Is compatible with existing designs of sensors
        • Creating a new unit of measure
        • Unit of measure for variability
        • Update of the quality planning spreadsheet
        • On to measurement
      • Establish Measurement
        • The sensor
        • Applications of sensors to quality planning
        • Varieties of sensors
        • Functions of sensors
        • Precision, accuracy and maintenance of sensors
        • Human sensors
          • Misinterpretation
          • Inadvertent Errors
          • Lack of Technique
          • Consciours Errors
          • Bias
          • Futility
        • Timing of Sensing
        • Sensing to secure early warning for quality planners
        • Sensors at managerial levels
        • Measures of economic consequences of quality
          • The effects of quality on costs
            • Short range—Project by project sturctured quality improvement
            • Long range—Quality planning
          • The effect of quality on sales income
          • The effect of quality on sales income
      • Product Development
        • The end result of product development is information: a plan
        • Who are the quality planners?
          • Operating managers and line specialists
          • The quality plannig activities
        • Product development means providing product features that respond to customer needs
        • Ideally every such product feature should comply with the following criteria.
          • Meet the needs of customers
            • Customers: both internal and external
            • Needs: Stated and perceived needs plus real needs (see chp 3)
          • Meet our needs
          • Meet competition: "best in class"
          • Optimize the cost: minimize the combined cost of
            • Original purchase price
            • Life cycle cost
        • Product features: The development cycle
          • If a suitable solution is already in existence then product development consists of applying those known designs to meet customer needs.
          • At the other extreme it may be necessary to go through the full cycle of product development.
            • Nomination of the scientific conceptual principle to be employed (e.g., electronic, hydralic, optical)
            • Study of technical feasibility
            • Economic evaluation
            • Decision on conceptual principle
            • Model design, construction, and test
            • Scale up
        • The effect of proliferation
          • As the scale of operations grows, everything multiplies—the numbers proliferate
            • A bigger market means
              • More customers
              • A wider product line
              • More product features
            • A bigger company employs more people and hence more internal customers to satisfy
            • That same bigger market attracts more competitors and hence imposes more restraints
          • The resulting combinations (of customers and needs) not only require development of large numbers of product features; they also require a systematic approach to deal with all those numbers and the resulting complexity.
          • Developing all those product features can involve extensive work in technology.
          • Some of the planning is done to help the product developers
            • get their arms around the complexities
            • make optimal use of their technology
        • The Need for structure
          • Spreadsheet
            • Add present product features
            • The relationship between customer needs and present product features
          • The phase system
            • Market research
            • Preliminary design
            • Design evaluation
            • Model design, construction, test
            • Pilot production model design, construction, and test
            • Planning for full scale manufacture
            • Etc
          • Product subdivision (or product breakdown)
            • A process for going from the system design level down to lower levels in the product hierarchy
            • Physical goods
              • Systems
              • Subsystems
              • Components
              • Assemblies
              • Parts
            • For large systems the constituent elements can run into huge numbers
          • Criticality analysis (identify the vital few features)
            • Product feature classification for criticality
              • Essential to human safety
              • Legislated mandates
              • Essential to salability
              • Demanding as to investment
              • Demanding as to continuity
              • Long lead time
              • Instability
                • Inherently unstable because of failure-proneness (e.g., numerous components)
                • Low shelf life
                • Susceptibility to misuse
            • Criticaliyt reflects the combined views of both the customer and supplier
            • Criticality Analysis Spreadsheet
            • Component/Assembly Criticality Analysis
          • Competitive Analysis
            • Competitive analysis is essential in a market-based society and is applicable to all aspects of business operation. (Not covered here)
            • Product features presence or absense & performance
            • Process features
              • Look at the process used by competitors to produce their products
              • Process yield
          • Salability analysis (Salability is the result of numerous forces)
            • Broad application to internal as well as external customers
            • Evaluation of Salability—A contrast
              • A new levle of collaboration between the marketing and quality functions. This opportunity should not be missed.
            • The tools of analysis
              • Customer behavior
                • Consists of deed: what the customer did or did not do. The behavior is exhibited in these forms:
                  • Products purchased or not purchased
                  • Demands for options
                  • Demands for "specials"
                  • Bids: successful and unsuccessful
                  • Products used or not used
              • The reasons behind customer behavior can come from customer perceptions and customer opinions. Customer perceptions are conclusions derived mainly from use of the product. Customer opinions are assertions based mainly on judgement
                • Customer perceptions
                • Customer opinions
              • Product differences
                • At the "obvious" end of the spectrum the quality differences can be decisive in product salability.
                • At the "no difference" end, it is the marketing skills that become decisive.
              • Quality differences
                • Translatable into user economics
                • Minor but demonstrable
                • Not verifiable but accepted on faith
              • Interaction: Product development and marketing (selling) skill
                • Some products hold more than 80 percent of share of market despite being neurtral as to consumer preference.
                  • Getting to market first ("prior franchise")
                  • Attractive packaging
                  • Persuasive propaganda
          • Analysis to avoid failure
            • Carryover of failure-prone features of prior products
            • Avoiding internal failures
          • Value analysis
            • A process for evaluating the interrelationships among the functions performed by product features and the associated costs.
            • The aim of value analysis is to help supply the functions needed by customers and to do so at minimal cost.
            • The inputs to value analysis process consist largely of:
            • Starting with such inputs, the value analysis process undertakes several activities
            • Methods
      • Optimize Product Design
        • Mission: Arrive at an optimum for product design
          • Optimum-that result which will
            • Meet customer's needs and our needs
            • Minimize our combined cost
        • Product goals: The terminology
          • Products—the end result of any process.
          • Quality Goals—aimed at a quality target.
          • Quality standards—mandated models to be followed
          • A blurred distinction between quality standards and quality goals
          • Doing things right versus doing the right things
        • Hierarchies of goals
          • Applied to organizational performance
          • Applied to corporate levels
        • A goal should be…
          • Optimal as to overall results
          • All-inclusive
          • Maintainable
          • Ecomonic
          • Legitimate
          • Understandable
          • Applicable
          • Worthwhile
          • Attainable
          • Equitable
        • The bases for establishing quality goals
          • History as a basis
          • Engineering study
          • Market
          • Decreed Quality standards: internal monopoies
        • Zero defects as a goal
        • Summary (Interim)
        • Concept of the optimum
          • The optimum quality goal
            • Meet the needs of customer and supplier alike
            • Minimize their combined cost
          • Obstacles to overcome
            • Suboptimizing
              • Suboptimization between companies
              • Joint planning
              • Suboptimization within companies
            • Participation
              • Contributions of participants
                • Early warning of upcoming problems
                • Data to aid in finding the optimum
                • Challenge to theories
              • Organizing for participation
                • Main activities
                  • Assemble the inputs
                  • Find the optimum
                  • Resolve differences
                  • Decise on the goal
                  • Publish the goal
                • Alternatives for organization
                  • The coordinator
                  • The interdepartmental team
            • Resolving differences
              • Local forces
              • Essential inputs
              • Technological analysis
                • Orthogonal arrays
                • See parameter manager plus by SMS ?
              • Economic analysis
              • Behavioral obstacles
                • The claim of exclusive jurisdiction
                • Authority of expertise
                • Specialist and broad planning
            • Resolving differences: Some methodologies
              • The Coonley—Agnew Process
              • The altenatives of Follett
                • Dominance
                • Compromise
                • Consturctive Conflict
        • Publication of standards and goals
          • Authentications
          • Issuance
      • Process Development
        • Mission: develop a process for producing products that meet product goals
        • What is a process?
          • A systematic series of actions directed to the achievement of a goal
          • Should be
            • Goal oriented
            • Systematic
            • Capable
            • Legitimate
        • Varieties of processes
          • Examples
            • Launching new products
            • Recruiting new employees
            • Filling customer orders
            • Providing manufacturing facilities
            • Producing goods
            • Providing customer service
            • Performing various tasks and operations
            • Maintaining control during operations
          • Quite often quality oriented processes must be fitted into broader company processes.
        • Responsibilities for process planning
          • The hierarchies of goals and processes creates also a hierachy of process planners
          • Hierarchy of processes
            • Interdepartmental processes
            • Intradepartmental processes
            • Tasks and operations
        • Ingredients of process planning
          • Process planning is itself carried out by a process
          • The aim is to provide the operating forces with the means for meeting operating goals
          • Planning activities & their end result
            • Review goals for clarity and attainability—attainable goals
            • Choose process for conduct of operations—Economic, feasible process: process definition
            • Provide physical facilities capable of meeting goals—Capable goals
            • Provide methods, procedures, cautions—Information required by operating forces to conduct operations
          • The final result—the process—consists of one or more of the following
            • Software
            • Hardware
            • Information
        • The specifics of process planning
          • Process capability: the concept
            • The urge to quantify
            • Life without quantifications
            • Discussion
              • Evaluating process capability: the methods
                • Process capability for an existing process may be evaluated by collecting data on
                  • The quality features of the product turned out by the process
                  • The quality features of the process itself
                • Process performance and process capability
                • Process capability: Effect on quality planning (one of the most fundamental elements)
                  • Planners usually have a range of choice among alternative processes.
                  • Those alternatives differ from each other with respect to multiple features:
                    • Productivity
                    • Capital investment
                    • Operating cost
                    • Quality
                  • The ability of the planners to choose the optimal process depends on the extent to which they have information on the comparative capabilities of the competing processes.
              • Process variability
                • All processes exhibit variability
                • Under operating conditions
                • The bead bowl demonstration
              • Attributes and Variable data
                • The final result is the result of all of the possible variations
                • Attributes exist or they don't
                • Variables data—The measure of variability
                  • Frequency distribution
                    • Central tendency
                    • Dispersion
                  • Unit of measure for variability—standard deviation
                  • Some refinements
              • Application to manufacuring processes
                • Process capability = ? standard deviations
                • Process Capability Index
              • Application to nonmanufacturing processes—a problem
              • Data Banks on Process Capability
                • Use of data banks
                • Outside the company
                • Within the company
                • Unit of measesure
              • As seen by ultimate users
              • Procedure for creating data banks
          • Process design
            • The activity of defining the specific means to be used by the operating forces for meeting product goals.
              • The physical equipment to be provided
              • The associated software (the brain and nervous system of the equipment)
              • The information on how to operated, control, and maintain the equipment
            • Requires
              • Knowledge (Review ) of goals
              • Knowledge of Operationg conditions:
                • Users understanding of the process
                • How will the process be used
                • What will be the environments of use
              • Knowledge of the capability of alternative processes
            • The process design spreadsheet
            • Process design: Macro level
              • Carryover of existing process designs
              • The anatomy of processes
                • The autonomous department
                • The assembly "tree"
                • The procession
                • The biological process
                • Conversions
            • The emerging process features
              • Entered on the process design spreadsheet
              • Becomes a focal point of a system of process control
            • Making use of process capability data
              • By quantifying process capability in standardized terms manufacturing planners have markedly increased their ability to
                • Judge the adequacy of a process relative to product tolerances
                • Compare competing processes in terms of their inherent precision
                • Predict process yields
                • Judge the effectiveness of steps taken to improve quality
              • The use of technological instruments
            • Process capability data not available
              • They can:
            • The concept of dominance
              • Operating processes are influenced by numerous variables:
              • These variables are not equally important
              • Some of the more usual forms of process dominance
                • Setup-dominant
                • Time-dominant
                • Component-dominant
                • Worker-dominant
                • Information-dominant
            • Tasks for process designers
              • Acquire the necessary inputs
                • Review of goals
                • User's understanding of the process
                • What will be the envirionment of use?
                • Carryover of existing process designs
              • Proceed from the macro level down to details with the aid of spreadsheets
              • Make use of the various concepts and tools
                • Anatomy of the process
                • Concept of dominance
                • Process capability
              • Other tasks deducted from the contents of the "package" they are expected to deliver to the operating forces
                • Establish the relation of process variable to product results
                • Provide measurement capability
                • Establish adjustment capability
                • Transfer to Operations
          • Planning for process control
            • Control
              • Evaluate the actual performance of the process
              • Compare actual performance with goals
              • Take action on the difference
            • The feedback loop
              • Process
              • Sensor
              • Goal
              • Collator
              • Actuator
            • Self-control: the criteria
            • Control subjects
              • Product features
              • Process features
              • Side effect features
            • Responsibility for planning process controls
              • Who is to carry out the following specific activities
                • Identify the control subjects
            • The process control spreadsheet
            • Stages of process control
              • Setup control
              • Running control
              • Product control
              • Facilities Control
      • Optimizing, Proof of Process Capability and Transfer to Operations
        • Optimization: A look back
          • In developing product goals
          • Value analysis
          • Life cycle costs
          • Product and process performance
        • Optimization relative to external suppliers
          • Team relationship
        • Optimization internally
          • Design review
          • Joint planning
        • Planning to reduce human error
          • Performance of the work should convey a message to the worker
          • Principles of foolproofing
            • Classes of foolproofing methose
              • Elimination
              • Replacement
              • Facilitation
              • Detection
              • Mitigation
            • Classes of errors
              • memory
              • perception
              • motion
        • Planning for critical processes
          • Time to respond to a crisis
          • Criteria for qualification of operating forces
          • Rehearsal, simulation
          • Maintenance
          • Systematic feedback
        • Proof of process capability
          • Dry runs
          • Pilot testing
          • Process Validation
        • Simulation to prove process capability
          • Examples of simulation
          • Mathematical models
          • Limitations and risks in simulation: two worlds
            • Scale of Operations
            • Technology
            • The mission
            • Personnel
        • Process not capable
        • Proof that the planning process is controllable
        • Transfer of know-how
          • Process Specifications
          • Procedured
          • Briefings
          • On-the-job-training
          • Formal training courses
          • Prior participation
        • The formalities of transfer
        • Quality characteristic
    • Companywide Quality Management
      • What is companywide quality management?
        • The financial parallel
        • The applications to quality
      • Why go into CWQM?
        • The methods of the past
        • Disadvantages of CWQM
        • Effect on Morale
      • Getting Started
      • Quality Policies
        • Customer Relations
        • Competitiveness
        • Quality Improvement
        • Internal Customers
        • Enforcement
      • Quality Goals
        • Examples
        • Infrastructure for Goal Setting
        • Nonfactory Goals
        • Joint Goals with clients
        • Joint goals with outside suppliers
        • Goal: The Overlap with Policies
      • Planning to Meet Goals
        • Providing Resources
      • Quality Controls
        • Evaluating Actual performance
        • Evaluation at Upper Levels
          • Field performance
          • Competitive Performance
          • Product salability
          • Performance on quality improvement
          • Performance of managers relative to quality
          • Special Needs
        • Human Sensing
        • Quality Audits
        • Audits at technological levels
        • Audits at managerial levels
        • The president's Quality Audit
      • The quality report package
        • Format
      • Corporate interference
        • Examples of Mandates
          • "World Class"
        • Mandated methods
        • Mandated training
        • Cultural Resistance
    • Departmental Quality Planning
      • Basic Concepts and definitions of terms
        • Goal
        • Process
        • Processor
        • Processor Team
        • Product: Output
        • Customer
        • Inputs
        • Supplier
        • Feedback
      • The Triple Role
      • The Triprol Diagram
      • Applying the triple role concept
      • Vital Few Activities: Pareto analysis
      • The list of products
      • Who are our customers
      • Vital few customers
      • Useful many customers
      • What are the needs of our customers?
        • Sources of information
        • Users—The key source of information
      • Do our products meet customer's needs?
      • Is our process capable of meeting customer needs?
      • Are our process controls adequate?
      • Are our products competitive
      • Do Our products provide value commensurate with cost
        • The value of quality
        • Cost of providing quality
      • Do our products serve a useful purpose?
      • Those wasteful "Loops" in the flow diagram
      • The long list of opportunities for improvement
      • Making improvements
        • Departmental Problems
        • Interdepartmental Problems
      • The triple role anaysis: Analysis by whom
        • Full-time analysts
        • Managerial Teams
        • Workforce participation
      • The end result of departmental quality planning
      • Departmental quality planning can we standardize?
    • Introducing Planning for Quality to the organization
      • From two view points
        • The viewpoint of the advocate
          • Dissatisfactions with prior results
          • Theories of causes
          • The supercause
          • The remedy
        • The view from the receiving end
          • Groups
            • The explorers
            • The conservatives
            • The inhibitors
          • Stated objections
      • Bridging the viewpoints: pilot tests
        • Companies move in single file
        • Pilot tests at different levels
          • Departmental
          • Multidepartmental
          • Business
          • Workforce
      • Organization
        • The immune reaction
      • Training
        • Training requirements
        • Facilitators
          • Explain the mission
          • Provide assistance in team building
          • Assist in discussion of the training materials
          • Relate experinces of other project teams
          • Assist the project team chairman
      • Introducing a major planning tool: Lessons Learned
        • The source of the planners' data base
          • Countdowns: a list of actions in a time sequence
          • Needed breakthroughs
        • The merits
        • The concept
        • Forms of lessons learned
        • Obstacles to compilation of lessons learned
        • Organization to develop lessons learned
        • Leasons learned through retrospective analysis

 

“The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not turbulence; it is to act with yesterday’s logic”. — Peter Drucker


The shift from manual workers who do as they are being told — either by the task or by the boss — to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves ↓ profoundly challenges social structure

Managing Oneself is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.” … “It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us—even of the younger generation—still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.” …

… “Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations (and therefore, employers can’t be depended on for designing your life), and the knowledge worker has mobility.” ← in a context

 

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