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Mental tools for navigating the roads ahead

… and making the future in a world moving toward unimagined futureS

… with the help of Peter DruckerNiccolò Machiavelli


This may not be what you’re looking for — otherwise it would be pointless …

This should take you outside your comfort zone — otherwise it would be useless …

Our comfort zones are history based. This is about the roadS ahead …


When we are involved in doing something, it is very difficult
to look outside that involvement — even when our future depends on it ↓ …

 

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The following ↓ is a condensed strategic brainscape that can be explored and modified to fit a user’s needs

 

The concepts and links below ↓ are …

major foundations ↓ for future directed decisionS

aimed at navigating

a world constantly moving toward unimagined futureS

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YouTube: The History of the World in Two Hours
— beginning with the industrial revolution ↑ ↓

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We can only work on the thingS on our mental radar at a point in time

About time The future that has already happened

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The economic and social health of our world
depends on
our capacity to navigate unimagined futureS
(and not be prisoners of the past)

The assumption that tomorrow is going to be
an extrapolation of yesterday sabotages the future — an
organization’s, a community’s and a nation’s future.

The future is unpredictable and that means
it ain’t going to be like today
(which was designed yesterday)

The capacity to navigate is governed by what’s between our ears ↓

 

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When we are involved in doing something ↑

it is extremely difficult to navigate

and very easy to become a prisoner of the past.

We need to maintain a pre-thought ↓

systematic approach to work and work approach

Click on either side of the image below to see a larger view

Harvest to action

Harvesting and implementing Work

based on reality

the non-linearity of time and events

and the unpredictability of the future

with its unimagined natureS. ↓ ↑

(It’s just a matter of time before we can’t get to the future
from where we are presently
)

larger view

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Intelligence and behavior ↑ ↓ ← Niccolò Machiavelli ↑ ↓

Political ecologists believe that the traditional disciplines define fairly narrow and limited tools rather than meaningful and self-contained areas of knowledge, action, and eventscontinue

❡ ❡ ❡

Foundational ↑ Books → The Lessons of History — unfolding realities (the need for a political and social theory and toward a theory of organizations) ::: The Essential Drucker — your horizons? ::: Textbook of Wisdom — conceptual vision and imagination tools ::: The Daily Drucker — conceptual breadth ::: Management Cases (Revised Edition) see chapter titles for examples of “named” situations …

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What do these ideas, concepts, horizons mean for me? continue

 

Exploration paths → The memo they don’t want you to see ::: Peter Drucker — top of the food chain ::: Work life foundations (links to Managing Oneself) ::: A century of social transformation ::: Post-capitalist executive ::: Allocating your life ::: What executives should remember ::: What makes an effective executive? ::: Innovation ::: Drucker’s “Time” and “Toward tomorrowS” books ::: Concepts (a WIP) ::: Site map a.k.a. brainscape, thoughtscape, timescape

 

Just reading ↑ is not enough, harvesting and action thinking are neededcontinue

Information ↑ is not enough, thinking ↓ is neededfirst then next

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Larger view of thinking principles ↑ Text version ↑ :::
Always be constructiveWhat additional thinking is needed?

 

Initially and absolutely needed: the willingness and capacity to
regularly look outside of current mental involvements continue

 

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Page contents: Seeing the mental challenge (just below) ::: Top of the food-chain ::: What’s in it for you? ::: Reflections on vanishing realities ::: What else is in it for you? ::: Exploration areas (WIP) ::: Only connect ::: Individuals in a society of organizations (WIP) ::: Executives and leaders ::: Just reading is not enough → concepts to daily action

 

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The mental challenge

A view of Economic Content And Structure The change leader

“Once you have seen something you cannotunsee’ it.

Our thinking, choices, decisions ↓ are determined by what we have seen” … continue … “And our brain can only see ↓ what it’s prepared to see” … continue

 

This page is just 1 of more than 500 aimed at …

 

… a work approach for navigating a world moving toward unimagined futureS

 

Navigating requires future-directedtime-usage decisionS

Navigating implies deciding on horizons to work toward

There is a very good chance that you’ll outlive your employer or
get terminally bored.

 

Here’s the thing ↓

We can only work on, with, and toward the things on our mental radar at a point in time ↓ in a world moving toward unimagined futureS.

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Our existing mental radar always poses a significant danger — a thinking landscape is needed and that’s what rlaexp.com provides ↓

Having alternative mental landscapes is a valuable possession. ↓

The diversity of attention-directing thought-fragments on this page and its linked pages are part of that navigation landscape which is big, complex, open-ended and unprecedented …

cork board radar

So what can you do with these thought fragments?

You can select areas of interest and make a note of the ones you want on your radar.

You can employ what does this mean for me? (illustration), dense reading and dense listening plus thinking broad and thinking detailed with operacy to see where that takes you.

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Waiting for an obvious signal to look and seeoutside existing involvements is a bad work approach ↓

Your organization’s revenue sources will begin to diminish
long before you’re prepared for it

And what about the ability to point others in the “right” directionS ↑ ↓

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Along this road there have been major wars, social upheaval, governmental and organizational bankruptcies, epidemics, personal tragedies and other reasons to care: here and here

People (“progressive” thinkers) seem to focus on fixing obvious symptoms / issues
while assuming that everything else remains static — NOT

How To Guarantee Non-Performance

The actual results of action are not predictable

The futility of politics and the new polity

pics ::: situations matter ::: what needs doing?

 

It is useful to think ↓ about everything ↓ in the context of the illustration above. ↑

“The brain is a history library that has to run in the future tense.”
How useful can brainstorming be if it only contains the past?
And yet continuity is needed …

The reality of the present is not the sum of school offerings —
not even the most prestigious schools

Being obsessed with getting things done (GTD) will likely
leave a person in a prison of the past ↑ and that
hardly has anything to do with productivity.
Contribution is a far more relevant and effective concept today.
How about making everyone a contributor?

Mentally see ↑ and this → Examining the news or newspapers of 1850, 1900, 1950 or …
reveal little of the reality of today (the current present) … All of
the yada, yada, yada in the “buzz” is likely to be future irrelevant or misleading …
because the future is unpredictable and that means
it’s not going to be like yesterday —
you can’t get there directly from here

And the experts are nearly always prisoners of the past!
What about social ecologists?

 

Today is always the result of actions and decisions taken yesterday.”

“Decision making is a time machine

that synchronizes into a single time — the present
a great number of divergent time spans.

We are learning this only now.

Our approach still tends toward making plans for something
we will decide to do in the future,
which may be entertaining but is futile.

We can make decisions only in the present,
and yet we cannot make decisions for the present alone;
the most expedient, most opportunistic decision—let alone
the decision not to decide at all—
may commit us for a long time,
if not permanently and irrevocably.” — Chapter 11, MRE by PFD

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At one time Kodak employed over 60,000 workers. By 2015
that number had shrunk to 2,000+. Think about the domino and ripple impact
on families and real estate values etc.

 

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Top of the food chain

rlaexp.com’s 500+ pages provide an exploration landscape and timescape largely based on the top-of-the-food-chain work of Peter Drucker and Edward de Bono.

The effective food-chain and its evolution governs how the world works. At one time Jack Welch insisted that GE’s divisions be number one or two in the world — in other words top-of-the-food-chain — or they would be fixed, sold or closed. continue


Three foreigners—all Americans—are thought by the Japanese to be mainly responsible for the economic recovery of their country after World War II and for its emergence as a leading economic power.

Edwards Deming taught the Japanese statistical quality control and introduced the “quality circle.”

Joseph M. Juran taught them how, to organize production in the factory and how to train and manage people at work.

I (Peter Drucker) am the third of these American teachers. My contribution, or so the Japanese see it, was to continue


In forty-five years of work as a consultant with a large number of executives in a wide variety of organizations—large and small; businesses, government agencies, labor unions, hospitals, universities, community services; American, European, Latin American and Japanese—I have not come across a single “natural”: an executive who was born effective. They had to learn continue

 

Drucker was convinced that knowledge has become the only meaningful resource and that this reality creates unprecedented social and economic dynamics.

Knowledge exists only in application

In other words this changes the dynamics of how the world worksmobile knowledge that continuously changes itself and a network society are two examples.

“The terms knowledge industries, knowledge work and knowledge worker
are nearly fifty years old.

They were coined around 1960, simultaneously but independently—
the first by a Princeton economist, Fritz Machlup,
the second and third by this writer.

Now everyone uses them, but as yet hardly anyone
understands their implications for human values and human behavior,
for managing people and making them productive,
for economics, and for politics.

What is already clear, however, is that the emerging knowledge society
and knowledge economy will be radically different
from the society and economy of the late twentieth century.”
— Chapter 4, Management, Revised Edition

He also thought that we faced long years of profound changeS.

The changes are not primarily economic changes.

They are not even primarily technological changes.

They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in worldview.

Economic theory and economic policy are unlikely to be effective by themselves in such a period.

 

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What’s in it for you?

rlaexp.com provides mental tools for designing a way forward.

* a “worldview” or broad areas of awareness
* horizons to work toward
* areas of work
* prototype thinking and action tools

cork board radar

rlaexp.com can help you explore and think through where you’re heading and therefore where you want to spend your time and more importantly where you don’t.

Besides the routine work that you absolutely have to do,
what are you going to stop doing?

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Larger version of the image above

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Successful careers are not planned continue

What do you want to be remembered for?

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If you don’t think and re-think where you’re heading, you’ll surely end up some place you don’t want to be or intend to be. This thinking has to include a broad horizon and a non-linear timescape.

A note-taking system for maintaining a decision enhancing mental radar

A life-time of really interesting work

I didn’t say job

Hopefully it’s work that matters — ongoing judgement is required to decide …

 

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Reflections on vanishing realities

 

If you think about the time between 1900 and today.

That’s just over two generations.

One of the gigantic themes is a world moving toward unimagined futureS and the number of alternative realitieS that have come and gone.

The History of The World in Two Hours — YouTube

Downton Abbey

World War II in Color — Netflix streaming

Accompanying these unimagined futureS, are the political and organization power structureS that direct their actions toward the worldS of yesterdayS.

This backward looking mindset and action eventually sabotageS themselves, their colleagues, their organizations, their communities (Detroit; Rochester, NY; Flint Mi; …), the younger generations; their countries …

Management’s new paradigm

 

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What else is in it for you?

rlaexp.com provides a work approach to circumvent the narrow, backward looking behavior that eventually throws everyone under the bus — the futility of politics and the new polity.

How can you work on something relevant to the unimagined futureS that lie ahead of you? How can you do something that matters in an unfolding transnational, regional, tribal ecology?

 

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Exploration areas — brain addresses and brainroads

Examples of rlaexp.com content

 

Our thinking, choices, decisions are determined by what we have seen … And our brain can only see what it’s prepared to see remember?

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Landmarks of Tomorrow (~ 1957) — an introductory time view and “new human starting point”

  • Introduction: This Post-Modern World
    • Essentially I have tried to cover three big areas
      • The new view of the world, the new concepts, the new human capacities
      • The new frontiers, the new tasks and opportunities
      • The human situation
    • Newcomer to a Strange Country
  • The New World-View
    • “The Whole Is the Sum of Its Parts”
    • From Cause to Configuration
    • The Purposeful Universe —
      • In philosophy, science and methodology—and even more perhaps in art—a problem begins to be solved the moment it can be defined, the moment the right questions are being asked, the moment the specifications are known which the answers must satisfy.
      • For then we know what we are looking for, what fits and what is relevant.
      • And that, in one after another of the areas of human endeavor, we already know
    • Toward a New Philosophy
  • From Progress to Innovation
    • 1 The New Perception Of Order
      • The Research Explosion
      • Man and Change
      • Innovation and Knowledge
      • The Power of Organized Ignorance
    • 2 . The Power of Innovation
      • The Open-Ended Technology
      • From Reform to Social Innovation
    • 3 Innovation—The New Conservatism?
      • The Risks of Innovation
      • Plan or No Plan?
      • Local Plan or No Plan
      • Innovation as Responsibility
  • Beyond Collectivism and Individualism
    • 1 The New Organization
      • The Capacity to Organize
      • Individual Work and Teamwork
    • 2 From Magnate To Manager
      • Specialist and Manager
      • Power and Responsibility in Organization
      • The Organization Man
      • The Discipline of Managing
    • 3 Beyond Collectivism And Individualism
      • The Middle-Class Society
      • Freedom in Dynamic Order
  • The New Frontiers
  • The Educated Society
    • 1 - The Educational Revolution
      • The Scale of the Explosion
      • The Impact on Society
      • The Educational Competition
    • 2 Society’s Capital Investment
      • An Economic Analysis
      • Teachers and Teaching
      • How to Pay
    • 3 Education For What?
      • Society’s Stake
      • The General versus the Special
      • Learning by Doing
      • The Educational Whole
      • The Social Responsibility of Education
  • “Up to Poverty”
    • 1 The Frontier of Development
      • The Agents of Revolution
      • The Promise and the Danger
      • Is Economic Development Possible?
      • The “Take-off Crisis”
      • The Agriculture Problem
      • Distribution and Credit
      • “Social Overhead” Costs
      • The Problem of Attitudes
      • The Ultimate Resource
    • 2 Building An Industrial Society
      • The Role of Money
      • Leadership by Example
      • The Problems We Face
  • Modern Government in Extremis
    • 1 The End Of The Liberal State
      • The Definition of Modern Government
      • The Rise of the Liberal State
      • The Decline of the Liberal State
    • 2 The New Pluralism
      • The New Metropolis
      • The Crisis of Government
      • Pluralism and the Common Interest
  • The Vanishing East
    • Success or Failure of the West?
    • The Failure of the East
    • Can the West and the New East Meet?
  • The Work to Be Done
    • Our Self-Delusion
    • The New Frontiers
  • The Human Situation Today
    • The Control of Power
    • Knowledge and Human Existence
    • Living in an Age of Overlap

 

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“Management, that is, the “useful knowledge” that enables man for the first time to render productive people of different skills and knowledge working together in an “organization,” is an innovation of this century.

It has converted modern society into something brand new, something, by the way, for which we have neither political nor social theory: a society of organizations.” — Innovation and Entrepreneurship


In less than 150 years, management has transformed
the social and economic fabric of the world’s developed countries.

It has created a global economy and set new rules for countries
that would participate in that economy as equals.

And it has itself been transformed.

Few executives are aware of the tremendous impact
management has had” … more


High tech is living in the nineteenth century, the pre-management world. They believe that people pay for technology. They have a romance with technology. But people don't pay for technology: they pay for what they get out of technology.” — The Frontiers of Management


The management revolution

Supplying knowledge to find out how existing knowledge can best be applied to produce results is, in effect, what we mean by management.

But knowledge is now also being applied systematically and purposefully to define what new knowledge is needed, whether it is feasible, and what has to be done to make knowledge effective.

It is being applied, in other words, to systematic innovation.

This third change in the dynamics of knowledge can be called the “Management Revolution.”

Like its two predecessors — knowledge applied to tools, processes, and products, and knowledge applied to human work — the Management Revolution has swept the earth.

It took a hundred years, from the middle of the eighteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century, for the Industrial Revolution to become dominant and worldwide.

It took some seventy years, from 1880 to the end of World War II, for the Productivity Revolution to become dominant and world-wide.

It has taken less than fifty years—from 1945 to 1990—for the Management Revolution to become dominant and worldwide. continue


The Power and Purpose of Objectives: The Marks & Spencer Story and Its Lessons


Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations

 

Books by Peter Drucker — an extremely broad thoughtscape dealing with politics, philosophy, or history; with social order and social institutions; with management, technology, or economics and with people …

 

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A broad reading list — foundational exposure

Wisdom — a perception thoughtscape

Practical thinking — why everybody is always right and always wrong

Thinking is the knowledge worker’s specific work; it is his/her “doing.”

Economic content and structure — reprise

Fight the guttersnipes — political and freedom implications

Indeed, scorning power only makes it more oppressive.

Power has to be used.

It is a reality.

If the decent and idealistic toss power in the gutter, the guttersnipes pick it up.

If the able and educated refuse to exercise power responsibly, irresponsible and incompetent people take over the seats of the mighty and the levers of power.

Power not being used for social purposes passes to people who use it for their own ends.

At best it is taken over by the careerists who are led by their own timidity into becoming arbitrary, autocratic, and bureaucratic.


“The best way to inoculate against such destruction, according to Peter, is to help people get the best out of themselves for their own benefit as well as the benefit of others.” continue


A revolution in every generation is not the answer

Financial survival

… “There are so many great families whose former grandeur survives only as an echo — in the names of museums, converted mansions, streets, and towns. Their descendants don't have it anymore. Taxes, inflation, expropriation, and changing times have pulled them down. If they, armed with the cleverest advisers, bankers, and lawyers couldn't keep their money, can it be easy?

Survival is a competition. What you have, including your savings, others want, and will struggle to get. The push to take it back from you is as relentless as that of the sea to overcome the dikes that contain it or the jungle to enfold a patch of cleared ground. The whole order of nature pushes to reclaim its own. Governments bow to that kind of pressure. Pieces of paper are a weak defense.

Only through deep understanding and superior tactics can the investor hope to preserve even part of what he has saved, and the job gets harder every year.

In many countries it is virtually impossible, and almost everybody eventually becomes a ward of the state, whose pretensions thus become irresistible. The barons being impoverished, King John is supreme.” continue

Planning is not an event

It is the continuous process

of strengthening what works and abandoning what does not

of making risk-taking decisions with the greatest knowledge of their potential effect

of setting objectives, appraising performance and results through systematic feedback, and making ongoing adjustments as conditions change

How To Guarantee Non-Performance

Have a Lofty Objective

Try to Do Several Things at Once

Believe That “Fat Is Beautiful”

And it is even worse to overstaff than to overfund.

Today’s administrators, whether civilian or military, tend to believe that the best way to tackle a problem is to deploy more and more people against it.

But the one certain result of having more bodies is greater difficulties in logistics, in personnel management, in communications.

Mass increases weight, but not necessarily competence.

That requires direction, decision, strategy, rather than manpower.

Overstaffing is not only much harder to correct than understaffing.

It makes non-performance practically certain.

For overstaffing always focuses energies on the inside, on “administration” rather than on “results,” on the machinery rather than its purpose.

It always leads to meetings and memoranda becoming ends in themselves.

It immobilizes behind a facade of furious busyness.

Don’t experiment, be dogmatic

Make sure that you will not learn from experience

Inability to Abandon

But very few of the tasks of modern public administration, whether governmental or non-governmental public service institutions—such as the hospital, the Red Cross, the university, or the Boy Scouts—are of that nature.

Almost all of them are man-made, rather than grounded in the basic essentials of society.

And most of them are of very recent origin, to boot.

They all, therefore, have in common that they must become pointless fairly fast.

They may become pointless because the need to which they address themselves no longer exists or is no longer urgent.

They may become pointless because the old need appears in such a new guise as to make obsolete present design, shape, concerns, and policies.

But also, a program may become pointless when it fails to produce results despite all efforts, as do our present American welfare programs.

And finally, most dangerous of them all, a program becomes pointless when it achieves its objectives.

Creating Tomorrow’s Society Of Citizens

Your commitment to self-assessment is a commitment to developing yourself and your organization as a leader.

You will expand your vision by listening to your customers, by encouraging constructive dissent, by looking at the sweeping transformation taking place in society.

In a transition period, the number of people in need always grows.

There are the huge masses of refugees all over the globe, victims of war and social upheaval, of racial, ethnic, political, and religious persecution, of government incompetence and of government cruelty.

You have vital judgments ahead: whether to change the mission, whether to abandon programs that have outlived their usefulness and concentrate resources elsewhere, how to match opportunities with your competence and commitment, how you will build community and change lives.

Self-assessment is the first action requirement of leadership: the constant re-sharpening, constant refocusing, never being really satisfied.

And the time to do this is when you are successful.

If you wait until things start to go down, then it’s very difficult.

We are creating tomorrow’s society of citizens through the social sector, through your nonprofit organization.

And in that society, everybody is a leader, everybody is responsible, everybody acts.

Therefore, mission and leadership are not just things to read about, to listen to; they are things to do something about.

Self-assessment can and should convert good intentions and knowledge into effective action— not next year but tomorrow morning.


Beware of organizations that don’t practice management — including foundations

Refining the Mission Statement

Every three to five years you should look at the mission again to decide whether it needs to be refocused

▪ because the demographics of your customers have changed,

▪ because you should abandon something that produces no results or needs resources beyond the organization’s competencies, or

▪ because the objective has been accomplished.

You must think through priorities.

That’s easy to say, but to act on it is very hard because doing so always involves

▪ abandoning things that may look attractive, or

▪ giving up programs that people both inside and outside the organization are strongly encouraging you to keep.

But if you don’t concentrate your institution’s resources, you are not going to get results.

This may be the ultimate test of leadership: the ability to think through the priority decision and to make it stick

Opportunities

What are the opportunities time and history have (will) put within your grasp?

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Growth comes from exploiting opportunity.

Opportunities are what a specific business makes happen — and this means fitting a company’s specific excellence to the changes in marketplace, population, economy, society, technology, and values — The Changing World of the Executive (good growth/bad growth)

The unexpected failure: Yet if something fails despite being carefully planned, carefully designed, and conscientiously executed, that failure often bespeaks underlying change and, with it, opportunity — Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Write An Action Plan ← some suggestions

And more

Organization efforts — problems or opportunities

Why great companies fail

A critical question for leaders is, “When do you stop pouring resources into things that have achieved their purpose?”

Analysis of the entire business and its basic economics always shows it to be in worse disrepair than anyone expected.

But every analysis of actual allocation of resources and efforts in business that I have ever seen or made showed clearly that the bulk of time, work, attention, and money first goes to ‘problems’ rather than to opportunities, and, secondly, to areas where even extraordinarily successful performance will have minimal impact on results

Marketing and conditions for survival

There is a lot of confusion, misinformation and alternate views on marketing. Much of this comes from people looking through the rear view mirror with an inside-out approach (“Hey mister, want to buy a good watch?”).

Entrepreneurs that matter

“Entrepreneurship … converts problems into opportunities … Focuses not on tomorrow but on what has to be done today in order to have a tomorrow … Fuses internal corporate strengths with external stimuli”

“It should have been obvious from the beginning that management and entrepreneurship are only two different dimensions of the same task”

“For the business enterprise in a market system we are gradually developing a discipline of entrepreneurship, that is, of performance.”

The theory of the business +++

These are the assumptions that shape any organization’s behavior, dictate its decisions about what to do and what not to do, and define what the organization considers meaningful results.

These assumptions are about markets

They are about identifying customers and competitors, their values and behavior

They are about technology and its dynamics

About a company’s strengths and weaknesses

These assumptions are about what a company gets paid for

Knowledge: Its Economics and Its Productivity

We know above all that making knowledge productive is a management responsibility.

It cannot be discharged by government; but it also cannot be done by market forces.

It requires systematic, organized application of knowledge to knowledge.

The first rule may well be that knowledge has to aim high to produce results.

The steps may be small and incremental but the goal must be ambitious.

Knowledge is productive only if it is applied to make a difference.

Similarly, in Japanese Kaizen, every single step is a small one — a minor change here, a minor improvement there.

But the aim is to produce by means of step-by-step improvements a radically different product, process, or service a few years later.

The aim is to make a difference.

To make knowledge productive further requires that it be clearly focused.

It has to be highly concentrated.

Whether done by an individual or by a team, the knowledge effort requires purpose and organization.

It is not “flash of genius.”

It is hard work.

To make knowledge productive also requires the systematic exploitation of opportunities for change what in an earlier book I called the “Seven Windows of Innovation.”

See Innovation and Entrepreneurship

These opportunities have to be matched with the competencies and strengths of the knowledge worker and the knowledge team.

To make knowledge productive finally requires managing time.

High knowledge productivity — whether in improvement, in exploitation, or in innovation — comes at the end of a long gestation period.

Yet productivity of knowledge also requires a constant stream of short-term results.

It thus requires the most difficult of all management achievements: balancing the long term with the short term.

Our experience in making knowledge productive has so far been gained mainly in the economy and technology.

But the same rules pertain to making knowledge productive in society, in the polity, and with respect to knowledge itself.

So far, little work has been done to apply knowledge to these areas.

But we need productivity of knowledge even more in these areas than we need it in the economy, in technology, or in medicine.


ONLY CONNECT

The productivity of knowledge requires increasing the yield from what is known—whether by the individual or by the group.

Most of us (perhaps all of us) know many times more than we put to use.

The main reason is that we do not mobilize the multiple knowledges we possess.

We do not use knowledges as part of one toolbox.

Instead of asking: “What do I know, what have I learned, that might apply to this task?” we tend to classify tasks in terms of specialized knowledge areas.

What needs doing? Here and here

Again and again in working with executives I find that a given challenge in organizational structure, for instance, or in technology yields to knowledge the executives already possess: They may have acquired it, for instance, in an economics course at the university.”

Of course, I know that,” is the standard response, “but it’s economics, not management.”

This is a purely arbitrary distinction—necessary perhaps to learn and to teach a “subject,” but irrelevant as a definition of what knowledge is and what it can do.

Knowledge exists only in application

The way we traditionally arrange our businesses, government agencies, and universities further encourages the tendency to believe that the purpose of the tools is to adorn the toolbox rather than to do work.

Peter Drucker: Social Ecologist

In learning and teaching, we do have to focus on the tool.

In usage, we have to focus on the end result, on the task, on the work.

... snip, snip ...

The productivity of knowledge is going to be the determining factor in the competitive position of a company, an industry, an entire country.

No country, industry, or company has any “natural” advantage or disadvantage.

The only advantage it can possess is the ability to exploit universally available knowledge.

The only thing that increasingly will matter in national as in international economics is management’s performance in making knowledge productive. continue

Technology

It is about work: the specifically human activity by means of which man pushes back the limitations of the iron biological law which condemns all other animals to devote all their time and energy to keeping themselves alive for the next day, if not for the next hour. continue

Management as a liberal art

Thirty years ago, the English scientist and novelist C. P. Snow talked of the “two cultures” of contemporary society.

Management, however, fits neither Snow’s “humanist” nor his “scientist.”

It deals with action and application; and its test is its results.

This makes it a technology.

But management also deals with people, their values, their growth and development—and this makes it a humanity.

So does its concern with and impact on social structure and the community.

Indeed, as has been learned by everyone who, like this author, has been working with managers of all kinds of institutions for long years, management is deeply involved in spiritual concerns—the nature of man, good and evil.


Management is thus what tradition used to call a liberal art:

“liberal” because it deals with the fundamentals of knowledge, self-knowledge, wisdom, and leadership;

“art” because it is practice and application.

Managers draw on all the knowledge and insights of the humanities and the social sciences—on psychology and philosophy, on economics and history, on ethics as well as on the physical sciences.

But they have to focus this knowledge on effectiveness and results—on healing a sick patient, teaching a student, building a bridge, designing and selling a “user-friendly” software program.


For these reasons, management will increasingly be the discipline and the practice through and in which the “humanities” will again acquire recognition, impact, and relevance.

 


 

… “They have come to accept my position that the end of business is not “to make money.”

Making money is a necessity of survival.

It is also a result of performance and a measurement thereof.

But in itself it is not performance.

As I mentioned earlier, the purpose of a business is to create a customer and to satisfy a customer.

That is performance and that is what a business is being paid for.

The job and function of management as the leader, decision maker, and value setter of the organization, and, indeed, the purpose and rationale of an organization altogether, is to make human beings productive so that the skills, expectations, and beliefs of the individual lead to achievement in joint performance.”

... snip, snip ...

The importance of financial measurements and financial results

Similarly, I have always emphasized in my writing, in my teaching, and in my consulting the importance of financial measurements and financial results.

Indeed, most businesses do not earn enough.

What they consider profits are, in effect, true costs.

One of my central theses for almost forty years has been that one cannot even speak of a profit unless one has earned the true cost of capital.

And, in most cases, the cost of capital is far higher than what businesses, especially American businesses, tend to consider as “record profits.”

I have also always maintained—often to the scandal of liberal readers—that the first social responsibility of a business is to produce an adequate surplus.

Without a surplus, it steals from the commonwealth and deprives society and the economy of the capital needed to provide jobs for tomorrow.

Further, for more years than I care to remember, I have maintained that there is no virtue in being nonprofit and that, indeed, any activity that could produce a profit and does not do so is antisocial.

Professional schools are my favorite example.

There was a time when such activities were so marginal that their being subsidized by society could be justified.

Today, they constitute such a large sector that they have to contribute to the capital formation of an economy in which capital to finance tomorrow’s jobs may well be the central economic requirement, and even a survival need. continue

Disintegration

… “But now the traditional axiom that an enterprise should aim for maximum integration has become almost entirely invalidated.

One reason is that the knowledge needed for any activity has become highly specialized.

It is therefore increasingly expensive, and also increasingly difficult, to maintain enough critical mass for every major task within an enterprise.

And because knowledge rapidly deteriorates unless it is used constantly, maintaining within an organization an activity that is used only intermittently guarantees incompetence” — Peter Drucker

Trade Lessons from the World Economy

There are opinions galore about international trade policy, especially for the United States.

All are argued with passion but rarely with much evidence.

The world economy has actually been growing faster for forty years than at any time since the eighteenth-century “Commercial Revolution,” which created both the first modern economies and the discipline of economics.

And though all developed economies have been stagnant and in recession these last few years, the world economy is still expanding at a good clip.

But no one asks, What are the facts?

What do they teach us?

What are the lessons, above all, for domestic economic policy?


There are important lessons in four areas: the structure of the world economy; the changed meaning of trade and investment; the relationship between world economy and domestic economy; and trade policy. continue

Innovation → becoming a change leader — there are major work-life implications

But unless it is seen as the task of the organization to lead change, the organization whether business, university, hospital and so on will not survive.

In a period of rapid structural change, the only ones who survive are the Change Leaders.

It is therefore a central 21st-century challenge for management that its organization become a change leader.

... snip, snip ...

The last policy for the change leader to build into the enterprise is a systematic policy of INNOVATION, that is, a policy to create change.

It is the area to which most attention is being given today.

It may, however, not be the most important one—organized abandonment, improvement, exploiting success may be more productive for a good many enterprises.

“Increasingly, organizations will have to plan abandonment
rather than try to prolong the life
of a successful policy, practice, or product … only a few
large Japanese companies have faced up to”

And without these policies—abandonment, improvement, exploitation—no organization can hope to be a successful innovator.

But to be a successful change leader an enterprise has to have a policy of systematic innovation.

And the main reason may not even be that change leaders need to innovate—though they do.

The main reason is that a policy of systematic innovation produces the mindset for an organization to be a change leader.

It makes the entire organization see change as an opportunity.

... snip, snip ...

“One thing is certain for developed countries—and probably for the entire world:

We face long years of profound changes.

The changes are not primarily economic changes.

They are not even primarily technological changes.

They are changes in demographics, in politics, in society, in philosophy and, above all, in worldview.

Worldview examples and here

Economic theory and economic policy are unlikely to be effective by themselves in such a period.

And there is no social theory for such a period either.

Only when such a period is over, decades later, are theories likely to be developed to explain what has happened.

But a few things are certain in such a period.

It is futile, for instance, to try to ignore the changes and to pretend that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.

This, however, is the position that existing institutions tend to adopt in such a period—businesses as well as nonbusinesses.

It is, above all, the policy likely to be adopted by the institutions that were most successful in the earlier period before the changes.

They are most likely to suffer from the delusion that tomorrow will be like yesterday, only more so.

Thus it can be confidently predicted that a large number of today’s leaders in all areas, whether business, education or health care, are unlikely still to be around thirty years hence, and certainly not in their present form. individuals need to manage themselves

But to try to anticipate the changes is equally unlikely to be successful.

These changes are not predictable.

The only policy likely to succeed is to try to make the future.

Changes of course have to fit the certainties (which this book attempted to outline in the preceding chapter).

Within these restraints, however, the future is still malleable.

It can still be created.

To try to make the future is highly risky.

It is less risky, however, than not to try to make it.

A goodly proportion of those attempting to do what this chapter discusses will surely not succeed.

But, predictably, no one else will.” (survive?)

Making the future II and innovation in the existing organization requires special effort


“The twenty-first century will surely be one of continuing social, economic, and political turmoil and challenge, at least in its early decades.

The Age of Social Transformations is not over yet.

And the challenges looming ahead may be more serious and more daunting still than those posed by the social transformations that have already happened, the social transformations of the twentieth century” — A Century of Social Transformation

The Social Structure and Its Transformations

The Rise and Fall of the Blue-Collar Worker

The Rise of the Knowledge Worker

The Emerging Knowledge Society

How Knowledges Work

The Employee Society

What Is an Employee?

The Social Sector

Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Polity

School and Education as Society’s Center (not the present system)

The Competitive Knowledge Economy

How Can Government Function?

Conclusion: The Priority Tasks — The Need for Social and Political Innovations

 


Innovation is not a technical term.

It is an economic and social term.

Its criterion is not science or technology, but a change in the economic or social environment, a change in the behavior of people as consumers or producers, as citizens, as students or as teachers, and so on.

Innovation creates new wealth or new potential of action rather than new knowledge.

This means that the bulk of innovative efforts will have to come from the places that control the manpower and the money needed for development and marketing, that is, from the existing large aggregation of trained manpower and disposable money — existing businesses and existing public-service institutions — see special effort (calendarize this?)

 

The bright idealook before you leap

 


 

Unless we can learn how to increase the productivity of knowledge workers ↓ and service workers, and increase it fast, the developed countries will face economic stagnation and severe social tension. continue

 

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Individuals ↑ in a “society of organizations

Our thinking, choices, decisions are determined by what we have seen … And our brain can only see what it’s prepared to see remember?

radar_limited-pict-t-400

About thinking and 12 principles

thinking principles

thinking principle

 

attention-ogp-pict-trans-400

Druckerismsattention-directing thought jewels from PFD

 

You might consider plotting these ideas on a sequence-line —
what comes before what? and how wide are the time gaps?

Basic career responsibility

Intelligence and behavior — Niccolò Machiavelli

Striving toward an idea outside of yourself

The individual in a society of organizations

A network society

Many social sector organizations will become partners with government—as is the case in a great many “privatizations,” where for instance a city pays for street cleaning and an outside contractor then does the work.


In American education, predictably, within the next twenty years there will be more and more government-paid “vouchers,” which enable parents to put their children into a variety of different schools, some public and tax-supported, some private and largely dependent on the income from the parents’ vouchers.

These social sector organizations, while partners with government, also clearly compete with government.


The relationship between the two has yet to be worked out—and there is practically no precedent for it.


Or, rather, the one precedent we have, the relationship between a government agency, for example the Department of Defense of the United States, and independent defense contractors shows that the relationship is complicated and requires both interdependence and mutual trust, and profound mutual distrust and constant guerrilla warfare.

Do you have a knowledge specialty that will matter?

The new jobs require a good deal of formal education and the ability to acquire and to apply theoretical and analytical knowledge.

They require a different approach to work and a different mind-set.

Above all they require a habit of continuous learning.

The relative importance of continuous learning maybe a measure a knowledge specialty’s position in society and ↓

Transnationalism, Regionalism, and Tribalism

 


 

The central workforce in the knowledge society will, therefore, consist of highly specialized people.

Effectiveness requires specialization

In fact, it is a mistake to speak of “generalists.”

Those whom we refer to by that term will increasingly be those who have learned how to acquire additional specialties and especially to acquire rapidly the specialized knowledge needed for them to move from one kind of work or job to another, such as from being a market researcher to being in general management, or from being a nurse in the hospital to being a hospital administrator.

But “generalists” in the sense in which we used to talk of them are becoming dilettantes rather than educated people. continue

 


 

... We cannot afford such arrogance.

Knowledge is power, which is why people who had it in the past often tried to make a secret of it.

In post-capitalism, power comes from transmitting information to make it productive, not from hiding it. continue


Learning ::: Education ::: The educated person

… “But all over the world today’s students, a few years after they have graduated, complain that “what I have learned so eagerly has no meaning; it has no relevance to anything I am interested in or want to become.”

They still want a liberal arts curriculum for their own children — Princeton or Carleton; Oxbridge; Tokyo University; the lycée; the Gymnasium — though mainly for social status and access to good jobs.

But in their own lives they repudiate such values.

They repudiate the educated person of the humanists.

Their liberal education, in other words, does not enable them to understand reality, let alone to master it.”

Some Words of Wisdom From Peter Drucker to My Daughter

The Individual In Entrepreneurial Society

In an entrepreneurial society individuals face a tremendous challenge, a challenge they need to exploit as an opportunity: the need for continuous learning and relearning.

radar-differences-pict-400

Taking career responsibilitya revolution in human affairs

Managing Oneself

Increasingly knowledge workers will outlive any one employer, and will have to be prepared for more than one job.

And this means most knowledge workers will have to MANAGE THEMSELVES.

They have to place themselves where they can make the greatest contribution; they will have to learn to develop themselves below .

They will have to learn how and when to change what they do, how they do it, and when they do it.

The key to managing oneself is to know:

Who am I?

What are my strengths?

How do I work to achieve results?

What are my values?

Where do I belong?

Where do I not belong?


“Amazingly few people know how they get things done.

Indeed, most of us do not even know that different people work and perform differently.

Too many people work in ways that are not their ways, and that almost guarantees nonperformance.

For knowledge workers, How do I perform? may be an even more important question than What are my strengths?


Like one’s strengths, how one performs is unique.

It is a matter of personality.

Whether personality be a matter of nature or nurture, it surely is formed long before a person goes to work.

And how a person performs is a given, just as what a person is good at or not good at is a given.

A person’s way of performing can be slightly modified, but it is unlikely to be completely changed—and certainly not easily.

Just as people achieve results by doing what they are good at, they also achieve results by working in ways that they best perform.

A few common personality traits usually determine how a person performs.


The first thing to know is whether you are a reader or a listener.

Far too few people even know that there are readers and listeners and that people are rarely both.

Even fewer know which of the two they themselves are.” continue

along the same lines

… The conclusion bears repeating: Do not try to change yourself—you are unlikely to succeed.

But work hard to improve the way you perform.

And try not to take on work you cannot perform or will only perform poorly. continue

... snip, snip ...

… Equally important, knowing the answer to these questions enables a person to say to an opportunity, an offer, or an assignment, “Yes, I will do that, but … because this is who I am continue and see assignments below

Managing the boss

… And the trend is for knowledge workers to have an increasing number of bosses, an increasing number of people on whose approval and appraisal they depend, and whose support they need.

Individual development

All of this takes place within a changing world.

The person with the most responsibility for an individual’s development is the person himself—not the boss.

The first priority for one’s own development is to strive for excellence.

Workmanship counts, not just because it makes such a difference in the quality of the job done, but because it makes such a difference in the person doing the job.

Expect the job to provide stimulus only if you work on your own self-renewal, only if you create the excitement, the challenge, the transformation that makes an old job enriching over and over again.

The most effective road to self-renewal is to look for the unexpected success and run with it.

The critical factor for success is accountability—holding yourself accountable.

Everything else flows from that.

The important thing is not that you have rank, but that you have responsibility.

To be accountable, you must take the job seriously enough to recognize: I’ve got to grow up to the job. (The job implied by the content and structure of the world—reality)

By focusing on accountability, people take a bigger view of themselves.

Career planning

Successful careers are not planned continue

along those same lines

If career planning means not being open to opportunity, it doesn’t work.

You can prepare yourself, learn what you ought to know, and expand your experience and professionalism, but ultimately, he said, “opportunity comes in over the transom,” and that means you have to be flexible, ready to seize the right ↓ opportunities when they come. (calendarize this?)

Planning should tell you only which opportunities are the right ones for you and which are the wrong ones. continue

Allocating one’s life — The Josh Abrams story et. al.
Nobody is going to do it for you

Post-capitalist executive

End of climbing the organization ladder and the glass-ceiling — totally flat organizations

Assignments on the road ahead

The most important thing that underlies all these practices is that individuals—and especially knowledge people—who manage to keep themselves effective and who manage to keep on growing and changing take responsibility for their development and their placement.

It will have to become very much the responsibility of the individual to ask, What kind of assignment do I now need?

What kind of assignment am I now qualified for?

What kind of experience and what kind of knowledge and skill do I now need to acquire?

Managing in a Post Capitalist Society

Ten Principles for Life II — begin with an end in mind

The World is Full of Options

Wisdom of Peter Drucker

The Essential Drucker — is this for you?

I. MANAGEMENT

Management as Social Function and Liberal Art

The Dimensions of Management

The Purpose and Objectives of a Business

The profit motive and its offspring maximization of profits are just as irrelevant to the function of a business, the purpose of a business, and the job of managing a business.

In fact, the concept is worse than irrelevant: it does harm.

It is a major cause of the misunderstanding of the nature of profit in our society and of the deep-seated hostility to profit, which are among the most dangerous diseases of an industrial society.

It is largely responsible for the worst mistakes of public policy—in this country as well as in Western Europe—which are squarely based on the failure to understand the nature, function, and purpose of business enterprise.

And it is in large part responsible for the prevailing belief that there is an inherent contradiction between profit and a company’s ability to make a social contribution.

Actually, a company can make a social contribution only if it is highly profitable.

What Executives Should Remember

What the Nonprofits Are Teaching Business (find in Management, Revised Edition

Social Impacts and Social Problems

Management’s New Paradigms

The Information Executives Need Today

Management by Objectives and Self-Control (see below)

Picking People—The Basic Rules

The following three chapters are from Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The Entrepreneurial Business

The New Venture

Entrepreneurial Strategies

II. THE INDIVIDUAL

Effectiveness Must Be Learned (see the Effective Executive)

Focus on Contribution

Know Your Strengths and Values

Know Your Time

Effective Decisions

Functioning Communications

Leadership as Work

Principles of Innovation (see Innovation and Entrepreneurship)

The Second Half of Your Life (also see Managing the Non-Profit Organization)

The Educated Person

III. SOCIETY

(also see Post-Capitalist Society)

A Century of Social Transformation — (From farmers and domestic servants to …) Emergence of Knowledge Society

The Coming of Entrepreneurial Society

Citizenship through the Social Sector (includes the need for community) (see Managing the Non-Profit Organization)

From Analysis to Perception—The New Worldview.

About perception. Form and Function Connections: see chapters “On Being the Right Size and On Being the Wrong Size” in Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices and others.

Afterword: The Challenge Ahead

The paradox of rapidly expanding economy and growing income inequality—the paradox that bedevils us now

Growing health care and education, possibly a shrinking market for goods and services

Center of power shifting to the consumer—free flow of information

Knowledge workers—expensive resource

Governments depending on managers and individuals

Executives and leaders

Leadership

The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers” — the usual suspect

... snip, snip ...

The actual results of action are not predictable.

Indeed, if there is one rule for action, and especially for institutional action, it is that the expected results will not be attained.

The unexpected is practically certain.

But are the unexpected results deleterious?

... snip, snip ...

The future that has already happened

Secret office

Executive effectiveness and a work approach. Nobody is naturally effective. It requires life-long effort.

“Men of high effectiveness are conspicuous by their absence in executive jobs.

High intelligence is common enough among executives.

Imagination is far from rare.

The level of knowledge tends to be high.

But there seems to be little correlation between a man’s effectiveness and his intelligence, his imagination, or his knowledge.

Brilliant men are often strikingly ineffectual; they fail to realize that the brilliant insight is not by itself achievement.

They never have learned that insights become effectiveness only through hard systematic work.

Conversely, in every organization there are some highly effective plodders.

While others rush around in the frenzy and busyness which very bright people so often confuse with ‘creativity,’ the plodder puts one foot in front of the other and gets there first, like the tortoise in the old fable.”

 


 

“The last twenty years have been very unsettling.

Executives really don’t understand the world they live in” — PFD Forbes

 


 

In forty-five years of work as a consultant with a large number of executives in a wide variety of organizations—large and small; businesses, government agencies, labor unions, hospitals, universities, community services; American, European, Latin American and Japanese—I have not come across a single “natural”: an executive who was born effective.

All the effective ones have had to learn to be effective.

What Makes An Effective Executive?

They asked, “What needs to be done?”

They asked, “What is right for the enterprise?”

They developed action plans.

They took responsibility for decisions.

They took responsibility for communicating.

They were focused on opportunities rather than problems.

They ran productive meetings.

They thought and said “we” rather than “I.”


The first two practices gave them the knowledge they needed.

The next four helped them convert this knowledge into effective action.

The last two ensured that the whole organization felt responsible and accountable.

We’ve just reviewed eight practices of effective executives. I’m going to throw in one final, bonus practice. This one’s so important that I’ll elevate it to the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last.


Five practices—for getting the right things done

Manage the small amount of time that can be brought under their control.

Focus on outward contribution “What results are expected of me”?

Build on strength

Own strength

Strengths of superiors, colleagues, and subordinates

Strengths in the situation

Concentrate on the few major areas where superior performance will produce outstanding results

Set priorities and stay with priority decisions.

Rules for identifying priorities

Pick the future against the past

Focus on opportunity rather than a problem

Choose own direction rather than climbing on the bandwagon

Aim high

Something that will make a difference

Rather than something “safe” & easy to do.


Achievement goes to the people who pick their research priorities by the opportunity and who consider other criteria only as qualifiers rather than as determinants

Similarly, in business the successful companies are not those that work at developing new products for their existing line but those that aim at innovating new technologies or new businesses.

As a rule it is just as risky, just as arduous, and just as uncertain to do something small that is new as it is to do something big that is new.

It is more productive to convert an opportunity into results than to solve a problem—which only restores the equilibrium of yesterday

Make effective decisions

A matter of system

Right steps in the right sequence

A few fundamental decisions

The right strategy

 


 

“Follow effective action with quiet reflection.

From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action.” — Peter Drucker

 


 

What executives should remember

 

How to guarantee non-performance

 

From analysis to perception — the new worldview

Landscape intel clues

A smorgasbord of topics (a work in progress)

 

Explicit broad exploration pages

TomorrowS — a longish-term work menu and a work in progress

Explore — a vision menu

The big, big picture — some repeated content in a different sequence. Repetition and sequence shake-up are useful for mental landscape familiarity and vision

 

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From concepts to daily action

Calendarization

What are you depending on?

falling dominos

“The stepladder is gone, and
there’s not even the implied structure
of an industry’s rope ladder.

It’s more like vines …

vines

and you bring your own machete.

You don’t know what you’ll be doing next
Managing in a Time of Great Change


You can’t design your life
around a temporary organization — Peter Drucker

organization evolution work

Thinking about brain travel and guidance:
“My brain has been down that road.”
Along the way I passed through various
brain neighborhoods and brain addresses.
I tried to pay attention.
When I wish, I can return, if I have a way of remembering.

brain addresses

radar_limited-pict-t-400

book harvesting

Just reading is not enough

 

Calendarization: From awareness to action


Dense reading and Dense listening and Thinking broad and Thinking detailed

Larger view of image below

harvest

harvest and implement

An action analysis on every sentence.
What are the implications of a particular sentence?
Dense reading and Dense Listening
Thinking broad and Thinking detailed

harvested outline

note the reflection ↑ and fog ↓

Challenge thinking and an alternativeoperacy

Larger view

Note the fog and reflection ↓

challenge thinking

Questions ::: Thinking canvases

thinking canvas

thought generation


What needs doing around here?
A local view from Google Earth

local business

topics and time periods

harvesting-implementing-broad+site-2015-pict-t-600

harvest-to-action-2015-pict-t-600

calendarization

 

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“The greatest danger in times of turbulence is not turbulence; it is to act with yesterday’s logic”. — Peter Drucker


The shift from manual workers who do as they are being told — either by the task or by the boss — to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves ↓ profoundly challenges social structure

Managing Oneself is a REVOLUTION in human affairs.” … “It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us—even of the younger generation—still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.” …

… “Managing Oneself is based on the very opposite realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations (and therefore, employers can’t be depended on for designing your life), and the knowledge worker has mobility.” ← in a context

 

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These pages are attention directing tools for navigating a world moving toward unimagined futures.

It’s up to you to figure out what to harvest and calendarize
working something out in time (1915, 1940, 1970 … 2040 … the outer limit of your concern)nobody is going to do it for you.

It may be a step forward to actively reject something (rather than just passively ignoring) and then figure out a coping plan for what you’ve rejected.

Your future is between your ears and our future is between our collective ears — it can’t be otherwise. A site exploration starting point

 

Google
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Type the following in the search box on the Google’s site:

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intelligence-instructions

 

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